Dioscorea villosa

Wild-Yam-Root-Picture-300x225

Prime Health Channel. (2014). Wild Yam. Retrieved from: http://www.primehealthchannel.com/wild-yam.html

Botanical Name: Dioscorea villosa
Common name: Wild Yam (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
Family: Dioscorea (Bone, 2003, p. 464)
Parts used: Root and rhizome (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1024)

History/Folklore: Once the herb was used as a source of diosgenin used to produce artifical progesterone in the manufacturing of contraceptive hormones (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1024). It is to be noted that the conversion of diogensin needed to produce progesterone cannot occur in the human body and therefore Wild Yam is not a source of progesterone (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1024).

 

Constituents: Diosgensin, dioscin, dioscorin, vitamin C, beta-carotene, Vitamins B1 and B3, iron, magnesium, potassium, selenium, zinc and polyphenols (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1024).

 

Actions

  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543; Bone, 2003, p. 464)
  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Hepatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Cholagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1024)
  • Diaphoretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)

 

Indications

  • Intestinal colic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Bilous colic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Diverticulitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Dysmenorrhea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Neuralgic dysmenorrheal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Ovarian neuralgia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Ovarian and uterus pain (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Acute phase of rheumatoid arthritis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543; Bone, 2003, p. 464)
  • Pains of pregnancy and associated nausea and vomiting (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Alleviation of menopausal symptoms (Bone, 2003, p. 464)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Decoction of dried root (2-3g/tds)
  • 1:5 Tincture (2-10mL/tds) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1025)
  • 3-6mL liquid extract (1:2)/day or 20-40mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 464)

 

Cautions: Due to saponin content, may cause irritation of gastric mucosa (Bone, 2003, p. 464)

 

Combinations:

  • For intestinal colic: combines with Acorus calamus, Matricaria chamomilla and Zinziber officinale.
  • For rheumatoid arthritis: combines with Actaea racemosa (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 241)

Smilax ornate / Smilax spp.

Sarsaparilla_Smilaxofficinalis_SmilaxChina_Photo05

MDidea. (2013). Botanical Description:Sarsaparilla,Smilax Medica,Smilax China. Retrieved from: http://www.mdidea.com/products/proper/proper08802.html

Botanical Name: Smilax ornate / Smilax spp.
Common name: Sarsaparilla (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)
Family: Smilacaceae (Bone, 2003, p. 397)
Parts used: Root & rhizome (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)

History/Folklore: Amazonian natives used the root for menopause and to enhance the “virility of men” (Bone, 2003, p. 398). The genus Smilax contains a range of species, with Smilax ornata, S. aristolochiifolia and S. medica medically interchangeable (Bone, 2003, p. 397). The herb has a wide range of traditional use including skin disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, syphilis, leprosy (conjunction) and as a tonic and flavouring agent (Bone, 2003, p. 398).

Constituents: Saponins: sarasapogenin, smilagenin, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)

 

Actions

  • Alterative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)
  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584; Bone, 2003, p. 397)
  • Diaphoretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)
  • Depurative (Bone, 2003, p. 397)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone, 2003, p. 397)

 

Indications

  • Psoriasis (Bone, 2003, p. 397; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)
  • Chronic skin disorders (Bone, 2003, p. 397)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (Bone, 2003, p. 397; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • 3-6mL liquid extract (1:2)/day
  • 20-40mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

(Bone, 2003, p. 397)

 

Cautions & Contraindications: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 397)

 

Interactions: May increase absorption of digitalis glycosides (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)

Galega officinalis

Goat_s_Rue_-_Galega_officinalis-4132

Wild About Britian. (2011). Goat’s Rue-Galega officinalis. Retrieved from: http://www.wildaboutbritain.co.uk/pictures/showphoto.php/photo/104660/size/big

Botanical Name: Galega officinalis
Common name: Goat’s Rue, French Lilac, Italian fitch, Professor-weed (Natural Standard, 2014)
Family: Leguminosae (Bone, 2003, p. 243)
Parts used: Aerial Parts (Bone, 2003, p. 243)

History/Folklore: Native to the Middle East (Natural Standard, 2014)

Constituents: Alkaloid: galegine (Bone, 2003, p. 243)

Actions

  • Hypoglycemic (Bone, 2003, p. 243; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 522)
  • Galactagogue (Bone, 2003, p. 243; Natural Standard, 2014; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 522)
  • Antidiabetic (Bone, 2003, p. 243)
  • Antiplatelet (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 552; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Diaphoretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 552; Natural Standard, 2014)

