Rosmarinus officinalis

Rosmarinus_officinalis_-_Köhler–s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-258

Image: Köhler, F. (1897). Rosmarinus officinalis. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosemary#mediaviewer/File:Rosmarinus_officinalis_-_K%C3%B6hler%E2%80%93s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-258.jpg

Botanical Name: Rosmarinus officinalis
Common name: Rosemary
Family: Lamiaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
Parts used: Leaf, twig (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)

Constituents:

  • Volatile oil (Borneol, camphene, camphor, cineole, limonene, linalool)
  • Flavonoids (apigenin, diosmentin, diosmin, luteolin)
  • Rosmarinic and other phenolic acid
  • Diterpenes (including carnosol, carnosolic acid and rosmariquinone)
  • Rosmaricine
  • Triterpenes (including ursolic acid and oleanolic acid)

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)

 

Actions

  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 316)
  • Antidepressant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Rubefacient (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Antimicrobial (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Hepatoprotective (Bone, 2003, p. 389; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 317)
  • Circulatory Stimulant (Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Antioxidant (Bone, 2003, p. 389; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 316)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 316)

 

Indications

  • Increased mental concentration (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 317)
  • Stomach upset accompanied by psychological tension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Enhancing detoxification phase I and II of the liver (Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Flatulent dyspepsia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Headache or depression associated with debility (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Muscular pain (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Sciatica (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Neuralgia (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Premature baldness (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Alopecia (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 317)
  • Gastric headache (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Atherosclerosis prevention (Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Impaired hepatic and biliary function (Bone, 2003, p. 389)

 

Preparation & Dosage: Liquid extract (1:2): 2.0-4.5mL/day or 15-30mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 390)

Cautions: Rosemary should not be taken with meals or iron supplements in individuals with iron deficiency due to the potential interference of iron absorption (Bone, 2003, p. 389)

Combinations

  • For alopecia: combine with thyme, lavender and cedarwood (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 317).
  • For depression: combine with Skullcap, Kola and Oats (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 229)
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Zingiber officinalis

1
Harvest Newsletter. (2011). Grow Local Ginger. Retrieved from: http://archive.constantcontact.com/fs033/1106770492400/archive/1107516061313.html

Botanical Name: Zingiber officinalis
Common name: Ginger
Family: Zinziberaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
Parts used: rhizome (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)

History/Folklore: Medicinal use of ginger is recorded in early Sanskrit and Chinese texts as well as in Ancient Greek, Roman and Arabic medical literature (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578).

Constituents: Essential oil (incl. zingiberene, sesquiphellandrene and β-bisabolene); gingerols and shogoals (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)

Actions

  • Carminative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Antiemetic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Peripheral circulatory stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Anti-platelet (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 578, 582)
  • Diaphoretic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578: Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Digestive stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Anti-ulcer (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 581)
  • Anti-microbial (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 583)
  • Antiparasitic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 583)
  • Anti-tumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Rubefacient (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Cholagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)

 

Indications

  • Motion sickness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Morning sickness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Post-operative and drug induced nausea (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 578-579)
  • Osteoarthritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 570)
  • Gastroparesis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • Chilbains (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Stimulate appetite (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Chemotherapy-induce nausea (Ryan, Heckler, Roscoe, Dakhil, Kirshner, Flynn, Hickok & Morrow, 2011)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Fresh rhizome: 500-1000mg/tds
  • Dried rhizome: 500mg/2-4 times a day
  • Liquid extract (1:2): 0.7-3mL/day
  • Tincture (1:5): 1.7-7.5ml/day (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)

 

Cautions

  • May enhance bioavailability of other medications (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • May cause heart burn (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • May have a blood thinning effect (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Some sources say it is unsuitable for morning sickness and results are conflicting (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Treatment during pregnancy should not exceed a daily dose of 2g of dried ginger (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)
  • Inhibits thromboxane synthase and acts as a prostaglandin agonist (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)

 

Contraindications:

  • Gallstones (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)

Interactions:

  • Increases bioavilability of other drugs by increasing absorption from GI tract and/or protecting the drug from metabolized by the liver’s first phase (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591).
  • In Individuals already taking blood thinning medication, daily dose of ginger should not exceed 4g (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)
  • May increase bleeding when combined with other anti-coagulants (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)

Capsicum minimum

Botanical-Chili-Plant-Printable-GraphicsFairy-sm-664x1024
Watson, K. (2013). Chili Pepper Botanical Printable. Retrieved from: http://thegraphicsfairy.com/chili-pepper-botanical-printable/

Botanical Name: Capsicum minimum
Common name: Cayenne (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
Family: Solonaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
Parts used: Fruit (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)

Constituents: Capsaicinoids (incl. capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin); carotenoids (incl. capsanthin, capsorubin and carotene; and Steroidal saponins (“capsicidins”) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)

Actions

  • Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 247)
  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Anti-catarrhal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Sialalgogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Rubefacient (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Antimicrobial (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Antiseptic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 247)
  • Local anesthetic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)

As a local anaesthetic, Cayenne only blocks impulses to nerve C fibers (strictly related to pain) therefore it does not interfe with temperature, touch and pressure (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536).

Cayenne blocks transmission of pain and itching by nerve fibers in skin and topically relieves pain by depleting local supplies of substance P (neurotransmitter) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536).

