Viburnum prunifolium

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Northern Family Farms. (2013). Flowering Shrubs. Retrieved from: http://www.northernfamilyfarms.com/detail.php?plant=313

vipr130154

Cook, W. (2013). Blackhaw (Viburnum prunifolium). Retrieved from: http://www.carolinanature.com/trees/vipr.html,/span>

Botanical Name: Viburnum prunifolium
Common name: Black Haw
Family: Caprifoliaceae (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
Parts used: Bark (Bone, 2003, p. 100)

 

Constituents: Flavonoids (incl. biflavone amentoflavone), iridoid glycosides, triterpenes and triterpenic acids and coumarins (incl. scopoletin) (Bone, 2003, p. 101)

Actions

  • Astringent (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Hypotensive (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Uterine sedative (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Bronchospasmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Antiasthmatic (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Indications

  • Dysmenorrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Threatened miscarriage (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • False labor pains (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Asthma (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Postpartum hemorrhage (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Hypertension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • 5-4.5mL liquid extract (1:2)/day or 10-30mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Tincture (1:5 in 60%): 5-10mL/tds
  • Decoction: 2tsp dried herb/1 cup water/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 594).

 

Cautions: Caution to be taken in individuals with kidney stones due to oxolate content

Combinations: For threatened miscarriage: combine with False Unicorn root and Cramp Bark (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 181)

Interactions: Due to scopoletin content, caution should be taken when used in combination with anticoagulant medications (Bone, 2003, p. 100).

Viburnum opulus

viburnum-opulus-fl-rboutwell viburnum-opulus-trilobum-fr-fbramley-b

Images: New England Wild Flower Society. (2013). Virburnum opulus/Highbush-cranberry. Retrieved from: https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/viburnum/opulus/

Botanical Name: Viburnum opulus
Common name: Cramp Bark (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
Family: Caprifoliaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
Parts used: Dried Bark (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

Constituents: Hydroquinones (incl. arbutin and methylarbutin), coumarines (incl. scopoletin and scopoline) and tannins (mainly catechins) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Actions

  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593; Bone, 2013, p. 212)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Vasorelaxant (Bone, 2013, p. 226)

 

Indications

  • Relaxes muscular spasm and tension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Cramps of both voluntary and involuntary muscles (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Dysmenorrhea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Excessive menstrual blood loss (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Delayed or sparse menstruation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Irregular bleeding during miscarriage (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Protect against threatened miscarriage (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Atonic conditions of pelvic organs (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Angina (Bone, 2013, p. 228)
  • IBS (Bone, 2013, p. 201)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture: 4-8mL/tds
  • Decoction: 2tsp dried her/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Interactions: Use cautiously with immune modulators and hypertensive agents (Natural Standard, 2014)

Capsella bursa-pastoris

Capsella_bursa-pastoris_Sturm23

Sturm, J. (1796). Deutschlands Flora in Abbildungen. Retrieved from: http://www.biolib.de

Botanical Name: Capsella bursa-pastoris
Common name: Shepherd’s Purse (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
Family: Brassicaceae (Natural Standard, 2014)
Parts used: Ariel Parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)

 

Active Constituents:

  • Flavonoids: luteolin-7-rutinoside & quercetin-3-rutinoside
  • Plant acids: fumaric & bursic acids

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)

 

Actions

  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)

 

Indications

  • To alleviate water retention in kidney disorders (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Diarrhoea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Dysentery
  • Nose bleeds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Wounds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Passive hemorrhage (gastric and intestinal) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Hematuria (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Chronic menorrhagia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
    • Stimulate menstruation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
    • Reducing excess menstrual flow (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • “Dysfunctional uterine bleeding” (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 295)
  • Atonic dyspepsia
  • Bruised or strained muscles (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Rheumatic joints (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Threatened miscarriage (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 301)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • 1-4g dried herb/tds
  • 1-4mL liquid extract (1:1 in 25%)/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)

 

Cautions & Contraindications:

  • Should be avoided in kidney stones due to oxalic acid content (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Caution to be taken in pregnancy due to potential emmenagogue action and effect on uterine tone (Natural Standard, 2014)

Rubus idaeus

799px-Rubus_idaeus_Sturm08014

Sturm, J. (1796). Deutschlands Flora in Abbildungen. Retrieved from: http://www.biolib.de

Botanical Name: Rubus idaeus
Common name: Red Raspberry (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
Family: Rosaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
Parts used: leaf, fruit (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)

 

History/Folklore: While the fruit have been eaten as a fruit, raspberry leaves have been used traditionally to prepare the uterus for childbirth (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 782).

