Viburnum prunifolium

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Northern Family Farms. (2013). Flowering Shrubs. Retrieved from: http://www.northernfamilyfarms.com/detail.php?plant=313

vipr130154

Cook, W. (2013). Blackhaw (Viburnum prunifolium). Retrieved from: http://www.carolinanature.com/trees/vipr.html,/span>

Botanical Name: Viburnum prunifolium
Common name: Black Haw
Family: Caprifoliaceae (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
Parts used: Bark (Bone, 2003, p. 100)

 

Constituents: Flavonoids (incl. biflavone amentoflavone), iridoid glycosides, triterpenes and triterpenic acids and coumarins (incl. scopoletin) (Bone, 2003, p. 101)

Actions

  • Astringent (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Hypotensive (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Uterine sedative (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Bronchospasmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Antiasthmatic (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Indications

  • Dysmenorrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Threatened miscarriage (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • False labor pains (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Asthma (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Postpartum hemorrhage (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Hypertension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • 5-4.5mL liquid extract (1:2)/day or 10-30mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Tincture (1:5 in 60%): 5-10mL/tds
  • Decoction: 2tsp dried herb/1 cup water/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 594).

 

Cautions: Caution to be taken in individuals with kidney stones due to oxolate content

Combinations: For threatened miscarriage: combine with False Unicorn root and Cramp Bark (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 181)

Interactions: Due to scopoletin content, caution should be taken when used in combination with anticoagulant medications (Bone, 2003, p. 100).

Viburnum opulus

viburnum-opulus-fl-rboutwell viburnum-opulus-trilobum-fr-fbramley-b

Images: New England Wild Flower Society. (2013). Virburnum opulus/Highbush-cranberry. Retrieved from: https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/viburnum/opulus/

Botanical Name: Viburnum opulus
Common name: Cramp Bark (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
Family: Caprifoliaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
Parts used: Dried Bark (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

Constituents: Hydroquinones (incl. arbutin and methylarbutin), coumarines (incl. scopoletin and scopoline) and tannins (mainly catechins) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Actions

  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593; Bone, 2013, p. 212)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Vasorelaxant (Bone, 2013, p. 226)

 

Indications

  • Relaxes muscular spasm and tension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Cramps of both voluntary and involuntary muscles (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Dysmenorrhea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Excessive menstrual blood loss (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Delayed or sparse menstruation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Irregular bleeding during miscarriage (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Protect against threatened miscarriage (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Atonic conditions of pelvic organs (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Angina (Bone, 2013, p. 228)
  • IBS (Bone, 2013, p. 201)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture: 4-8mL/tds
  • Decoction: 2tsp dried her/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Interactions: Use cautiously with immune modulators and hypertensive agents (Natural Standard, 2014)

Capsella bursa-pastoris

Capsella_bursa-pastoris_Sturm23

Sturm, J. (1796). Deutschlands Flora in Abbildungen. Retrieved from: http://www.biolib.de

Botanical Name: Capsella bursa-pastoris
Common name: Shepherd’s Purse (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
Family: Brassicaceae (Natural Standard, 2014)
Parts used: Ariel Parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)

 

Active Constituents:

  • Flavonoids: luteolin-7-rutinoside & quercetin-3-rutinoside
  • Plant acids: fumaric & bursic acids

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)

 

Actions

  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)

 

Indications

  • To alleviate water retention in kidney disorders (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Diarrhoea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Dysentery
  • Nose bleeds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Wounds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Passive hemorrhage (gastric and intestinal) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Hematuria (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Chronic menorrhagia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
    • Stimulate menstruation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
    • Reducing excess menstrual flow (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • “Dysfunctional uterine bleeding” (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 295)
  • Atonic dyspepsia
  • Bruised or strained muscles (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Rheumatic joints (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Threatened miscarriage (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 301)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • 1-4g dried herb/tds
  • 1-4mL liquid extract (1:1 in 25%)/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)

 

Cautions & Contraindications:

  • Should be avoided in kidney stones due to oxalic acid content (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Caution to be taken in pregnancy due to potential emmenagogue action and effect on uterine tone (Natural Standard, 2014)

Rubus idaeus

799px-Rubus_idaeus_Sturm08014

Sturm, J. (1796). Deutschlands Flora in Abbildungen. Retrieved from: http://www.biolib.de

Botanical Name: Rubus idaeus
Common name: Red Raspberry (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
Family: Rosaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
Parts used: leaf, fruit (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)

 

History/Folklore: While the fruit have been eaten as a fruit, raspberry leaves have been used traditionally to prepare the uterus for childbirth (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 782).

