Angelica polymorpha/Angelica sinensis

97612523

Panoramio. (n.d.). Angelica polymorpha(Wildflower) @ Fukushima Japan. Retrieved from: http://www.panoramio.com/photo/97612523

Botanical Name: Angelica polymorpha/Angelica sinensis
Common name: Dong Quai, dan giu (Chinese) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 517)
Family: Umbelliferae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 518)
Parts used: root (Bone, 2003, p. 182)

Quality: warm, pungent, sweet (Pole, 2006, p. 768)

History/Folklore: Dong quai has a long history of use as a female tonic, and is ofter referred to as ‘the woman’s ginseng’ (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 517).

Constituents: Essential oil (mainly phthalides ligustilide and n-butylindenephthalide); phytosterols; ferulic aicd; coumarins (incl. angelol and angelicone) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 518).

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 517; Pole, 2006, p. 768)
  • Anti-anemic (Bone, 2003, p. 182; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 517)
  • Anti-platelet (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 517; Pole, 2006, p. 768)
  • Female tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Mild laxative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 517; Pole, 2006, p. 768)
  • Anti-arrhythmic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 517)
  • Immune-stimulant (Pole, 2006, p. 768)
  • Anti-spasmodic (Pole, 2006, p. 768)
  • Antibiotic (Pole, 2006, p. 768)
  • Analgesic (Pole, 2006, p. 768)
  • Hepatoprotective (Pole, 2006, p. 768)
  • Mild sedative (Pole, 2006, p. 768)

TCM specific: Tonifies and moves blood, drains wind-dampness, moistens dryness and unblocks bowles (Pole, 2006, p. 768)

 

Indications

  • Dysmenorrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Irregular menstruation (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Amenorrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Chronic hepatitis (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Chronic cirrhosis (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Constipation (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Abdominal Pain (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Swelling (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Bruising (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Infertility (Bone, 2003, p. 182)

TCM specific

  • Blood deficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 517)
  • Congealed blood (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 517)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 4.8-8.5mL/day or 30-60mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Decoction: 3-15g/day dried root (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 517)
  • Tincture (1:5): 10-15mL/day (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 517)

 

Cautions: There has been a report of a man developing gynaecomastia after ingestion of Don Quai capsuals for 1 months (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 522)

 

Contraindications

TCM specific:

  • Diarrhoea caused by weak digestion
  • Haemorrhagic disease
  • Heavy periods or bleeding tendency
  • Tendency to spontaneous abortion
  • Acute viral infections (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Pregnancy (Bone, 2003, p. 182)

 

Combinations: For dysmenorrhoea combine with Corydalis, white peony and Ligusticum (Bone, 2003, p. 182)

Interactions: Warfarin (Bone, 2003, p. 182)

Galega officinalis

Goat_s_Rue_-_Galega_officinalis-4132

Wild About Britian. (2011). Goat’s Rue-Galega officinalis. Retrieved from: http://www.wildaboutbritain.co.uk/pictures/showphoto.php/photo/104660/size/big

Botanical Name: Galega officinalis
Common name: Goat’s Rue, French Lilac, Italian fitch, Professor-weed (Natural Standard, 2014)
Family: Leguminosae (Bone, 2003, p. 243)
Parts used: Aerial Parts (Bone, 2003, p. 243)

History/Folklore: Native to the Middle East (Natural Standard, 2014)

Constituents: Alkaloid: galegine (Bone, 2003, p. 243)

Actions

  • Hypoglycemic (Bone, 2003, p. 243; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 522)
  • Galactagogue (Bone, 2003, p. 243; Natural Standard, 2014; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 522)
  • Antidiabetic (Bone, 2003, p. 243)
  • Antiplatelet (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 552; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Diaphoretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 552; Natural Standard, 2014)

Indications

  • Non-insulin dependent diabeties mellitus (Bone, 2003, p. 243)
  • Improving lactation (Bone, 2003, p. 243; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 522)
  • Assisting weight loss (Bone, 2003, p. 243)

