Curcuma longa

turmeric-info0
HowStuffWorks. (2014). Tumeric. Retrieved from: http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/botany/turmeric-info.htm

Turmeric-Root-and-Powder-1024x666
Christie, D. (2014). Top 5 Benefits of Tumeric. Retrieved from: http://www.harboursidefitness.com.au/blog-post/top-5-benefits-of-turmeric/

Botanical Name: Curcuma longa
Common name: Tumeric, Indian saffron, jianghuang (Chinese), shati (Sanskrit) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900)
Family: Zingeberaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)
Parts used: root and rhizome Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)

Quality: Pungent, bitter, astringent, heating (Pole, 2006, p. 282). In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is used to dry damp and move stagnation in the blood (Pole, 2006, p. 282).

History/Folklore: Native to India and South-East Asia, Tumeric has been recorded in medical texts dating back to 600BC (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Constituents: Essential oil (sesquiterpene ketones, zingiberene, phellandrene, sabinene, cineole and borneol); Yellow pigments “diarylheptanoids” or “curcuminoids” (incl. curcumin) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901).

Yellow pigment curcumin has been shown to influence transcription factors, cytokines, growth factors, kinases and other enzymes (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 902-903; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Anti-platelet (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 903; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 904; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Hepatoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 904-905)
  • Nephroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 904-905)
  • Neuroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 905)
  • Cardioprotective and vasoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 905)
  • Hypolipidaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 905-906)
  • Antibacterial (Pole, 2006, p. 282; Zorotchian Moghadamtousi, Abdul Kadir, Hassandarvish, Tajik, Abubakar & Zandi, 2014, p. 2)
  • Antimicrobial (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 906-907)
  • Antiparasitic (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 907)
  • Antiviral (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, pp. 2-3)
  • Antiparasitic (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 2)
  • Antitumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 908)
  • Anti-depressant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 909)
  • Radioprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Antiallergic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Emmenagogue (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Blood tonic (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Carminative (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Alterative (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Vulunary (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Anti-carcinogenic (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • TCM specific: blood and qi tonifier with analgesic properties (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Indications

  • Cancer prevention (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 907)
  • Cystic fibrosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 909)
  • HIV/AIDS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
    • One human trial exhibited an increase in CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte counts (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
    • Another human trial showed relief of HIV-associated chronic diarrhoea (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Eye disorders (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 911)
  • Genetic diseases (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 911)
  • Alzehimer’s disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 916)
  • Skin conditions (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 916)
  • Candida (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 7)
  • Helicobacter pylori (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 8)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:1): 5-14mL/day
  • 4g powdered tumeric mixed with water/1-2 day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)

Cautions

  • Doses > 15g/day should not be administered long term or in conjunction with anti-platelet or anti-coagulant medication (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Individuals complaining of hair loss (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Women trying to conceive (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Pregnancy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 918)

Contraindications

  • Biliary tract obstruction (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is contraindicated in high vāta and pitta (Pole, 2006, p. 283).
  • Acute jaundice and hepatitis (Pole, 2006, p. 283).

Combinations

  • For liver congestion: combine with kutki, bhumiamalaki and pippali (Pole, 2006, p. 283)
  • Small amounts of long/black pepper enhances anti-inflammatory activity of turmeric (Pole, 2006, p. 283)
  • For congestion of the lower abdomen and menstrual imbalance: combine with guggulu, mustaka and purnarnava (Pole, 2006, p. 283)

Interactions: Turmeric may potentiate effects of anti-platelet or anticoagulant medications (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 918).