Indications

  • Non-insulin dependent diabeties mellitus (Bone, 2003, p. 243)
  • Improving lactation (Bone, 2003, p. 243; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 522)
  • Assisting weight loss (Bone, 2003, p. 243)

Preparation & Dosage:

  • 5-8.5mL liquid extract (1:2)/day
  • 30-60mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

(Bone, 2003, p. 243)

Cautions & Contraindications: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 243). Should not replace insulin therapy and should be monitored in the treatment of diabeties (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 522)

Interactions: May interact with antiplatelet and hypoglycaemic medication (Natural Standard, 2014)

Tilia spp.

linden_flower

Kidman, D. (2014). Linden Flower (Tilia spp.) and its Uses. Retrieved from: http://dkmommyspot.com/linden-flower-tilia-spp-and-its-uses/

Botanical Name: Tilia spp.
Common name: Linden flower, Lime blossom (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
Family:
Parts used: Flower (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

History/Folklore: In Western Herbal Medicine, the most commonly used species is T. cordata and T. platyphyllos

Constituents:

  • Essential oil (Bone, 2003, p. 319)
  • Flavonids (Bone, 2003, p. 319)

 

Actions

  • Spasmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Peripheral vasodilator (Bone, 2003, p. 318; Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 203)
  • Mild sedative (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Diaphoretic (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

 

Indications

  • Common cold (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Cold-related coughs (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Catarrhal respiratory conditions (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Anxiety, restlessness (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Insomnia (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Heachache (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Hypertension (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Palpitations (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  1. 0-4.5mL liquid extract (1:2)/day

15-30mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

(Bone, 2003, p. 318)

 

Cautions: Due to potential for the herb to interact with iron absorption, in individuals with anaemia, the herb should be taken away from meals (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

 

Contraindications: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

 

Interactions

  • May reduce iron absorption (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

Zingiber officinalis

1
Harvest Newsletter. (2011). Grow Local Ginger. Retrieved from: http://archive.constantcontact.com/fs033/1106770492400/archive/1107516061313.html

Botanical Name: Zingiber officinalis
Common name: Ginger
Family: Zinziberaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
Parts used: rhizome (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)

History/Folklore: Medicinal use of ginger is recorded in early Sanskrit and Chinese texts as well as in Ancient Greek, Roman and Arabic medical literature (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578).

Constituents: Essential oil (incl. zingiberene, sesquiphellandrene and β-bisabolene); gingerols and shogoals (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)

Actions

  • Carminative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Antiemetic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Peripheral circulatory stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Anti-platelet (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 578, 582)
  • Diaphoretic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578: Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Digestive stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Anti-ulcer (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 581)
  • Anti-microbial (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 583)
  • Antiparasitic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 583)
  • Anti-tumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Rubefacient (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Cholagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)

 

Indications

  • Motion sickness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Morning sickness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Post-operative and drug induced nausea (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 578-579)
  • Osteoarthritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 570)
  • Gastroparesis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • Chilbains (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Stimulate appetite (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Chemotherapy-induce nausea (Ryan, Heckler, Roscoe, Dakhil, Kirshner, Flynn, Hickok & Morrow, 2011)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Fresh rhizome: 500-1000mg/tds
  • Dried rhizome: 500mg/2-4 times a day
  • Liquid extract (1:2): 0.7-3mL/day
  • Tincture (1:5): 1.7-7.5ml/day (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)

 

Cautions

  • May enhance bioavailability of other medications (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • May cause heart burn (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • May have a blood thinning effect (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Some sources say it is unsuitable for morning sickness and results are conflicting (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Treatment during pregnancy should not exceed a daily dose of 2g of dried ginger (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)
  • Inhibits thromboxane synthase and acts as a prostaglandin agonist (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)

 

Contraindications:

  • Gallstones (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)

Interactions:

  • Increases bioavilability of other drugs by increasing absorption from GI tract and/or protecting the drug from metabolized by the liver’s first phase (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591).
  • In Individuals already taking blood thinning medication, daily dose of ginger should not exceed 4g (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)
  • May increase bleeding when combined with other anti-coagulants (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)

Zanthoxylum clava-herculus /Z.americana

Zanthoxylum_americanum
Barra, A. (1999). Prickly Ash Zanthoxylum spp.. Retrieved from: http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail403.php

Botanical Name: Zanthoxylum clava-herculus /Z.americana
Common name: Prickley Ash
Family: Rutaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
Parts used: Bark, Berry (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)

