Dioscorea villosa

Wild-Yam-Root-Picture-300x225

Prime Health Channel. (2014). Wild Yam. Retrieved from: http://www.primehealthchannel.com/wild-yam.html

Botanical Name: Dioscorea villosa
Common name: Wild Yam (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
Family: Dioscorea (Bone, 2003, p. 464)
Parts used: Root and rhizome (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1024)

History/Folklore: Once the herb was used as a source of diosgenin used to produce artifical progesterone in the manufacturing of contraceptive hormones (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1024). It is to be noted that the conversion of diogensin needed to produce progesterone cannot occur in the human body and therefore Wild Yam is not a source of progesterone (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1024).

 

Constituents: Diosgensin, dioscin, dioscorin, vitamin C, beta-carotene, Vitamins B1 and B3, iron, magnesium, potassium, selenium, zinc and polyphenols (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1024).

 

Actions

  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543; Bone, 2003, p. 464)
  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Hepatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Cholagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1024)
  • Diaphoretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)

 

Indications

  • Intestinal colic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Bilous colic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Diverticulitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Dysmenorrhea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Neuralgic dysmenorrheal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Ovarian neuralgia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Ovarian and uterus pain (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Acute phase of rheumatoid arthritis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543; Bone, 2003, p. 464)
  • Pains of pregnancy and associated nausea and vomiting (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Alleviation of menopausal symptoms (Bone, 2003, p. 464)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Decoction of dried root (2-3g/tds)
  • 1:5 Tincture (2-10mL/tds) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1025)
  • 3-6mL liquid extract (1:2)/day or 20-40mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 464)

 

Cautions: Due to saponin content, may cause irritation of gastric mucosa (Bone, 2003, p. 464)

 

Combinations:

  • For intestinal colic: combines with Acorus calamus, Matricaria chamomilla and Zinziber officinale.
  • For rheumatoid arthritis: combines with Actaea racemosa (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 241)

Smilax ornate / Smilax spp.

Sarsaparilla_Smilaxofficinalis_SmilaxChina_Photo05

MDidea. (2013). Botanical Description:Sarsaparilla,Smilax Medica,Smilax China. Retrieved from: http://www.mdidea.com/products/proper/proper08802.html

Botanical Name: Smilax ornate / Smilax spp.
Common name: Sarsaparilla (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)
Family: Smilacaceae (Bone, 2003, p. 397)
Parts used: Root & rhizome (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)

History/Folklore: Amazonian natives used the root for menopause and to enhance the “virility of men” (Bone, 2003, p. 398). The genus Smilax contains a range of species, with Smilax ornata, S. aristolochiifolia and S. medica medically interchangeable (Bone, 2003, p. 397). The herb has a wide range of traditional use including skin disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, syphilis, leprosy (conjunction) and as a tonic and flavouring agent (Bone, 2003, p. 398).

Constituents: Saponins: sarasapogenin, smilagenin, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)

 

Actions

  • Alterative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)
  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584; Bone, 2003, p. 397)
  • Diaphoretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)
  • Depurative (Bone, 2003, p. 397)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone, 2003, p. 397)

 

Indications

  • Psoriasis (Bone, 2003, p. 397; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)
  • Chronic skin disorders (Bone, 2003, p. 397)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (Bone, 2003, p. 397; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • 3-6mL liquid extract (1:2)/day
  • 20-40mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

(Bone, 2003, p. 397)

 

Cautions & Contraindications: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 397)

 

Interactions: May increase absorption of digitalis glycosides (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)

Galega officinalis

Goat_s_Rue_-_Galega_officinalis-4132

Wild About Britian. (2011). Goat’s Rue-Galega officinalis. Retrieved from: http://www.wildaboutbritain.co.uk/pictures/showphoto.php/photo/104660/size/big

Botanical Name: Galega officinalis
Common name: Goat’s Rue, French Lilac, Italian fitch, Professor-weed (Natural Standard, 2014)
Family: Leguminosae (Bone, 2003, p. 243)
Parts used: Aerial Parts (Bone, 2003, p. 243)