 

Indications

  • Flatulent dyspepsia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Colic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Insufficient peripheral circulation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Debility (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Lumbago and rheumatic pains (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Laryngitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Painful skin disorders, such as: psoriasis, pruritus or shingles (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Arthritis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Cluster headache (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Phantom limb pains (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Vasomotor rhinitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • GI infections (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 202)

In TCM the herb is used as an anticonvulsant and is indicated in epilepsy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 25%): 0.25-1mL/tds
  • Infusion: 0.5-1tsp/1 cup water. Infuse for 10mins. Drink when needed.

 

Cautions: The specific action Cayenne has on vansiloid receptors may creates an illusion of pain and burning, however tissue damage is not concurrent in these sensations and no harm results (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 43, 104)

 

Combinations

  • Combines with Myrrh in a gargle for laryngitis or as an antiseptic wash (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536).
  • High doses may cause tachecardia and hypertension in certain individuals (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • May aggravate gastrointestinal reflux (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Caution to be taken in individuals with bleeding disorders (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Interactions

  • May react with anticoagulant and anti-platelet medication (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • May inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes (Natural Standard, 2014)

Lavandula officinalis

Lavandula_angustifolia_-_Köhler–s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-087

Köhler, F. E. (1897). Lavandula angustifolia – Köhler’s Medizinal-Pflanzen. Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lavandula_angustifolia_-_K%C3%B6hler%E2%80%93s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-087.jpg

Botanical Name: Lavandula officinalis
Other names: Lavender, Lavandula angustifolia,
Family: Lamiaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 561
Parts used: Flower (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 638)

Constituents:

  • Essential/volatile oil: incl. linalyl acetate, linalool, lavandulyl acetate, borneol, limonene, caryophyllene)
  • Coumarines: incl. umbelliferone, herniarin, coumarin
  • Miscelaneous triterpenes
  • Flavonoids

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 561)

 

Actions:

  • Relaxing nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Carminative (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 639; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Sedative/anxiolytic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 639)
  • Antimicrobial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 639)
  • Antioplastic effects (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 639)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Antidepressant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Rubefacient (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 561)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)

 

Folklore: Lavender and its oils have a long history of traditional use as an antiseptic in ancient Arabia, Greek and Roman medicine (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 638).

 

Indications

  • Alopecia and hair loss (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 640-642; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Anxiety (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 640-642; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Aphthous ulcers (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Ecezma (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Insect bites (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 640-642)
  • Head lice (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Insomnia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 640-642)
  • Helps promote natural sleep (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Mood enhancement (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 640-642; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Stress related headaches (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Migraine (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Improved concentration and cognition (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 640-642)
  • Dementia (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Dyspepsia and bloating (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 640-642)
  • Perineal discomfort following childbirth (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 640-642; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 640-642; Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

Internal

Infusion: 1.5g (1-2tsp) dried flower/150mL water. Seep for 5 mins. Strain before drinking.

Liquid extract: (1:2) 2-4.5mL/day

 

External

For insect bites: 20 drops of oil/20mL “carrier oil” (e.g. almond) (for external application)

Lavender bath: seep 20-100g flowers in 2L boiling water. Strain and add to bath water

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 642)

 

Cautions & Contradictions: Internal toxic dose (based on animal studies) would translate to approximately 350g of lavender oil. Therefore the herb is considered safe in dose appropriate amounts (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 642)

 

Combinations: For depression combines well with Rosemary, Kola or Skullcap. For headaches may be combined with Lady’s slipper or Valarian (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 210).

Crataeva nurvala

amara02222

Forst, G. (1786). Crataeva religiosa -Tempelbaum – Temple Plant. Übersetzt von Alois Payer. Retrieved from: http://www.payer.de/amarakosa/amara205a.htm

Botanical Name: Crataeva nurvala

Common name: Crateva, Varuna (Sanskrit), Varun (Hindi), Buch-Hum.

Family: Capparidaceae (Bhattacharjee, Shashindara & Ashwathanaryana, 2012, p. 1162)

Parts used: Steam and root bark (Premila, 2006, p. 157)

 

Qualities: The bark is hot and bitter with a sharp, sweet taste (Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162)

 

Constituents:

  • Alkaloids: incl. cadabicine, cadabicine diacetate and cadabicine dimethyl ether
  • Sterols: incl. diosgenin, b-sitosterol
  • Flavonoids: incl. rutin and quercitin
  • Isothiocyanate glucoside: glucoapparin
  • Saponins,
  • Triterpenes, notably lupeol
  • Tannins
  • Glucosinolates
  • Phytosterols

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162; Premila, 2006, pp. 157-158).

 

Actions:

Active principle “lupeol” has potential diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-rheumatic, contraceptive, rubefacient and vesicant actions (Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162).

 

Additional traditional actions include

  • Bitter tonic
  • Laxative
  • Anti-emetic

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162).

 

Indications

Traditional Indications include:

  • Urolithiasis
  • Urinary infections
  • Kidney and bladder stones
  • Promote appetite

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, pp. 1162-1163; Premila, 2006, p. 157)

  • Breathing problems
  • Fever
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Weak immune system
  • Wound healing
  • Memory loss
  • Heart and lung weakness
  • Decrease secretion of bile and phlegm
  • Hepatitis
  • Edema
  • Ascites arthritis
  • Jaundice
  • Ecezma
  • Rabies
  • Birth control
  • Irregular menstruation
  • Convulsions
  • Tympanites

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, pp. 1162-1163).

  • Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
  • Rheumatism (internally and externally)

(Premila, 2006, p. 157)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

Decoction: In one trail a stem bark decoction of 1 part stem bark/16 parts water/tid for a period of 6 months in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy found to relieve related symptoms (Premila, 2006, p. 157)

Herbalists recommend around 3,000 – 6,000 mg crude herb per day (Herbosophy, 2014).