Constituents: Alkaloids; coumarins; resin; tannins; and volatile oil (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)

Actions

  • Circulatory Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 233)
  • Tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Alterative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Diaphoretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596; Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Hepatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Sialogogue (Bone, 2003, p. 379; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 104)

 

Indications

  • Rheumatism (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596; Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Chronic skin disorders (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Poor circulation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596; Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Leg cramps (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Varicose veins (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596; Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Varicose ulcers (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Gastric distension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Loss of sensitivity in injured nerves (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Haemorrhoids (Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Raynaud’s Syndrome (Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Hypotension (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 233)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 60%): 2-4mL/tds
  • Infusion: 102tsp/1 cup water/tds

 

Cautions

  • Causes a tingling sensation in oral cavity when taken in liquid form, which may give patients a chocking or panicked reaction (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 104)

 

Contraindications

  • Contraindicated in hypertension (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 233)
  • Individuals on anticoagulant therapy (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)

Verbena officinalis

x123771866949c6168dbdeb5

Laboratorio d’erbe Sauro. (2014). Vervain – Verbena – (Verbena officinalis). Retrieved from: http://www.erboristeriasauro.it/vervain-verbena-verbena-officinalis-.html

Botanical Name: Verbena officinalis
Common name: Vervain (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)
Family: Verbenaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
Parts used: Ariel parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592).

Constituents: Iridoids (verbenin, verbenalin, bastatoside); Essential oil; Mucilage (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Folklore: Used in Ayurvedic medicine as a contraceptive and in Italian folk medicine for rheumatic pain and wounds (Natural Standard, 2014).

 

Actions

  • Nervine tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 453; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Sedative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Diaphoretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592; Bone, 2003, p. 453)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Galactagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Hepatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Astringent (Bone, 2003, p. 453)
  • Mild antidepressant (Bone, 2003, p. 453)

 

Indications

  • Depression (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593; Bone, 2003, p. 453)
  • Early stages of fevers (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Caries and gum disease (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Infantile colic (in combination) (Bone, 2003, p. 453)
  • Anorexia (Bone, 2003, p. 453)
  • Gastrointestinal irritation (Bone, 2003, p. 453)
  • Jaundice (Bone, 2003, p. 453)
  • Epilepsy (Bone, 2003, p. 453)
  • Nervous breakdown (Bone, 2003, p. 453)
  • Promotion of lactation (Bone, 2003, p. 453)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Infusion: 1-3 tsp dreid herb/1 cup boiling water/tds
  • Tincture: (1:5 in 40%) 2.5-5mL/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 93)

 

Cautions & Contradictions: None known (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Combinations:

  • For depression may be combines with Skullcap, Oats and Lady’s slipper (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238).
  • For infantile colic may be combined with lemon balm, chamomile, licorice and fennel (Bone, 2003, p. 453)

Melissa officinalis

Melissa-Officinalis

Phytome. (n.d.). Melissa officinalis. Retrieved from: http://phytoguide.com/2010/11/homey-bee-herb/melissa-officinalis/

Botanical Name: Melissa officinalis
Common name: Lemon balm
Family: Lameaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 567)
Parts used: Aerial Parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 567)

Constituents: Volatile oil: neral and geranial; Caryophyllene oxide; Terpenes; Low concentration of flavonoids (incl. luteolin-7-glucoside and rhamazin); Polyphenolics (incl. protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid and tannins); and Triterpenic acids (incl. ursolic and pomolic acids) (Hoffmann, 2003, 567)

 

Actions

  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 567)
  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 567)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 567; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 646)
  • Antidepressant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 567)
  • Diaphorietic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 567)
  • Antimicrobial (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 567)
  • Hepatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 567)
  • Anxiolytic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 646)
  • Sedative (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 646)
  • Antiviral (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 646)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 646)
  • Analgesic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 646)

 

Indications

  • Anxiety

A small double blind Randomised control trial (RCT) found Melissa to reduce stress. In combination Melissa has been studies for it’s effects on acute anxiety, while there shows potential for further research, results are inconclusive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 647)

  • Herpes Simplex Virus

Clinical human trials demonstrated that topical application of Melissa officinalis has show effective in the treatment of symptoms associated with the herpes simplex virus (Gaby, 2006, p. 99).

  • Dementia

In one clinical trial Melissa topical application and aromatherapy was found to reduce symptoms associated with dementia in the elderly, notably aggregation (Ballard, O’Brian, Reichelt & Perry, 2002, Abstract).

