Serenoa repens

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Gottleib, R. (2006). Saw Palmetto. Retrieved from: http://www.artmajeur.com/en/artist/raphaelg/collection/architectural-and-biological-illustrations/1086633/artwork/saw-palmetto/1212021

Botanical Name: Serenoa repens
Common name: Saw Palmetto
Family: Arecaceae (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)
Parts used: Fruit (berry) (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)

 

History/Folklore: Traditionally associated with treatment of the prostate gland (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804). Other traditional use includes conditions of the respiratory tract, notably when accompanied by catarrh (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804). The Eclectics administered the herb for upper and lower respiratory complaints; atrophy of reproductive organs; and benign prostatic hypertrophy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804).

 

Constituents:

  • Essential oil
  • Fixed oil (caproic, lauric and palmitic acid)
  • Sterols
  • Polysaccharides

(Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)

 

Actions

  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)
  • Urinary antiseptic (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)
  • Endocrine agent (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804; Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Male tonic (Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Antiandrogenic (Bone, 2010, p. 400; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804)

 

Indications

  • Symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)

Appears to inhinit dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (potentially responsible for multiplication of prostate cells) by blocking activity of enzyme 5-α-reductase (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)

  • Difficulties with urination (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)
  • Inflammation of genitourinary tract (Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Cystitis (Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Atrophy of sexual tissues (Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Sex hormone deficiency (Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Noninfectious prostatitis (Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Odema (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804)
  • Male pattern baldness (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804)

 

Preparation: Dried berry decoction, tablets, capsules or liquid extract (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804)

 

Dosage:

  • 0-4.5mL liquid extract (1:2)/day
  • 15-15mL liquid extract (1:2)/week (Bone, 2010, p. 400)

 

Cautions and Contraindications: None known (Bone, 2010, p. 400)

Filipendula ulmaria

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Systematica (2013). Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. [as Spiraea ulmaria L.]. Retrieved from: http://www.systematica.org/post/41370444569/filipendula-ulmaria-l-maxim-as-spiraea

1600px-Filipendula_ulmaria_(flowers)

Hillewaert, H. (2008). Meadowsweet at Kampenhout, Belgium. Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Filipendula_ulmaria_%28flowers%29.jpg

Botanical Name: Filipendula ulmaria
Common name: Medowsweet (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
Family: Rosaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 743).
Parts used: Aerial parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)

History/Folklore:

  • One of the three herbs most sacred to the Druids (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742).
  • One of 50 ingredients in drink ‘Save’ mentioned in Chaucer’s Knight’s Tale (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742).
  • Salic acid (from which acetylsalicyclic is derived) was extracted from its flowerbud playing an important role in the development of aspirin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742).

Constituents: Flavonoids (incl. rutin, glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol glycosides); hydrolysable tannins (notably rugosin-D); phenolic glycosides (incl. spiraein); and essential oil (containing salicylaldehyde, phenylethyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol and methylsalicylate) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 743).

Actions

  • Anti-ulcer (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 742, 743)
  • Antacid (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Diuretic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Mild urinary antiseptic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Astringent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Anti-thrombotic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Anti-coagulant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)
  • Antibacterial (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Antimicrobial (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Immunomodulatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 743)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)
  • Gastroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)

Indications

  • Cervical dysplasia (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 742, 744)
  • Acne (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)
  • Wound healing (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)

Traditional indicatons

  • Disorders of the upper GI tract (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Flatulence (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Dyspepsia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Indigestion (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Gastric reflux (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
  • Hyperacidity (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
  • Gastric ulcers (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Diarrhoea (notably in children) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Cystitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Kidney stones (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Gout and rheumatic disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
  • Fever (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Infusion: 12-18g dried herb/day
  • Liquid extract (1:1): 4.5-18mL/day
  • Tincture (1:5): 6-12ml/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 742-743)

Cautions

  • Constipation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Iron deficient anemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Malnutrition (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Long term use of high doses not advised (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Due to presence of salicylates, caution is to be taken in individuals with salicylate sensitivity or glucose-6-phosphate deficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
  • Bleeding disorders, due to anticoagulant activity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Caution to be taken in children under 15 years old (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 745)

Contraindications: Pregnancy and lactation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)

Interactions:

  • Presence of tannins may interfere with absorption of metal ions, thiamine and alkaloids. It is recommended the herb to be taken at least 2hrs away from other minteral supplementation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • May theoretically potentiate effects of anticoagulant drugs (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)