History/Folklore: Native to the Middle East (Natural Standard, 2014)

Constituents: Alkaloid: galegine (Bone, 2003, p. 243)

Actions

  • Hypoglycemic (Bone, 2003, p. 243; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 522)
  • Galactagogue (Bone, 2003, p. 243; Natural Standard, 2014; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 522)
  • Antidiabetic (Bone, 2003, p. 243)
  • Antiplatelet (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 552; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Diaphoretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 552; Natural Standard, 2014)

Indications

  • Non-insulin dependent diabeties mellitus (Bone, 2003, p. 243)
  • Improving lactation (Bone, 2003, p. 243; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 522)
  • Assisting weight loss (Bone, 2003, p. 243)

Preparation & Dosage:

  • 5-8.5mL liquid extract (1:2)/day
  • 30-60mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

(Bone, 2003, p. 243)

Cautions & Contraindications: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 243). Should not replace insulin therapy and should be monitored in the treatment of diabeties (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 522)

Interactions: May interact with antiplatelet and hypoglycaemic medication (Natural Standard, 2014)

Tilia spp.

linden_flower

Kidman, D. (2014). Linden Flower (Tilia spp.) and its Uses. Retrieved from: http://dkmommyspot.com/linden-flower-tilia-spp-and-its-uses/

Botanical Name: Tilia spp.
Common name: Linden flower, Lime blossom (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
Family:
Parts used: Flower (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

History/Folklore: In Western Herbal Medicine, the most commonly used species is T. cordata and T. platyphyllos

Constituents:

  • Essential oil (Bone, 2003, p. 319)
  • Flavonids (Bone, 2003, p. 319)

 

Actions

  • Spasmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Peripheral vasodilator (Bone, 2003, p. 318; Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 203)
  • Mild sedative (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Diaphoretic (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

 

Indications

  • Common cold (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Cold-related coughs (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Catarrhal respiratory conditions (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Anxiety, restlessness (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Insomnia (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Heachache (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Hypertension (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Palpitations (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  1. 0-4.5mL liquid extract (1:2)/day

15-30mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

(Bone, 2003, p. 318)

 

Cautions: Due to potential for the herb to interact with iron absorption, in individuals with anaemia, the herb should be taken away from meals (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

 

Contraindications: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

 

Interactions

  • May reduce iron absorption (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

Zingiber officinalis

1
Harvest Newsletter. (2011). Grow Local Ginger. Retrieved from: http://archive.constantcontact.com/fs033/1106770492400/archive/1107516061313.html

Botanical Name: Zingiber officinalis
Common name: Ginger
Family: Zinziberaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
Parts used: rhizome (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)

History/Folklore: Medicinal use of ginger is recorded in early Sanskrit and Chinese texts as well as in Ancient Greek, Roman and Arabic medical literature (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578).

Constituents: Essential oil (incl. zingiberene, sesquiphellandrene and β-bisabolene); gingerols and shogoals (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)

Actions

  • Carminative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Antiemetic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Peripheral circulatory stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Anti-platelet (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 578, 582)
  • Diaphoretic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578: Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Digestive stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Anti-ulcer (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 581)
  • Anti-microbial (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 583)
  • Antiparasitic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 583)
  • Anti-tumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Rubefacient (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Cholagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)

 

Indications

  • Motion sickness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Morning sickness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Post-operative and drug induced nausea (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 578-579)
  • Osteoarthritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 570)
  • Gastroparesis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • Chilbains (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Stimulate appetite (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Chemotherapy-induce nausea (Ryan, Heckler, Roscoe, Dakhil, Kirshner, Flynn, Hickok & Morrow, 2011)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Fresh rhizome: 500-1000mg/tds
  • Dried rhizome: 500mg/2-4 times a day
  • Liquid extract (1:2): 0.7-3mL/day
  • Tincture (1:5): 1.7-7.5ml/day (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)