  • Alzheimer’s disease

A radomised, double-blind control trial, found Melissa officinalis to reduce associated symptoms in individuals with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease, notably reducing agitation and improving cognition (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 647)

  • Insomnia
  • Gastro intestinal complains of nervous origin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 647)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Fresh herb: 1.5-4.5g/tds
  • Infusion: 1.5-4.5g/150mL hot water
  • Fluid extract (1:1): 6-12mL/day
  • Ointment: 700mg of ointment to be applied four times a day for herpes simplex infection (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 648).

 

Cautions & Contradictions: Contraindicated in Hypothyroidism (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 648)

 

Combinations:

  • For digestive complaints combine with Hops, Chamomile or Medowsweat.
  • For stress combine with Lavender and Lime Blossom (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 177)

Eupatorium purpureum

Eupatorium_purpureum,_by_Mary_Vaux_Walcott

Walcott, M. (n.d.). Watercolor painting of Eupatorium_purpureum. Southwest School of Botanical Medicine. Retrieved from: http://www.swsbm.com/Images/Walcott.html

Botanical Name: Eupatorium purpureum
Common name: Gravel root, joe-pye (Natural Standard, 2014)
Family: Asteraceae (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 204)
Parts used: Rhizome and root (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 204)
 

Constituents: Tannins; Bitter principle; Flavonoids: incl. euparin; Resin; Volatile oil; and Sesquiterpene lactones (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Actions:

  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 204)
  • Anti-rheumatic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 204)
  • Diaphoretic (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Folklore: The genus Eupatorium is comprised of over 40 spieces, many of which have medicinal use. Accoring to folklore, the name Eupatorium is derived from King Mithridates Eupator, among the first to use the herb medicinally. The common name “Gravel Root” refers to the herbs administration in kidney stones (gravel). Other common names include “joe-pye” which, according to folklore, is in honor of an American Indian who cures typhus with the plants root (Natural Standard, 2014).

 

Indications

Traditionally used for conditions of the genitourinary system, Eupatorium purpureum lacks substantiation in standard medical literature. Traditional indications include:

  • Kidney stones
  • Cystitis
  • Urethritis
  • Rheumatism and gout

(Natural Standard, 2014; Hoffmann, 1990, p. 204)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Decoction: 1 tsp/1 cup water (boil, then simmer for 10 mins)/tds
  • Tincture: 1-2mL/tds

(Hoffmann, 1990, p. 204)

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

  • Due to diaphoretic action, may cause dehydration
  • Contraindicated in individuals with known allergy to members of Asteraceae family.

(Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Combinations: For gravel or kidney stones combine with Parsley Piert, Pellitory of the wall or Hydrangea (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 204)

Inula helenium

Inula_helenium_ENBLA03

Botanical Name: Inula helenium
Common name: Elecampane (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560
Family: Asteraceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)
Parts used: Rhizome (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)

 

Constituents

  • Sesquiterpene lactones: incl. lactone (“helenalin”) and isoalantolacetone
  • Polysaccharides (mainly inulin)
  • Sterols
  • Resin (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)
  • Volatile oil
  • Bitter principal (Weiss, 2001, p. 205)

 

Actions

  • Expectorant
  • Antitussive
  • Diaphoretic
  • Hepatic
  • Antimicrobial
  • Bitter

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)

 

Mucliage has relaxing effect while essential oils bring about stimulation, allowing the herb to both sooth the irritation and promote expectoration (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560).

It is shown to be both strengthening and cleansing to pulmonary mucus membranes (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)

 

Indications

  • Irritating bronchial coughs
  • In conditions with copious catarrh
  • Bronchitis
  • Emphysema
  • Asthma and bronchial asthma
  • Tuberculosis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)
  • Particularly useful in bronchial conditions when appetite is reduced, as the bitter principal will help to stimulate appetite (Weiss, 2001, p. 205)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Tincture: (1:5 in 40%) 1-2mL/tds

Infusion: 1tsp shredded root/1cup water. Drink hot as possible

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)

 

Contradictions: Known allergy to members of Asteraecae family (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)

 

Combinations: For respiratory problems, Elecampane combines well with White Horehound, Coltsfoot, Pleurisy Root and Yarrow (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 198)

REFERENCE
Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Weiss, R. (2001). Weiss’s Herbal Medicine (classic edition). New York: Thieme.

Image: Blasutto, E., (2007). Giardino Botanico delle Alpi Orientali. Retrieved from: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Inula_helenium_ENBLA03.jpeg