Asparagus racemosa

Asparagus racemosus-1

Prasad, S. R. (n.d.). ASPARAGUS (Shatavari) as Multi target Drug in Women. Retrieved from: http://technoayurveda.com/Shatavari.html

Botanical Name: Asparagus racemosa
Common name: Shatavari, Wild Asparagus, Satavar (Hindi), Satavari (Sanskrit) (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
Family: Liliaceae (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
Parts used: Root (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
Quality: Bitter, sweet, cooling (Pole, 2006, p. 217)

History: Shatavari is regarded in Ayurvedic medicine as part of the rasayana group, which translates to the path that primordial tissue takes (Bone, 2003, p. 410). Australian aboriginals used shatavari topically in a wash for scabies, ulceration and chicken pox (Bone, 2003, p. 410).

Constituents: Steroidal saponins (incl. shatavarin I); alkaloids (incl. pyrrolizidine alkaloid ‘asparagamine A’); and mucilage (Bone, 2003, p. 410).

Actions

  • Tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Galactagogue (Bone, 2003, p. 409; (\Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Sexual tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Female reproductive tonic (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Adaptogen (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Sapsmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Antidiarrheal (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Diuretic (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Aphrodisiac (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Immunosuppressant (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Immunomodulator (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Nervine (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Demulcent (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Anti-bacterial (Pole, 2006, p. 217)

Indications

  • Promote conception (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Sexual debility (Both male and female) (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Infertility (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Impotence (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Promote lactation (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Menopause (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Promote appetite in children (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Infections (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Diarrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Colic (Pole, 2006, p. 217)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 4.5-8.5mL/day or 30-60mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 409)

Contraindications

  • Acute lung congestion (Pole, 2006, p. 218)
  • High kapha and/or āma (Pole, 2006, p. 218)

Combinations: Combine with Ashwagandha for a uterine tonic or to promote fertility in both male and females (Pole, 2006, p. 218)

Interactions: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 409)

Advertisements

Ginkgo biloba

896px-Ginkgo_biloba_SZ136

Von Siebold, P. F., & Zuccarini, J. G. (1870). Flora Japonica, Sectio Prima (Tafelband). Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ginkgo_biloba_SZ136.png

Botanical Name: Ginkgo biloba
Common name: Ginko (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
Family: Ginkoaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597)
Parts used: Leaf, seed kernel (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)

Folklore: Perhaps one of the oldest living tree species, Ginko’s origin is believe to be remote mountainous valleys of Zhejiang. First introduced into Europe in 1690 by Botanist Engelbert Kaempfer, up until 350 years ago the medicinal knowledge was restricted to China (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 493). Traditional therapeutic use is not well documented (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597).

Constituents:

  • Flavonols (inlc. quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, quercetin-3-beta-D-glucoside, quercitrin and rutin and coumaric acid esters of these flavonoids)
  • Terpene lactones (“terpenoids”) including bilobalide and ginkgolides A, B, C & J.
  • Biflavonoids, ginkgolic acids, sterols, procyanidins and polysaccharides

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597)

 

Actions

  • Anti –platelet activating factor (PAF) activity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Tissue perfusion enhancer (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Circulatory stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Nootropic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Neuroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anxiolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Adaptogen (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Vasodilator (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Digestive bitter (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Uterine Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)

 

Indications

  • Restricted cerebral blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Memory and/or cognitive impairment (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Fatigue (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Stroke (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Vertigo (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Acute cochlear deafness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Tinnitus of vascular origin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Peripheral arterial disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Favorable modification or cardiovascular risk (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Early stages of Alzheimer’s-type dementia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Multi-infarct dementia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Reduced retinal blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Normal tension glaucoma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Age-related muscular degeneration (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Congestive dysmenorrhea and PMS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Hypoxia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anxiety (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Adjuvant therapy in chronic schizophrenia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Symptoms associated with Multiple Sclerosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Allergic conjunctivitis (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Asthma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Protections from radiation damage (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Idiopathic oedema (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Vitilogo (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

120-140 standardized extract/day

120-140mg dry extract (in divided doses)/day

4-8 weeks treatment for optimal results (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 554)

 

Cautions

  • Caution should be taken in individuals with coagulation disorders when used in conjunction with antiplatelet or anticoagulant medication, although clinical trials suggesting this are insufficient (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617).
  • Individuals undergoing surgery are advised to cease taking it 5-7 days prior due to potential (minor) risk of increased blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617)

 

Contraindications:

  • Known sensitivity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617)
  • If unusual bleeding or bruising occurs cease treatment immedietly (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 505)

 

Interactions: Theoretically Ginko may increase bleeding risk when taken in conjunction with Warfarin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 505)

Codonopsis pillosa

1024px-Codonopsis_lanceolata_SZ91
Franz von Siebold, F., & Zuccarin, J. G. (1870). Flora Japonica. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Codonopsis_lanceolata#mediaviewer/File:Codonopsis_lanceolata_SZ91.png

Botanical Name: Codonopsis pillosa
Common name: Codonopsis
Family: Campanulaceae (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 710)
Parts used: Root (Bone, 2003, p. 154)

Quality: Neutral, sweet (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 710)

History/Folklore: In TCM the herb reinforces qi and invigorates functions of the spleen and lung (Bone, 2003, p. 154; Holmes, 1989, p. 282). Is seen to have similar functions to Korean ginseng, but not as strong (Bone, 2003, p. 154).