Capsicum minimum

Botanical-Chili-Plant-Printable-GraphicsFairy-sm-664x1024
Watson, K. (2013). Chili Pepper Botanical Printable. Retrieved from: http://thegraphicsfairy.com/chili-pepper-botanical-printable/

Botanical Name: Capsicum minimum
Common name: Cayenne (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
Family: Solonaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
Parts used: Fruit (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)

Constituents: Capsaicinoids (incl. capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin); carotenoids (incl. capsanthin, capsorubin and carotene; and Steroidal saponins (“capsicidins”) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)

Actions

  • Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 247)
  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Anti-catarrhal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Sialalgogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Rubefacient (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Antimicrobial (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Antiseptic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 247)
  • Local anesthetic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)

As a local anaesthetic, Cayenne only blocks impulses to nerve C fibers (strictly related to pain) therefore it does not interfe with temperature, touch and pressure (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536).

Cayenne blocks transmission of pain and itching by nerve fibers in skin and topically relieves pain by depleting local supplies of substance P (neurotransmitter) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536).

 

Indications

  • Flatulent dyspepsia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Colic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Insufficient peripheral circulation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Debility (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Lumbago and rheumatic pains (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Laryngitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Painful skin disorders, such as: psoriasis, pruritus or shingles (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Arthritis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Cluster headache (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Phantom limb pains (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Vasomotor rhinitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • GI infections (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 202)

In TCM the herb is used as an anticonvulsant and is indicated in epilepsy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 25%): 0.25-1mL/tds
  • Infusion: 0.5-1tsp/1 cup water. Infuse for 10mins. Drink when needed.

 

Cautions: The specific action Cayenne has on vansiloid receptors may creates an illusion of pain and burning, however tissue damage is not concurrent in these sensations and no harm results (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 43, 104)

 

Combinations

  • Combines with Myrrh in a gargle for laryngitis or as an antiseptic wash (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536).
  • High doses may cause tachecardia and hypertension in certain individuals (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • May aggravate gastrointestinal reflux (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Caution to be taken in individuals with bleeding disorders (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Interactions

  • May react with anticoagulant and anti-platelet medication (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • May inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes (Natural Standard, 2014)

Lavandula officinalis

Lavandula_angustifolia_-_Köhler–s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-087

Köhler, F. E. (1897). Lavandula angustifolia – Köhler’s Medizinal-Pflanzen. Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lavandula_angustifolia_-_K%C3%B6hler%E2%80%93s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-087.jpg

Botanical Name: Lavandula officinalis
Other names: Lavender, Lavandula angustifolia,
Family: Lamiaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 561
Parts used: Flower (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 638)

Constituents:

  • Essential/volatile oil: incl. linalyl acetate, linalool, lavandulyl acetate, borneol, limonene, caryophyllene)
  • Coumarines: incl. umbelliferone, herniarin, coumarin
  • Miscelaneous triterpenes
  • Flavonoids

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 561)

 

Actions:

  • Relaxing nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Carminative (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 639; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Sedative/anxiolytic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 639)
  • Antimicrobial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 639)
  • Antioplastic effects (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 639)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Antidepressant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Rubefacient (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 561)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)

 

Folklore: Lavender and its oils have a long history of traditional use as an antiseptic in ancient Arabia, Greek and Roman medicine (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 638).

 

Indications

  • Alopecia and hair loss (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 640-642; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Anxiety (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 640-642; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Aphthous ulcers (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Ecezma (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Insect bites (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 640-642)
  • Head lice (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Insomnia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 640-642)
  • Helps promote natural sleep (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Mood enhancement (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 640-642; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Stress related headaches (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Migraine (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Improved concentration and cognition (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 640-642)
  • Dementia (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Dyspepsia and bloating (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 640-642)
  • Perineal discomfort following childbirth (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 640-642; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 640-642; Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

Internal

Infusion: 1.5g (1-2tsp) dried flower/150mL water. Seep for 5 mins. Strain before drinking.

Liquid extract: (1:2) 2-4.5mL/day

 

External

For insect bites: 20 drops of oil/20mL “carrier oil” (e.g. almond) (for external application)

Lavender bath: seep 20-100g flowers in 2L boiling water. Strain and add to bath water

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 642)

 

Cautions & Contradictions: Internal toxic dose (based on animal studies) would translate to approximately 350g of lavender oil. Therefore the herb is considered safe in dose appropriate amounts (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 642)

 

Combinations: For depression combines well with Rosemary, Kola or Skullcap. For headaches may be combined with Lady’s slipper or Valarian (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 210).