 

Constituents:

  • Flavonoids: glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin
  • Tannins
  • Fruit sugar
  • Volatile oil
  • Pectin
  • Citric acid
  • Malic acid

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)

 

Actions

  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578; Bone, 2003, p. 381; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 783)
  • Tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 783)
  • Partus preparatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 783; Bone, 2003, p. 381; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)

 

Indications

  • Pregnancy
    • Strengthen and tones tissue of the uterus (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
    • Strengthens contractions (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Abnormal bleeding of uterus, stomach or intestine (Bone, 2003, p. 381)
  • Leukorrhea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Ulcers (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Bleeding gums (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Tonsillitis (Topical) (Bone, 2003, p. 381)
  • Conjunctivitis (Bone, 2003, p. 381)
  • Dysmenorrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 381)
  • Diarrhoea (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 783)

 

Dosage:

  • 5-14mL liquid extract (1:2)/day
  • 30-100mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

(Bone, 2003, p. 381)

 

Preparation

  • Gargle for sore throat (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Infusion: 4-8g dried leaf/tds (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 784)


Cautions

  • May cause gastrointestinal discomfort due to tannin content (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 784)
  • Clinical studies suggest that the herb is safest when consumed after the first trimester (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 784)

 

Contraindications

  • Constipation
  • Peptic ulcer
  • Gastrointestinal conditions associated with inflammation

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 784)

 

Interactions: May decrease absorption of iron, magnesium and calcium (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 784)

Alchemilla vulgaris

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Plymley, K. (n.d.). Darwin Country. Retrieved from: http://www.darwincountry.org/explore/002939.html?ImageID=1334&Page=42&sid=

Botanical Name: Alchemilla vulgaris
Common name: Lady’s Mantle
Family: Rosaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
Parts used: Leaf and flowering shoots (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
 

Constituents: Tannins (mainly glycosides of ellagric acid) and salicycle acid (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)

 

Actions

  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Vunerary (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)

 

Indications

  • Menstrual pain (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Excessive bleeding (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Symptoms of menopause (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 300)
  • Menorrhagia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Metrorrhagia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Diarrhoea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Ulcers and sores of oral cavity (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 141)
  • Laryngitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:4 in 25%): 2-4mL/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Infusion: 2tsp/1 cup water/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Prepared as a mouthwash for laryngitis and mouth ulcers (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)

 

Cautions: Not recommended in constipation, iron-deficent anaemia and malnutrition due to tannin content (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 191)

Mitchella repens

SAW_02245

Wasowski, A & S. (2006). Mitchella repens. Retrieved from: http://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=23299

Botanical Name: Mitchella repens
Common name: Partridgeberry (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 568), Squaw vine (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 291)
Family: Rubiaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 568)
Parts used: Aerial parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 568)

Constituents: Unspecified alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, tannins and mucilage’s have been reported (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 568)

 

Actions

  • Postpartum (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Emmenagogue (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 291; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Uterine Tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)

 

Indications

  • Traditionally used in preparation for childbirth (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 301)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Colitis with presence of mucus (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Amenorrhoea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Chronic congestion of the uterus (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 40%): 2-4mL/tds
  • Infusion: 1tsp/cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)

 

Cautions & Contraindications: None known, however traditional use as an abortifacient would suggest the herb is inappropriate in the first stages of pregnancy (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 291)

Lycopus virginicus

LYCOPUS_VIRGINICUS

Singh, M. (2006). LYCOPUS VIRGINICUSBugle-weed. Retrieved from: http://www.homeopathyandmore.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=770