Constituents: Saponins and alkaloids (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 710)

Actions

  • Tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 154)
  • Adaptogen (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 710)
  • Immune stimulating (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 710)
  • Circulatory stimulant (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 710)

 

Indications

  • Fatigue (Bone, 2003, p. 154; Holmes, 1989, p. 282)
  • Loss of appetite (Bone, 2003, p. 154)
  • Shortness of breath (Bone, 2003, p. 154; Holmes, 1989, p. 282)
  • Palpitations (Bone, 2003, p. 154; Holmes, 1989, p. 282)
  • Coronary heart disease (Bone, 2003, p. 154)
  • Improving red blood cell production and haemoglobin concentration (Bone, 2003, p. 154)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 4.5-8.5mL/day or 30-60mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 154)
  • Root decoction: 3-15g/day cook for 20 mins (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 710)

 

Cautions

  • Pregnancy (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 711)

 

Contraindications:

  • TCM specific: damp-heap and ascent liver yang (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 711)

 

Interactions:

  • Do not combine with Veratri nigri (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 711)

Rhodiola rosea

ss-rhodiola2-300x300-1

Serenity Station. Rhodiola for Relaxation. (2013). Retrieved from: http://www.serenity-station.com/rhodiola-relaxation/

Botanical Name: Rhodiola rosea
Common name: Rhodiola, Golden root, Rose root, Arctic root (Huang, Perry, Ernst, 2011, p. 235)
Family: Crassulaceae (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
Parts used: Root (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 794)

History/Folklore: Found in high altitudes of Arctic regions, and throughout Europe and Asia (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235). The herb is used widely throughout Russia and Scandinavia (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235).

Constituents: Salidroside and aglycones; rhodiolo A, rosiridol and sachalinol; Rosavins; gossypectin-7-acid, rhodioflavonoside, gallic acid, trans-p-hydroycinnamic acid and p-tyrosol; cinnamic acid; hydroquinone (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 795)

Actions

  • Adaptogen (Hoffmann, 2003, p.484; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 795)
  • Tonic (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Antidepressant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 796)
  • Immunomodulatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 796)
  • Antibacterial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 796)
  • Cardioprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 796)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 797)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 797)
  • Cytoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 797)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 797)

Acts as an adaptogen by modulating the stress response (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 795). Some ways it achieves this is by:

  • Increasing the bio-electrical activity of the brain (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Inhibiting enzymes that degrade neurotransmitters such as dopamine, adrenaline, seratonin and achetlycholine (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Preventing a rise in mediators for the stress response (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)

 

Indications

  • Stress induced depression (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 798)
  • General Anxiety Disorder (GAD) (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 798)
  • Fatigue (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 798)
  • Anaemia (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Impotence (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Infections (incl. cold and flu) (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Cancer (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Nervous System disorders (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Headache (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Improves memory and attention span (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Increases physical endurance (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 798)
  • Resistance to altitude sickness (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Diabetes (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 799)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

Fluid extract (1:2): 20-49mL/week (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 799)

Cautions: No major risks are associated with Rhodiola (Huang et al., 2011, p. 242)

 

Contraindications: Contraindicated in bipolar disorder (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 799)

 

Interactions: Emit caution when used in conjunction with Adriamycin, Cyclophosphamide and antidepressants based on theoretical evidence (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 799)

Withania somnifera

WITHANIsomNIFERA
Nijemegen, B. J. (n.d.). Withania somnifers. Retrieved from: http://www.oocities.org/eagal14u/WithaniasSomnifera.html

Botanical name: Withania somnifera
Common Name: Ashwagandha, “Indian Ginseng”, Winter Cherry, Ajagandha, Karaj Hindi, Saam Al Ferakt (Ven Murthy et al., 2010, Abstract).
Family: Solanaceae (Ven Murthy et al., 2010, Abstract)
Part used: Root, leaves and bark (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949)

Active constituents: Ashwagandha contains steroidal alkaloids and lactones, which together are known as “withanoilides” (Ojha & Arya, 2009, p.156).