Hypericum perforatum

Hypericum_perforatum_i01-1

Florafinder.com. (2012). 7/3/2012 · Yellow Trail from Pearl Hill State Park to Willard Brook State Park, Ashby, MA. Retrieved from: http://www.florafinder.com/Species/Hypericum_perforatum.php

St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum)

Thomé, O. W. (1885). Hypericum perforatum. Retrieved from: www.biolib.de.

Botanical Name: Hypericum perforatum
Common name: St. John’s Wort, Hypericum (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 826)
Family: Clusiaceae (Guttiferae) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 827)
Parts used: Dried Aerial Parts (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 827)

Constituents: Naphthodianthrones (incl. hypericin and pseudohypericin); Flavanoids (incl. biapigenin, quercetrin and rutin); Xanthones; Phenolics (incl. hyperforin and adhyperforin); Procyanidins; and Essential oil (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 827)

 

Actions:

  • Nervine
  • Anti-depressant
  • Vulnerary
  • Antiseptic
  • Antiviral (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 826)
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Astringent
  • Antimicrobial (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 559)

 

Folklore: An ancient remedy used to treat ulcers, burns, wounds, abdominal pains and bacterial disease, Hypericum perforatum has recently gained attention for the treatment of depression in clinical trials. The generic name Hypericum is derived from Greek and translates to “to overcome an apparition” (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 826).

While not a weed in its native Europe, Asia and North Africa, the plant has become a weed in most temperate regions of the world (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 826).

 

Indications

Traditional

  • Nervous afflictions: excitability, menopausal neurosis and hysteria
  • Disorders of the spine
  • Spinal injury
  • Neuralgia
  • Sciatica
  • Muscular rheumatism
  • Urinary problems
  • Diarrhoea
  • Dysentery
  • Parasitic infestation
  • Jaundice
  • Haemorrhages
  • Menorrhagia
  • Bed wetting
  • Topically used to treat ulcers, swellings, bruises

 

Indications supported by clinical trials

  • Mild-moderate depression (high level evidence)
  • Anxiety
  • Orofacial and genital herpes
  • Premature ejaculation
  • Psychological symptoms of menopause
  • Premenstrual syndrome
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • Social phobia
  • Psycological symptoms associated with IBS
  • Aerobic endurance in athletes
  • Wound healing and scar healing (topical)
  • Mild- moderate dermatitis (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 826)

 

Has shown potential in:

  • Treatment and prevention of enveloped viruses (e.g. cold sores, genital herpes, chicken pox, shingles, glandular fever, cytomeglalovirus infection, viral herpes).
  • Sleeping disorders (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 826)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Tincture (1:5 in 40%): 2-4mL/tds

Infusion: 1-2tsp/1 cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 559)

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

Photosensitization has been reported at high doses (rare) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 559)

 

Interactions

  • May interact with selected serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 559)
  • Evidence shows St. John’s Wort to increase activity of isozyme CYP3A4 and therefore may theoretically reduce the activity of drugs that are known substrates for this isozyme, such as:
    • Nonsedative anti-histamines
    • Oral contraceptives
    • Certain antiretroviral agents
    • Antiepileptic medications
    • Calcium-channel blockers
    • Cyclosporine
    • Some chemotherapeutic drugs
    • Macrolide antibiotics
    • Selected anti-fungals

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 559)

Thymus vulgaris

thyme-live

Botanical Name: Thymus vulgaris
Common name: Thyme (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 885)
Family: Lamiaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 886)
Parts used: Leaf and Flowers (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 885)

Constituents

  • Essential oil (antimicrobial and antioxidant)
  • Phenols: thymol and/or carvacrol
  • Carnosol, rosmanols, galdosol, carnosic acid (strong antioxidants)
  • Flavonoids
  • Acetophenone glycosides
  • Salicylates
  • Polysaccharide with anti-complementory properties

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 886)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antibacterial
  • Antimicrobial
  • Antioxidant
  • Antiparasitic
  • Antiseptic
  • Antiviral
  • Expectorant
  • Rubefacient
  • Spasmolytic

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 885)

 

History

Traditionally considered a major antispasmodic cough remedy, thyme also has a long history of culinary use and as a flavouring agent in teas and liquors. Tea was administered for colic, dyspepsia and to control fever in common cold. Thyme oil was used in rheumatism and neuralgic pain.

Eclectic physicians considered thyme to be an emmenagogue and tonic and indicated the tea in disorders such as hysteria, dysmennorhea and convalescence (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 885).