Botanical Name: Lycopus virginicus
Common name: Bugleweed (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
Family: Lamiaceae (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
Parts used: Ariel Parts (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)

Constituents:

  • Phenolic acid derivatives: caffeic, rosmaninic , chlorogenic and ellagic acid
  • Pimaric acid
  • Methyl ester

(Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)

 

Actions

  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • Peripheral vasoconstrictor (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • Antitussive (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • TSH antagonist (Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • Mild sedative (Bone, 2010, p. 113)

 

Indications

  • Specific for overactive thyroid, notably symptoms such as:
    • Shortness of breath
    • Palpitations
    • Shaking (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563; Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • Graves disease (Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • Heart palpitations of nervous origin (Hoffmann, 2010, pp. 563-564)
  • Irritating coughs (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 564)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

2-6mL liquid extract (1:2)/day

15-40mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

(Bone, 2010, p. 113)

Cautions:

  • Blocks conversion of thyroxin to T3 in the liver and therefore may interfere with thyroid hormones (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 564)
  • High doses and extended therapy are not recommended (Bone, 2010, p. 113)

 

Contradictions

  • Hypothyroidism (Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • Pregnancy and lactation (Bone, 2010, p. 113)

 

Interactions

  • Preparations containing thyroid hormone (Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • May interfere with thyroid diagnostic procedures involving radioactive isotopes (Bone, 2010, p. 113)

Vaccinium myrtillus

203_Vaccinum_myrtillus_L

Masclef, A. (1891). 203 Vaccinum myrtillus L. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccinium_myrtillus#mediaviewer/File:203_Vaccinum_myrtillus_L.jpg

Botanical Name: Vaccinium myrtillus
Common name: Bilberry, Blueberry, Huckleberry (Heinrich, Barnes, Gibbons & Williamson, 2012, p. 221)
Family: Ericaceae (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
Parts used: Fruit (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 221)

History/Folklore: Bilberry fruit is a well-known food. In World War II Bilberry wine and jam was consumed by RAF pilots to improve night vision (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 419). Although the herb was traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, modern research revolves around the cardiovascular system (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222). Other traditional indications include scurvy, urinary complaints, and to “dry up” breast milk” (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 419).

Constituents: anthocyanosides (notably: galactosides and glucosides of cyaniding); delphidin; malvidin; vitamin C; and volatile flavour components (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 221).

Actions

  • Vasoprotective (Bone, 2003, p. 93; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 419)
  • Antioxidant (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone, 2003, p. 93; Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Anti-platelet (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Anti-atherosclerotic (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Spasmolytic (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Anti-ulcer (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Astringent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 419).

 

Indications

  • Vision disorders (Bone, 2003, p. 93; Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Simple glaucoma (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Venus insufficiency (notably of lower limbs) (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Peripheral vascular disorders (Bone, 2003, p. 93; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 419)
  • Diabetic retinopathy (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Chronic primary dysmenorrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Raynaud’s syndrome (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Venous disorders during pregnancy (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Hemorrhoids (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Decreased capillary resistance (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Nonspecific acute diarrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Mild inflammation of mouth and throat (topical) (Bone, 2003, p. 93)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:1): 3-6mL/day or 20-40mL/week
  • Tablet: tablets providing 20-120mg of anthocyanins/day

Cautions: Doses exceeding 100mg/day of anthocyanins should be used cautiously in patients with haemorrhagic disorders (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 424).

Interactions: Possible interactions with warfarin and anti-platelet drugs when administered in high doses (Bone, 2003, p. 93)

Aesculus hippocastanum

1567px-Aesculus_hippocastanum_—_Flora_Batava_—_Volume_v12-1

Sipp, C. (1865). Flora Batava of Afbeeldingen en Beschrijving van Nederlandsche Gewassen, XII. Deel. Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aesculus_hippocastanum_%E2%80%94_Flora_Batava_%E2%80%94_Volume_v12.jpg

Botanical Name: Aesculus hippocastanum
Common name: Horse Chestnut (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 524)
Family: Hippocastanaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 686)
Parts used: Seeds and pericap (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 524)

History/Folklore: Native to Asia Minor and grown ornamentally through Europe (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 685).