 

Cautions

  • May enhance bioavailability of other medications (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • May cause heart burn (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • May have a blood thinning effect (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Some sources say it is unsuitable for morning sickness and results are conflicting (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Treatment during pregnancy should not exceed a daily dose of 2g of dried ginger (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)
  • Inhibits thromboxane synthase and acts as a prostaglandin agonist (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)

 

Contraindications:

  • Gallstones (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)

Interactions:

  • Increases bioavilability of other drugs by increasing absorption from GI tract and/or protecting the drug from metabolized by the liver’s first phase (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591).
  • In Individuals already taking blood thinning medication, daily dose of ginger should not exceed 4g (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)
  • May increase bleeding when combined with other anti-coagulants (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)

Zanthoxylum clava-herculus /Z.americana

Zanthoxylum_americanum
Barra, A. (1999). Prickly Ash Zanthoxylum spp.. Retrieved from: http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail403.php

Botanical Name: Zanthoxylum clava-herculus /Z.americana
Common name: Prickley Ash
Family: Rutaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
Parts used: Bark, Berry (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)

Constituents: Alkaloids; coumarins; resin; tannins; and volatile oil (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)

Actions

  • Circulatory Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 233)
  • Tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Alterative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Diaphoretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596; Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Hepatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Sialogogue (Bone, 2003, p. 379; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 104)

 

Indications

  • Rheumatism (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596; Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Chronic skin disorders (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Poor circulation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596; Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Leg cramps (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Varicose veins (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596; Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Varicose ulcers (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Gastric distension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Loss of sensitivity in injured nerves (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Haemorrhoids (Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Raynaud’s Syndrome (Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Hypotension (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 233)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 60%): 2-4mL/tds
  • Infusion: 102tsp/1 cup water/tds

 

Cautions

  • Causes a tingling sensation in oral cavity when taken in liquid form, which may give patients a chocking or panicked reaction (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 104)

 

Contraindications

  • Contraindicated in hypertension (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 233)
  • Individuals on anticoagulant therapy (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)

Verbena officinalis

x123771866949c6168dbdeb5

Laboratorio d’erbe Sauro. (2014). Vervain – Verbena – (Verbena officinalis). Retrieved from: http://www.erboristeriasauro.it/vervain-verbena-verbena-officinalis-.html

Botanical Name: Verbena officinalis
Common name: Vervain (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)
Family: Verbenaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
Parts used: Ariel parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592).

Constituents: Iridoids (verbenin, verbenalin, bastatoside); Essential oil; Mucilage (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Folklore: Used in Ayurvedic medicine as a contraceptive and in Italian folk medicine for rheumatic pain and wounds (Natural Standard, 2014).

 

Actions

  • Nervine tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 453; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Sedative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Diaphoretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592; Bone, 2003, p. 453)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Galactagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Hepatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Astringent (Bone, 2003, p. 453)
  • Mild antidepressant (Bone, 2003, p. 453)

 

Indications

  • Depression (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593; Bone, 2003, p. 453)
  • Early stages of fevers (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Caries and gum disease (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Infantile colic (in combination) (Bone, 2003, p. 453)
  • Anorexia (Bone, 2003, p. 453)
  • Gastrointestinal irritation (Bone, 2003, p. 453)
  • Jaundice (Bone, 2003, p. 453)
  • Epilepsy (Bone, 2003, p. 453)
  • Nervous breakdown (Bone, 2003, p. 453)
  • Promotion of lactation (Bone, 2003, p. 453)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Infusion: 1-3 tsp dreid herb/1 cup boiling water/tds
  • Tincture: (1:5 in 40%) 2.5-5mL/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 93)

 

Cautions & Contradictions: None known (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Combinations:

  • For depression may be combines with Skullcap, Oats and Lady’s slipper (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238).
  • For infantile colic may be combined with lemon balm, chamomile, licorice and fennel (Bone, 2003, p. 453)