 

Indications

Indications supported by clinical trials include:

  • Productive cough
  • Acute bronchitis (in combination)

Traditional indications include:

  • Bronchitis
  • Whooping cough
  • Asthma
  • Catarrh and inflammations of upper respiratory tract
  • Dyspepsia
  • Colic
  • Flatulence
  • Diarrhoea (notably in children)
  • Tonsilitis (topical)

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 885)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Infusion: 3-12g/day

Liquid extract (1:2): 2-6mL/day

Tablet or Capsule: 2-6mL or equivilant/day

Tincture (1:5): 6-18mL/day

Gargle or mouthwash

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 886)

 

Cautions

  • Allergic reactions are possible, notably from tropical use (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 886)
  • Large doses are not recommended in pregnancy, however the herb is compatible with lactation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 891)

 

Contradictions

None known (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 891)

 

Combinations

Asthma: combines with Lobelia and Ephedra

Whooping cough: combine with Wild Cherry and Sundew

 

REFERENCE
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Image: Herbosophy. (2014). THYME (THYMUS VULGARIS). Retrieved from: http://www.herbosophy.com.au/thyme-thymus-vulgaris/

Gentiana lutea

921px-Gentiana_lutea_-_Köhler–s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-066

Image I

GENTIANA_LUTEA

Image II

 

Botanical name: Gentiana lutea

Common name: Gentian (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)

Family: Gentianacae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)

Part used: Dried rhizome and Root (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)

 

Active constituents

Iridoids: marogentin,genitopicroside and swertiamarin

Xanthones: gentisein, gentisin and isogentisin

Alkaloids: mainly gentianine and gentialutine

Phenolic acids: including gentisic, caffeic, protocatechuic, syringic and sinapic acids

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)

 

Actions

  • Analgesic
  • Anthelmintic
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antifungal
  • Antimicrobial
  • Antioxidant
  • Antiseptic
  • Appetite stimulant
  • Bitter tonic
  • Cholagogue
  • Digestive tonic
  • Emmenagogue
  • Muscle relaxant
  • Tonic

(Bryan, Costa, Iovin, Issac, Rapp, Rusie, Ulbricht, Varghese, Weissner, Windsor & Zhou, 2014, pp. 1-2)

 

Indications (traditional)

Native to the mountains of southern and central Europe, Gentiana lutea has been used medicinally for hundreds of years as a bitter tonic and digestive system stimulant (Bryan et al., 2014, pp. 1-2).

Historical and traditional uses include:

  • Amenorrhea
  • Anemia
  • Anorexia
  • Antidote to poisons
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhoea
  • Digestive disorders
  • Dyspepsia
  • Eczema
  • Exhaustion
  • Fever
  • Hepatic disease
  • Indigestion
  • Jaundice
  • Malaria
  • Morning sickness
  • Sore throat
  • Skin ulcers
  • Urinary Tract Infection
  • Vomiting

(Bryan et al., 2014, pp. 1-2)

 

Indications (contemporary)

Amarogentin, one of the most bitter substances known, stimulates gustorary taste buds, increasing the secretion of saliva, gastric juice and bile (Bryan et al., 2014, p. 1)

C grade evidence supports the herbs use in gastrointestinal disorders and the ability for it to act as a silalagogue (Bryan et al., 2014, p. 1).

 

Preparation & Dosage

Tincture: 2-4mL/tds (1:5 in 40%)

Decoction: 1-2tsp/1 cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)

 

Cautions

May not be well tolerated in individuals with high blood pressure (Bryan et al., 2014, p. 4).

Caution to be taken with individuals presenting gastric abnormalities, as secondary sources show incidence of gastric irritation, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea (Bryan et al., 2014, p. 4).

May inhibit agents of antidepressants or monoamine oxidase inhibitors (Bryan et al., 2014, p. 4)

 

Contradictions

Known allergy (Bryan et al., 2014, p. 3).

 

Combinations

Often combined with other digestives such as Ginger and Cardamon (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 202)

 

REFERENCE

Bryan, J. K., Costa, D., Iovin, R., Issac, R., Rapp, C., Rusie, E., Ulbricht, C., Varghese, M., Weissner, W., Windsor, R., & Zhou, S. (2014). Gentian (Gentiana lutea). Natural Standard Professional Monograph. Retrieved from: http://www.naturalstandard.com.ezproxy.think.edu.au/databases/herbssupplements/gentianalutea.asp?

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Image I: Köhler, F. (1897) Köhler’s Medizinal-Pflanzen. Retrieved from: http://pharm1.pharmazie.uni-greifswald.de/allgemei/koehler/koeh-eng.htm

Image II: Singh, M. (2006). GENTIANA LUTEA: Yellow Gentian. Retrieved from: http://www.homeopathyandmore.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=658