Vitis vinifera

nebbiolo

Giovanni, D. (2013). Barbaresco DOCG. Retrieved from: http://demarie.com/our-wines/barbaresco-docg/?lang=en

Botanical Name: Vitis vinifera
Common name: Grape, Grapeseed extract (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 565)
Family: Vitaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 565)
Parts used: seeds, grape skins (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 565)

Constituents: Proanthocyanidins and stilbenes (incl. resveratrol and viniferins) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 565)

Actions

  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 233)
  • Anti-carcinogenic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566)
  • Anti-tumor (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566)
  • Cardioprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 567)
  • Vasoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 233)

 

Indications

  • Chronic venus insufficiency (Natural Standard, 2014; Kiesewetter, Koscielny, Kalus, Vix, Peil, Petrini, Van Toor, & de Mey, 2000)
  • Fluid retentions/peripheral venous insufficiency/capillary resistance (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 567)
  • OEdema (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Diabetic retinopathy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Diabetic nephropahy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Eye strain (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Hyperlidaemia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Atherosclerosis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Dermal wound healing (topical) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Chloasma/Melasma (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Pancreatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Sun burn (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Protection against chemical toxicity (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569; Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Dosage & Preparation: Fluid extract (1:1): 20-40mL/week (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)

Cautions & Contraindications: Adverse effects are uncommon (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)

Interactions:

  • Theoretically additive effect when combined with anti-platelet medication (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)
  • Theoretical increased risk of bleeding when used in conjunction with anticoagulant drugs (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)
  • Tannins may decrease iron absorption, best to take at least 2 hrs apart (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)

Crataegus oxyacantha/C. monogyna

espino_blanco
HYPERnatural.com. (2014). ESPINO BLANCO. Retrieved from: http://www.hipernatural.com/es/pltespino_blanco.html

Botanical Name: Crataegus oxyacantha/C. monogyna
Common name: Hawthorn, C. laevingata (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671), Shan zha (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)
Family: Rosaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 672)
Parts used: Leaf, flower and berry (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)

Quality: Warm tendency, neutral, sour and sweet (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)

History/Folklore: Berry, flower and leaf have all being used medicinally, however modern research tends to focus on the leaves and flowers (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671). Traditionally Hawthorn was used to treat cardiovascular problems and circulatory disorders (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671).

Constituents: Oligomeric procyanidins (notably: procyanidin b-2); Monomers (epictechin and catechin); Flavonoids (incl. quercetin glycosides, hyperoside and rutin);

Actions

  • Cardiotonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Cardioprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 671, 674)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 671, 675)
    • Hawthorn acts as a co-factor for vitamin C (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Collagen stabilising (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Mild astringent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Mild hypotensive (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Anti-arrhythmic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Vasorelaxant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 674)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Stabilizes connective tissue tone (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Antibacterial (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)
  • Antibiotic (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)

TCM specific: Reduces stagnation, reduces food stagnantion, promotes digestion, harmonizes and tonifies spleen, Moves blood, Regulates blood and breaks up accumulation (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)

 

Indications

  • Cardiovascular disease (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Hypoxemia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Congestive heart disease as a result of ischaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 671, 677-678)
  • Hypertension (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 671, 681)
  • Acne (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Anxiety (in combination) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Hyperlipidaemia (notably the berries) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Hypercholesterolaemia (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)
  • Arteriosclerosis (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Infusion of dried plant: 1.5-3.5g/day
  • Berry liquid extract (1:2): 3-6mL/day
  • Leaf liquid extract (1:2): 3-7mL/day
  • Berry tincture (1:5): 17.6mL/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 672)

 

Cautions

  • As it stimulates gastric juice production, use with caution in individuals with a history of peptic ulcers or gastritis (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682).

 

Combinations: For high blood pressure, Hawthron berries may be combined with Lime Blossom, Mistletoe and Yarrow (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 206)

 

Interactions:

  • Not to be used in conjunction with heart and blood pressure medications without practitioner supervision (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 682)

Rhodiola rosea

ss-rhodiola2-300x300-1

Serenity Station. Rhodiola for Relaxation. (2013). Retrieved from: http://www.serenity-station.com/rhodiola-relaxation/

Botanical Name: Rhodiola rosea
Common name: Rhodiola, Golden root, Rose root, Arctic root (Huang, Perry, Ernst, 2011, p. 235)
Family: Crassulaceae (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
Parts used: Root (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 794)

History/Folklore: Found in high altitudes of Arctic regions, and throughout Europe and Asia (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235). The herb is used widely throughout Russia and Scandinavia (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235).