Preparation & Dosage:

  • 5-8.5mL liquid extract (1:2)/day
  • 30-60mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

(Bone, 2003, p. 243)

Cautions & Contraindications: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 243). Should not replace insulin therapy and should be monitored in the treatment of diabeties (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 522)

Interactions: May interact with antiplatelet and hypoglycaemic medication (Natural Standard, 2014)

Curcuma longa

turmeric-info0
HowStuffWorks. (2014). Tumeric. Retrieved from: http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/botany/turmeric-info.htm

Turmeric-Root-and-Powder-1024x666
Christie, D. (2014). Top 5 Benefits of Tumeric. Retrieved from: http://www.harboursidefitness.com.au/blog-post/top-5-benefits-of-turmeric/

Botanical Name: Curcuma longa
Common name: Tumeric, Indian saffron, jianghuang (Chinese), shati (Sanskrit) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900)
Family: Zingeberaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)
Parts used: root and rhizome Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)

Quality: Pungent, bitter, astringent, heating (Pole, 2006, p. 282). In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is used to dry damp and move stagnation in the blood (Pole, 2006, p. 282).

History/Folklore: Native to India and South-East Asia, Tumeric has been recorded in medical texts dating back to 600BC (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Constituents: Essential oil (sesquiterpene ketones, zingiberene, phellandrene, sabinene, cineole and borneol); Yellow pigments “diarylheptanoids” or “curcuminoids” (incl. curcumin) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901).

Yellow pigment curcumin has been shown to influence transcription factors, cytokines, growth factors, kinases and other enzymes (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 902-903; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Anti-platelet (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 903; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 904; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Hepatoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 904-905)
  • Nephroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 904-905)
  • Neuroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 905)
  • Cardioprotective and vasoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 905)
  • Hypolipidaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 905-906)
  • Antibacterial (Pole, 2006, p. 282; Zorotchian Moghadamtousi, Abdul Kadir, Hassandarvish, Tajik, Abubakar & Zandi, 2014, p. 2)
  • Antimicrobial (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 906-907)
  • Antiparasitic (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 907)
  • Antiviral (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, pp. 2-3)
  • Antiparasitic (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 2)
  • Antitumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 908)
  • Anti-depressant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 909)
  • Radioprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Antiallergic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Emmenagogue (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Blood tonic (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Carminative (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Alterative (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Vulunary (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Anti-carcinogenic (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • TCM specific: blood and qi tonifier with analgesic properties (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Indications

  • Cancer prevention (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 907)
  • Cystic fibrosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 909)
  • HIV/AIDS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
    • One human trial exhibited an increase in CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte counts (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
    • Another human trial showed relief of HIV-associated chronic diarrhoea (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Eye disorders (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 911)
  • Genetic diseases (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 911)
  • Alzehimer’s disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 916)
  • Skin conditions (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 916)
  • Candida (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 7)
  • Helicobacter pylori (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 8)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:1): 5-14mL/day
  • 4g powdered tumeric mixed with water/1-2 day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)

Cautions

  • Doses > 15g/day should not be administered long term or in conjunction with anti-platelet or anti-coagulant medication (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Individuals complaining of hair loss (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Women trying to conceive (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Pregnancy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 918)

Contraindications

  • Biliary tract obstruction (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is contraindicated in high vāta and pitta (Pole, 2006, p. 283).
  • Acute jaundice and hepatitis (Pole, 2006, p. 283).

Combinations

  • For liver congestion: combine with kutki, bhumiamalaki and pippali (Pole, 2006, p. 283)
  • Small amounts of long/black pepper enhances anti-inflammatory activity of turmeric (Pole, 2006, p. 283)
  • For congestion of the lower abdomen and menstrual imbalance: combine with guggulu, mustaka and purnarnava (Pole, 2006, p. 283)

Interactions: Turmeric may potentiate effects of anti-platelet or anticoagulant medications (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 918).