Origin: Native to South Asia, Central Asia and Africa, Ashwagandha is traditionally used in ayurvedic medicine (Ven Murthy et al., 2010, Abstract)

Qualities: Described as “medharasayan” in Ayurvedic medicine, which means ‘promoter of learning and memory revival’ (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949)

 

Actions

  • Adaptogen (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949; Ven Murthy et al., 2010, Abstract)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949; Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335; Wollen, 2010, p. 231)
  • Anti-tumor, antiproliferative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949; Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335)
  • Anti-stress (Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335; Wollen, 2010, p. 231)
  • Antioxidant (Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335; Wollen, 2010, p. 231)
  • Immunomodulator (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949; Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335)
  • Hematopoietic (Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335)
  • Mild sedative (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 949)
  • Tonic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 949)

 

Indications:

Rheumatologic conditions and Musculoskeletal disorders

Bone and Mills discuss the traditional indication in India and the Middle East in rheumatic pain (2013, p. 949). Mishra suggests that Ashwaganda’s use in rheumatologic conditions is likely a result of the herbs anti-inflammatory properties (2000, p. 335) and that the herb is indicated in variety musculoskeletal conditions (2000, p. 334).

 

Anxiety and Stress related physiological effects

Bone & Mills state that Ashwaganda indication in both anxiety and pathology associated with negative impact of stress is supported by clinical trials (2013, p. 949). Ashwaganda has been trialed for it’s assistance in the treatment of anxiety with some positive results (Bhattacharya, Bhattacharya, Sairam & Ghosal, 2000, Abstract). A recent randomized control trial found that Ashwaganda reduced symptoms of stress (Wollen, 2010, p.231).

 

Cardiovascular Disease

Withanolides of Ashwaganda have demonstrated cardiotonic activity including increasing contractively and relaxation, and decreasing preload (Ojha & Arya, 2009, pp. 156-157). While studies surrounding around Ashwaganda’s cardiovascular effects are fairly preliminary, with many based around animal models, evidence is encouraging and further research is warranted (Ojha & Arya, 2009, p.156).

 

Growth improvement in children (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 949)

Bone & Mills comment on Ashwaganda’s benefit in child growth (2010, p. 949). Withania is a source of iron (Mishra at al., 2000, p. 336, and is described as an anti-anemic by Bone & Mills (2010, p.949). Iron is also an important nutrient in fetal development and thus the herb could have a positive effect in increasing iron levels in an individual (Yang, 2012, pp. 65-69.)

 

Conditions associated with aging

Aging results in a progressive shift in the body’s homeostatic adaptive responses, increasing the body’s vulnerability to both stress and disease (Tortora & Derrickson, 2012, p. 105). As discussed previously, Ashwaganda’s role as an adaptogen and anti-stress herb allows non-specific support in such stressors encountered with aging (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 949). Many of the contemporary indications are pathology associated with aging such as musculoskeletal disorders and cardiovascular disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949).

 

Alzheimer’s Disease

Withanolides possess neuroprotective properties (Wollen, 2010, p. 213). In vitro research demonstrated Ashwaganda’s ability to repair damage axons, dendrites and synapses, suggesting the potential of the herb in the indication of Alzheimer’s Disease (Wollen, 2010, p. 231). Human trials demonstrated the herbs ability to reduce symtoms associated with stress including forgetfulness and inability to concentrate (Wollen, 2010, p. 231).

 

Traditional Use:

In Ayurveda Ashwaganda root is indicated in a number of vata and kapha conditions, and is seen as an aphrodisiac, tonic and depurative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949). In the Middle East the root is used as a sedative, hypnotic and for rheumatic pains (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949)

 

Preparation: Decoction, liquid extract, capsules, tablet (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949)

 

Dose:

  • Capsule: 1-6g in capsule form/day
  • Decoction: 1 part root 10 parts water/tds
  • Fluid extract: 2-4mL/tds

 

Cautions and Contradictions: Wollen states that no adverse effects were found in doses up to 500mg/day (2010, p. 231)

Eleutherococcus senticosus

eleutherocoque---eleutheroc_352

Herboplanet.eu. (n.d.). ELEUTHEROCOCCUS SENTICOSUS radice (Eleuterococco, Ginseng siberiano). Retrieved from: http://www.herboplanet.eu/prodotto.asp?id=352

EleutherococcusSenticosusPhoto03

MDidea.com. (2013). What Is Siberian Ginseng?.  Retrieved from: http://www.mdidea.net/products/herbextract/eleutherosides/photogallery.html

Botanical Name: Eleutherococcus senticosus
Common name: Siberian ginseng, Elecuthro, Acanthopanax senticosus (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
Family: Araliaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
Parts used: Root (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)

Folklore and traditional use:

Traditionally used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to reinforce qi, to invigorate spleen and kidney and calm nervce. The herb is also indicated in insomnia and dream disturbed sleep (Bone, 2003, p. 196).