Constituents:

  • Saponins (referred to as escin), notably β-escin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 686)
  • Flavonoids
  • Coumarin derivatives: esculetin and esculin (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 524)
  • Fatty acids: linolenic, palmitic and steric acids (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 524)
  • Sterols: stigmasterol, α-spinasterol and β-sitosterol (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 524)

 

Actions

  • Venotonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 685; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 524)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 685; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 524)
  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 524)

 

Indications

  • Chronic venous insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 685)
  • Varicose veins (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 685)
  • Varicose ulcer (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 685)
  • Oedema of lower limbs (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 685)
  • To decrease incidence of deep venous thrombosis following surgery (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 685)
  • Haematoma (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 685)
  • Contusions (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 685)
  • Non-penetrating wounds (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 685)
  • Sports injuries involving oedema (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 685)
  • Restless leg syndrome (Bone, 2003, p. 281)
  • Hamorrhoids (Bone, 2003, p. 281)
  • Neuralgia (Bone, 2003, p. 281)
  • Rheumatism (Bone, 2003, p. 281)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • 2-5mL liquid extract (1:2)/day
  • 15-35mL liquis extract (1:2)/week

(Bone, 2003, p. 281)

  • Infusion: 1-2tsp dried fruit/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 524)

 

Cautions & Contraindications:

  • Should not be applied to broken or ulcerated skin due to irritating nature of saponins (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 695)
  • Pregnancy and lactation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 695)
  • Caution to be taken in individuals with pre-existing cholestasis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 695)

 

Interactions

  • Reported interaction of escin with antibiotic gentamicin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 695)
  • Coumarin derivatives may theoreticallt interact with anticoagulant medications (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 524).

Crataegus oxyacantha/C. monogyna

espino_blanco
HYPERnatural.com. (2014). ESPINO BLANCO. Retrieved from: http://www.hipernatural.com/es/pltespino_blanco.html

Botanical Name: Crataegus oxyacantha/C. monogyna
Common name: Hawthorn, C. laevingata (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671), Shan zha (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)
Family: Rosaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 672)
Parts used: Leaf, flower and berry (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)

Quality: Warm tendency, neutral, sour and sweet (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)

History/Folklore: Berry, flower and leaf have all being used medicinally, however modern research tends to focus on the leaves and flowers (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671). Traditionally Hawthorn was used to treat cardiovascular problems and circulatory disorders (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671).

Constituents: Oligomeric procyanidins (notably: procyanidin b-2); Monomers (epictechin and catechin); Flavonoids (incl. quercetin glycosides, hyperoside and rutin);

Actions

  • Cardiotonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Cardioprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 671, 674)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 671, 675)
    • Hawthorn acts as a co-factor for vitamin C (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Collagen stabilising (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Mild astringent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Mild hypotensive (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Anti-arrhythmic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Vasorelaxant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 674)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Stabilizes connective tissue tone (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Antibacterial (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)
  • Antibiotic (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)

TCM specific: Reduces stagnation, reduces food stagnantion, promotes digestion, harmonizes and tonifies spleen, Moves blood, Regulates blood and breaks up accumulation (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)

 

Indications

  • Cardiovascular disease (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Hypoxemia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Congestive heart disease as a result of ischaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 671, 677-678)
  • Hypertension (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 671, 681)
  • Acne (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Anxiety (in combination) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Hyperlipidaemia (notably the berries) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Hypercholesterolaemia (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)
  • Arteriosclerosis (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Infusion of dried plant: 1.5-3.5g/day
  • Berry liquid extract (1:2): 3-6mL/day
  • Leaf liquid extract (1:2): 3-7mL/day
  • Berry tincture (1:5): 17.6mL/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 672)

 

Cautions

  • As it stimulates gastric juice production, use with caution in individuals with a history of peptic ulcers or gastritis (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682).

 

Combinations: For high blood pressure, Hawthron berries may be combined with Lime Blossom, Mistletoe and Yarrow (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 206)

 

Interactions:

  • Not to be used in conjunction with heart and blood pressure medications without practitioner supervision (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 682)