Vaccinium myrtillus

203_Vaccinum_myrtillus_L

Masclef, A. (1891). 203 Vaccinum myrtillus L. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccinium_myrtillus#mediaviewer/File:203_Vaccinum_myrtillus_L.jpg

Botanical Name: Vaccinium myrtillus
Common name: Bilberry, Blueberry, Huckleberry (Heinrich, Barnes, Gibbons & Williamson, 2012, p. 221)
Family: Ericaceae (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
Parts used: Fruit (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 221)

History/Folklore: Bilberry fruit is a well-known food. In World War II Bilberry wine and jam was consumed by RAF pilots to improve night vision (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 419). Although the herb was traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, modern research revolves around the cardiovascular system (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222). Other traditional indications include scurvy, urinary complaints, and to “dry up” breast milk” (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 419).

Constituents: anthocyanosides (notably: galactosides and glucosides of cyaniding); delphidin; malvidin; vitamin C; and volatile flavour components (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 221).

Actions

  • Vasoprotective (Bone, 2003, p. 93; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 419)
  • Antioxidant (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone, 2003, p. 93; Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Anti-platelet (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Anti-atherosclerotic (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Spasmolytic (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Anti-ulcer (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Astringent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 419).

 

Indications

  • Vision disorders (Bone, 2003, p. 93; Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Simple glaucoma (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Venus insufficiency (notably of lower limbs) (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Peripheral vascular disorders (Bone, 2003, p. 93; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 419)
  • Diabetic retinopathy (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Chronic primary dysmenorrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Raynaud’s syndrome (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Venous disorders during pregnancy (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Hemorrhoids (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Decreased capillary resistance (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Nonspecific acute diarrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Mild inflammation of mouth and throat (topical) (Bone, 2003, p. 93)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:1): 3-6mL/day or 20-40mL/week
  • Tablet: tablets providing 20-120mg of anthocyanins/day

Cautions: Doses exceeding 100mg/day of anthocyanins should be used cautiously in patients with haemorrhagic disorders (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 424).

Interactions: Possible interactions with warfarin and anti-platelet drugs when administered in high doses (Bone, 2003, p. 93)

Ginkgo biloba

896px-Ginkgo_biloba_SZ136

Von Siebold, P. F., & Zuccarini, J. G. (1870). Flora Japonica, Sectio Prima (Tafelband). Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ginkgo_biloba_SZ136.png

Botanical Name: Ginkgo biloba
Common name: Ginko (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
Family: Ginkoaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597)
Parts used: Leaf, seed kernel (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)

Folklore: Perhaps one of the oldest living tree species, Ginko’s origin is believe to be remote mountainous valleys of Zhejiang. First introduced into Europe in 1690 by Botanist Engelbert Kaempfer, up until 350 years ago the medicinal knowledge was restricted to China (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 493). Traditional therapeutic use is not well documented (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597).

Constituents:

  • Flavonols (inlc. quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, quercetin-3-beta-D-glucoside, quercitrin and rutin and coumaric acid esters of these flavonoids)
  • Terpene lactones (“terpenoids”) including bilobalide and ginkgolides A, B, C & J.
  • Biflavonoids, ginkgolic acids, sterols, procyanidins and polysaccharides

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597)

 

Actions

  • Anti –platelet activating factor (PAF) activity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Tissue perfusion enhancer (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Circulatory stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Nootropic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Neuroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anxiolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Adaptogen (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Vasodilator (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Digestive bitter (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Uterine Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)

 

Indications

  • Restricted cerebral blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Memory and/or cognitive impairment (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Fatigue (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Stroke (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Vertigo (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Acute cochlear deafness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Tinnitus of vascular origin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Peripheral arterial disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Favorable modification or cardiovascular risk (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Early stages of Alzheimer’s-type dementia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Multi-infarct dementia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Reduced retinal blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Normal tension glaucoma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Age-related muscular degeneration (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Congestive dysmenorrhea and PMS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Hypoxia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anxiety (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Adjuvant therapy in chronic schizophrenia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Symptoms associated with Multiple Sclerosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Allergic conjunctivitis (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Asthma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Protections from radiation damage (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Idiopathic oedema (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Vitilogo (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