 

Constituents:

  • Flavonoids: glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin
  • Tannins
  • Fruit sugar
  • Volatile oil
  • Pectin
  • Citric acid
  • Malic acid

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)

 

Actions

  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578; Bone, 2003, p. 381; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 783)
  • Tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 783)
  • Partus preparatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 783; Bone, 2003, p. 381; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)

 

Indications

  • Pregnancy
    • Strengthen and tones tissue of the uterus (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
    • Strengthens contractions (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Abnormal bleeding of uterus, stomach or intestine (Bone, 2003, p. 381)
  • Leukorrhea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Ulcers (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Bleeding gums (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Tonsillitis (Topical) (Bone, 2003, p. 381)
  • Conjunctivitis (Bone, 2003, p. 381)
  • Dysmenorrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 381)
  • Diarrhoea (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 783)

 

Dosage:

  • 5-14mL liquid extract (1:2)/day
  • 30-100mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

(Bone, 2003, p. 381)

 

Preparation

  • Gargle for sore throat (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Infusion: 4-8g dried leaf/tds (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 784)


Cautions

  • May cause gastrointestinal discomfort due to tannin content (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 784)
  • Clinical studies suggest that the herb is safest when consumed after the first trimester (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 784)

 

Contraindications

  • Constipation
  • Peptic ulcer
  • Gastrointestinal conditions associated with inflammation

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 784)

 

Interactions: May decrease absorption of iron, magnesium and calcium (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 784)

Alchemilla vulgaris

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Plymley, K. (n.d.). Darwin Country. Retrieved from: http://www.darwincountry.org/explore/002939.html?ImageID=1334&Page=42&sid=

Botanical Name: Alchemilla vulgaris
Common name: Lady’s Mantle
Family: Rosaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
Parts used: Leaf and flowering shoots (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
 

Constituents: Tannins (mainly glycosides of ellagric acid) and salicycle acid (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)

 

Actions

  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Vunerary (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)

 

Indications

  • Menstrual pain (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Excessive bleeding (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Symptoms of menopause (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 300)
  • Menorrhagia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Metrorrhagia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Diarrhoea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Ulcers and sores of oral cavity (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 141)
  • Laryngitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:4 in 25%): 2-4mL/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Infusion: 2tsp/1 cup water/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Prepared as a mouthwash for laryngitis and mouth ulcers (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)

 

Cautions: Not recommended in constipation, iron-deficent anaemia and malnutrition due to tannin content (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 191)

Mitchella repens

SAW_02245

Wasowski, A & S. (2006). Mitchella repens. Retrieved from: http://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=23299

Botanical Name: Mitchella repens
Common name: Partridgeberry (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 568), Squaw vine (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 291)
Family: Rubiaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 568)
Parts used: Aerial parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 568)

Constituents: Unspecified alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, tannins and mucilage’s have been reported (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 568)

 

Actions

  • Postpartum (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Emmenagogue (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 291; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Uterine Tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)

 

Indications

  • Traditionally used in preparation for childbirth (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 301)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Colitis with presence of mucus (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Amenorrhoea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Chronic congestion of the uterus (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 40%): 2-4mL/tds
  • Infusion: 1tsp/cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)

 

Cautions & Contraindications: None known, however traditional use as an abortifacient would suggest the herb is inappropriate in the first stages of pregnancy (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 291)

Lycopus virginicus

LYCOPUS_VIRGINICUS

Singh, M. (2006). LYCOPUS VIRGINICUSBugle-weed. Retrieved from: http://www.homeopathyandmore.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=770

Botanical Name: Lycopus virginicus
Common name: Bugleweed (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
Family: Lamiaceae (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
Parts used: Ariel Parts (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)

Constituents:

  • Phenolic acid derivatives: caffeic, rosmaninic , chlorogenic and ellagic acid
  • Pimaric acid
  • Methyl ester

(Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)

 

Actions

  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • Peripheral vasoconstrictor (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • Antitussive (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • TSH antagonist (Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • Mild sedative (Bone, 2010, p. 113)

 

Indications

  • Specific for overactive thyroid, notably symptoms such as:
    • Shortness of breath
    • Palpitations
    • Shaking (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563; Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • Graves disease (Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • Heart palpitations of nervous origin (Hoffmann, 2010, pp. 563-564)
  • Irritating coughs (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 564)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

2-6mL liquid extract (1:2)/day

15-40mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

(Bone, 2010, p. 113)

Cautions:

  • Blocks conversion of thyroxin to T3 in the liver and therefore may interfere with thyroid hormones (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 564)
  • High doses and extended therapy are not recommended (Bone, 2010, p. 113)

 

Contradictions

  • Hypothyroidism (Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • Pregnancy and lactation (Bone, 2010, p. 113)

 

Interactions

  • Preparations containing thyroid hormone (Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • May interfere with thyroid diagnostic procedures involving radioactive isotopes (Bone, 2010, p. 113)