 

Constituents:

  • Eleuthrosides (ligans and phenylpropanoids) including:
    • Eleuthrosides E (syringaresinol diglucoside)
    • Eleuthrosides B (syringin)
    • Eleuthrosides B4 (Sesamin)
    • Eleuthrosides D
  • Triterpenoid saponins
  • Glycans (elecuthrans A, B, C, D, E, F & G)

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 819)

 

Actions

  • Adaptogen (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Immune modulating (Bone, 2003, p. 195)
  • Tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 195)

 

Indications

  • Angina (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Hypertension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Hypotension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Chronic bronchitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Cancer (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Exhaustion (Bone, 2003, p. 195; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Irritability (Bone, 2003, p. 195; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Insomnia (Bone, 2003, p. 195; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Mild depression (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Convalescence (Bone, 2003, p. 195; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Debilitating effects of chemotherapy (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 81)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

1:2 liquid extract

  • Dose per day: 2-8mL
  • Dose per week: 15-55mL

 

Cautions

  • Hypotension (Bone, 2003, p. 195)
  • High does may cause insomnia, palpitations, tachycardia and hypertension (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 823).
  • ‘Ginseng abuse syndrome’ (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 823)

 

Contradictions: Not to be used during the acute phase of infections (Bone, 2003, p. 195)

Panax ginseng

panax_ginseng

Johal, R. (2012). Ginseng and Ginkgo Biloba Complex shows promise for mental tasks. Retrieved from: http://www.predatornutrition.com/blog/2012/03/08/ginseng-and-ginkgo-biloba-complex-shows-promise-for-mental-tasks/

Botanical Name: Panax ginseng
Common name: Korean Ginseng, Panax, Ren Shen (Mandarine), Ninjin (Japanese) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
Family: Araliaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)
Parts used: Root (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)

Folklore and traditional use: In Chinese, Gin referres to “man” and seng to “essence” (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 199). The name panax is said to be derived from the Greek word pancea meaning “cure all” (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628). It is considered to be the most potent Qi tonic in Chinese Medicine (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 199), and is indicated in collapsed Qi conditions (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628). It is proposed to:

  • Generates fluids
  • Tonify lungs and stomach
  • Strengthens the spleen
  • Calms the spirit manifestation of heart Qi.

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)

 

Traditional TCM indications include:

  • Shallow or labored breathing
  • Lethargy
  • Chest and abdominal distention
  • Palpitations with anxiety
  • Insomnia
  • Restlessness

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)

In Western herbal medicine the herb is traditionally used as a mild stomachic, tonic, and a stimulant for anorexia and nervous related digestive complaints (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628).

Having wide range pharmacological properties, ginseng appears to have whole body effects as well as having a profound influence on the metabolism of an individual cell (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628). There is no equivalent concept or treatment in contemporary biomedicine (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628). Recent western studies fail to establish the efficiency of ginseng root extract to support traditional indications (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 199).

 

Constituents: Ginsenosides (a complex mixture of triterpene dammarane and oleanane saponins); Polysaccarhides; Essential oil; Diacetylenes; Peptides; Trilinolein; and Arginine (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 629)

 

Actions

  • Adaptogen (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628: Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)
  • Tonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)
  • Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)
  • Immunomodulator (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 200)
  • Cardiotonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Hypoglycemic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 200)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 200)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 200)
  • Anti-oxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 203)
  • Anxiolytic (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 203)

 

Indications

Clinical

  • Improve cerebro-vascular deficit (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Improve cognitive performance (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Congestive heart failure (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Cancer prevention (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Depressed bone marrow associated with radiation therapy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Erectile dysfunction (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 204)
  • Male fertility problems (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Type 2 diabeties (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Acne (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 204)
  • Hair growth (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 203)
  • Anemia (By promoting haemopoiesis) (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 203)

Generally Panax increases vitatily and the body’s ability to withstand stress. It does this by:

  • Acting on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal cortex,
  • Restoring and strengthening the body’s immune system
  • Promotes longevity, growth and metabolism of normal body cells (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)

 

Traditional

  • Heart failure (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Dyspepsia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Asthma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Organ prolapse (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Spontaneous sweating (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Palpitations (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Neuralgia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Neurosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Anxiety (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Long term debility (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Menopausal symptoms (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 204)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Decoction: 0.5tsp powdered root/1 cup water. Bring to boil, simmer for 10 mins/tds
  • Tincture: (1:5 in 60%) 1-2mL (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)

 

Cautions

  • Avoid concurrent stimulents such as caffine and amphetamines (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)
  • Acute infections (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Ginseng abuse syndrome has been reported in individuals, with effects including hypertension, nervousness, insomnia, morning diarrhoea and skin reactions (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 206)
  • Pregnancy (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 207)

 

Contradictions:

  • Acute asthma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)
  • Fever (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 206)
  • Excessive menstruation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)
  • Nose bleeds (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)

Interactions

  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitor “phenolzine” (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)
  • Warfarin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)