Constituents: Salidroside and aglycones; rhodiolo A, rosiridol and sachalinol; Rosavins; gossypectin-7-acid, rhodioflavonoside, gallic acid, trans-p-hydroycinnamic acid and p-tyrosol; cinnamic acid; hydroquinone (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 795)

Actions

  • Adaptogen (Hoffmann, 2003, p.484; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 795)
  • Tonic (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Antidepressant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 796)
  • Immunomodulatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 796)
  • Antibacterial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 796)
  • Cardioprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 796)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 797)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 797)
  • Cytoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 797)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 797)

Acts as an adaptogen by modulating the stress response (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 795). Some ways it achieves this is by:

  • Increasing the bio-electrical activity of the brain (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Inhibiting enzymes that degrade neurotransmitters such as dopamine, adrenaline, seratonin and achetlycholine (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Preventing a rise in mediators for the stress response (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)

 

Indications

  • Stress induced depression (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 798)
  • General Anxiety Disorder (GAD) (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 798)
  • Fatigue (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 798)
  • Anaemia (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Impotence (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Infections (incl. cold and flu) (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Cancer (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Nervous System disorders (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Headache (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Improves memory and attention span (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Increases physical endurance (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 798)
  • Resistance to altitude sickness (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Diabetes (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 799)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

Fluid extract (1:2): 20-49mL/week (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 799)

Cautions: No major risks are associated with Rhodiola (Huang et al., 2011, p. 242)

 

Contraindications: Contraindicated in bipolar disorder (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 799)

 

Interactions: Emit caution when used in conjunction with Adriamycin, Cyclophosphamide and antidepressants based on theoretical evidence (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 799)

Crataeva nurvala

amara02222

Forst, G. (1786). Crataeva religiosa -Tempelbaum – Temple Plant. Übersetzt von Alois Payer. Retrieved from: http://www.payer.de/amarakosa/amara205a.htm

Botanical Name: Crataeva nurvala

Common name: Crateva, Varuna (Sanskrit), Varun (Hindi), Buch-Hum.

Family: Capparidaceae (Bhattacharjee, Shashindara & Ashwathanaryana, 2012, p. 1162)

Parts used: Steam and root bark (Premila, 2006, p. 157)

 

Qualities: The bark is hot and bitter with a sharp, sweet taste (Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162)

 

Constituents:

  • Alkaloids: incl. cadabicine, cadabicine diacetate and cadabicine dimethyl ether
  • Sterols: incl. diosgenin, b-sitosterol
  • Flavonoids: incl. rutin and quercitin
  • Isothiocyanate glucoside: glucoapparin
  • Saponins,
  • Triterpenes, notably lupeol
  • Tannins
  • Glucosinolates
  • Phytosterols

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162; Premila, 2006, pp. 157-158).

 

Actions:

Active principle “lupeol” has potential diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-rheumatic, contraceptive, rubefacient and vesicant actions (Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162).

 

Additional traditional actions include

  • Bitter tonic
  • Laxative
  • Anti-emetic

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162).

 

Indications

Traditional Indications include:

  • Urolithiasis
  • Urinary infections
  • Kidney and bladder stones
  • Promote appetite

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, pp. 1162-1163; Premila, 2006, p. 157)

  • Breathing problems
  • Fever
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Weak immune system
  • Wound healing
  • Memory loss
  • Heart and lung weakness
  • Decrease secretion of bile and phlegm
  • Hepatitis
  • Edema
  • Ascites arthritis
  • Jaundice
  • Ecezma
  • Rabies
  • Birth control
  • Irregular menstruation
  • Convulsions
  • Tympanites

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, pp. 1162-1163).

  • Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
  • Rheumatism (internally and externally)

(Premila, 2006, p. 157)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

Decoction: In one trail a stem bark decoction of 1 part stem bark/16 parts water/tid for a period of 6 months in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy found to relieve related symptoms (Premila, 2006, p. 157)

Herbalists recommend around 3,000 – 6,000 mg crude herb per day (Herbosophy, 2014).