120-140 standardized extract/day

120-140mg dry extract (in divided doses)/day

4-8 weeks treatment for optimal results (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 554)

 

Cautions

  • Caution should be taken in individuals with coagulation disorders when used in conjunction with antiplatelet or anticoagulant medication, although clinical trials suggesting this are insufficient (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617).
  • Individuals undergoing surgery are advised to cease taking it 5-7 days prior due to potential (minor) risk of increased blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617)

 

Contraindications:

  • Known sensitivity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617)
  • If unusual bleeding or bruising occurs cease treatment immedietly (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 505)

 

Interactions: Theoretically Ginko may increase bleeding risk when taken in conjunction with Warfarin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 505)

Panax notoginseng

PanaxNotoginsengPhoto07

MDidea.com. (2013). Notoginseng: the Miracle Root for the Preservation of Life., the no. 1 Blood Precious Tonic and more. Retrieved from: http://mdidea.com/products/herbextract/notoginseng/data09.html

Botanical Name: Panax notoginseng
Common name: Notoginseng root; Pseudoginseng root; San qi (Chinese) (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
Family: Araliaceae (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
Parts used: root (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

Quality: Warm, sweet, bitter (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

Constituents:

  • 12% Saponins (Arasaponins A, B, C, D, E and R)
  • Genins of arasaponins: panaxadiol and panaxatriol

(Huang, 1999, p. 101)

 

Actions

  • HAEMOSTATIC (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
  • Immune stimulating (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
  • CNS depressant & stimulant (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
  • Antiplatelet (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
  • Anti-arrhythmic (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Increases coronary flow and decreases blood pressure (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Reduces vascular resistance (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Reduces myocardial metabolic rate (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Reduces plasma cholesterol (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Accelerates blood clotting time (Huang, 1999, p. 102)

Indications

  • Hematemesis
  • Haemoptysis
  • Nosebleed
  • Heavy menstrual bleeding
  • Open sores (external)

(Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

 

Traditional used in Chinese medicine to:

  • Trasform blood stasis and stop bleeding (Holmes, n.d., p. 370)
  • Invigorate the blood, reduce swelling and relieve pain (Holmes, n.d., p. 370)
  • Arrest bleeding (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Remove blood stasis (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Relieve pain (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Angina pectoris (Huang, 1999, p. 102)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Decoction 3-9g, cook for 20 mins
  • Powdered root: 1-1.5g/tds

(Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

 

Contraindication: Pregnancy (Holmes, .n.d., p. 370; Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

Combinations: For Hamorrhage: Combine with herbs that nourish Yin and clear empty heat (Holmes, n.d., p. 370)

Interactions: Caution taken when used in combination with anticoagulants and platelet aggregation inhibitors (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

Coleus forskohlii

Coleus

Wall, M. (2014). Coleus. Retrieved from: http://www.truestarhealth.com/Notes/2071003.html

Botanical Name: Coleus forskohlii
Common name: Coleus (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
Family: Labiatae (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
Parts used: Root (Bone, 2003, p. 156)

Constituents: Forskolin (Bone, 2003, p. 156)

Actions

  • Hypotensive (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Antiplatelet (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Broncho-spasmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Cardiotonic (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Digestive stimulant (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Aromatic digestive (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Galactagogue (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Indications

  • Congestive heart disease (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Asthma (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Glaucoma (topical) (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Hypertension (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Ischemic heart disease (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Thrombosis (relating to platelet activity) (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Depression & Schizophrenia (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Erectile dysfunction (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Preparation & Dosage

3-6mL liquid extract (1:1)/day

40-90mL liquid extract (1:1)/week

4-6 drops liquid extract (1:1) prepared in water/saline for an eye bath (allow alcohol to evaporate before administered)

(Bone, 2003, p. 156)

 

Cautions: Peptic ulcer (Bone, 2003, p. 156)

 

Contraindications: Contraindicated in hypotension (Bone, 2003, p. 156)