Harpagophytum procumbens

harpagofito

HIPERnatural.COM. (2014). HARPAGOFITO. Retrieved from: http://www.hipernatural.com/es/pltharpagofito.html

Botanical Name: Harpagophytum procumbens
Common name: Devil’s Claw (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
Family: Pedaliaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 510)
Parts used: Rhizome (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557), secondary root tuber (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)

History/Folklore: Native to Kalahari region of South Africa (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509). In South African traditional medicine, the herb is used in pregnancy to relieve pain and as a postpartum (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514).

Constituents: Iridoid glycosides (incl. harpagide, harpagoside and procumbide); flavonoids (kaempferol and luteolin glycosides); phenolic acids (cholorogenic and cinnamic acid); quinone (harpagoquinone; triterpenes; oleanolic and ursolic acids derivatives; esters and sugars (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Anodyne (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Hepatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Analgesic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Bitter (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Anti-arrhythmia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)

Indications

  • Arthritis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Endometriosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Muscle pain (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Fever (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Allergic reactions (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Wound, ulcers, boils (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 40%): 1-2mL/tds
  • Decoction: 0.5 tsp/cup water/tds
  • 5g/day (for loss of appetite 1.5g/day)

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)

 

Cautions

  • Oesophageal reflux and states of hyperacidity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)
  • Pregnancy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)

 

Contraindications: Gastric or duodenal ulcers (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)

Interactions:

  • Moderate inhibitory effect towards cytochrome P450 enzyme: CYP 2C8, CYP 2C9, CYP 2C19 and CYP 3A4 (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)
  • May potentiate effects of Warfarin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)
  • May theoretically interact with anti-arrhythmic drugs (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)

Panax notoginseng

PanaxNotoginsengPhoto07

MDidea.com. (2013). Notoginseng: the Miracle Root for the Preservation of Life., the no. 1 Blood Precious Tonic and more. Retrieved from: http://mdidea.com/products/herbextract/notoginseng/data09.html

Botanical Name: Panax notoginseng
Common name: Notoginseng root; Pseudoginseng root; San qi (Chinese) (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
Family: Araliaceae (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
Parts used: root (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

Quality: Warm, sweet, bitter (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

Constituents:

  • 12% Saponins (Arasaponins A, B, C, D, E and R)
  • Genins of arasaponins: panaxadiol and panaxatriol

(Huang, 1999, p. 101)

 

Actions

  • HAEMOSTATIC (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
  • Immune stimulating (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
  • CNS depressant & stimulant (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
  • Antiplatelet (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
  • Anti-arrhythmic (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Increases coronary flow and decreases blood pressure (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Reduces vascular resistance (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Reduces myocardial metabolic rate (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Reduces plasma cholesterol (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Accelerates blood clotting time (Huang, 1999, p. 102)

Indications

  • Hematemesis
  • Haemoptysis
  • Nosebleed
  • Heavy menstrual bleeding
  • Open sores (external)

(Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

 

Traditional used in Chinese medicine to:

  • Trasform blood stasis and stop bleeding (Holmes, n.d., p. 370)
  • Invigorate the blood, reduce swelling and relieve pain (Holmes, n.d., p. 370)
  • Arrest bleeding (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Remove blood stasis (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Relieve pain (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Angina pectoris (Huang, 1999, p. 102)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Decoction 3-9g, cook for 20 mins
  • Powdered root: 1-1.5g/tds

(Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

 

Contraindication: Pregnancy (Holmes, .n.d., p. 370; Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

Combinations: For Hamorrhage: Combine with herbs that nourish Yin and clear empty heat (Holmes, n.d., p. 370)

Interactions: Caution taken when used in combination with anticoagulants and platelet aggregation inhibitors (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

Leonurus cardiaca

show_image
UniProt Consortium (2014). SPECIES Leonurus japonicus (Chinese motherwort) (Leonurus artemisia). Retrieved from: hengduan.huh.harvard.edu

Botanical Name: Leonurus cardiaca
Common name: Motherwort (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
Family: Lamiaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
Parts used: Aerial parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)

Constituents: Iridoids (incl. leonuride); labdane diterpenes (incl. leocardin); flavonoids (incl. apigenin, kaempferol, and quercetin glucosides); caffeic acid; alkaloids (incl. tachydrine, betonicine, turicin, leonurine); tannins; and volatile oil (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562).

Actions

  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562; Bone, 2003, p. 331)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562; Bone, 2003, p. 331)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562; Bone, 2003, p. 331)
  • Hepatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Cardiotonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562; Bone, 2003, p. 331)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562; Bone, 2003, p. 331)
  • Anti-arrhythmic (Bone, 2003, p. 331)

 

Indications

  • Delayed or suppressed menstruation (esp. when related to anxiety and tension) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562).
  • Congestive amenorrhea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562; Bone, 2003, p. 331)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562; Bone, 2003, p. 331)
  • False labor pains (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Menopausal symptoms (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Tachycardia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562; Bone, 2003, p. 331)
  • Anxiety and tension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Insomnia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Anemic nervousness (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Cardiac weakness following infection (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Hyperthyroidism (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Neuralgia (Bone, 2003, p. 331)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2):2,0-3.5mL/day or 15-25mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 331)
  • Tincture (1:5 in 40%): 1-4mL/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Infusion: 1-2tsp/1cup water/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)

 

Contraindications

  • Pregnancy (Bone, 2003, p. 331)

 

Interactions: May interfere with cardiovascular medications (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)

Crataegus oxyacantha/C. monogyna

espino_blanco
HYPERnatural.com. (2014). ESPINO BLANCO. Retrieved from: http://www.hipernatural.com/es/pltespino_blanco.html

Botanical Name: Crataegus oxyacantha/C. monogyna
Common name: Hawthorn, C. laevingata (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671), Shan zha (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)
Family: Rosaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 672)
Parts used: Leaf, flower and berry (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)

Quality: Warm tendency, neutral, sour and sweet (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)

History/Folklore: Berry, flower and leaf have all being used medicinally, however modern research tends to focus on the leaves and flowers (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671). Traditionally Hawthorn was used to treat cardiovascular problems and circulatory disorders (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671).

Constituents: Oligomeric procyanidins (notably: procyanidin b-2); Monomers (epictechin and catechin); Flavonoids (incl. quercetin glycosides, hyperoside and rutin);

Actions

  • Cardiotonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Cardioprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 671, 674)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 671, 675)
    • Hawthorn acts as a co-factor for vitamin C (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Collagen stabilising (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Mild astringent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Mild hypotensive (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Anti-arrhythmic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Vasorelaxant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 674)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Stabilizes connective tissue tone (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Antibacterial (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)
  • Antibiotic (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)

TCM specific: Reduces stagnation, reduces food stagnantion, promotes digestion, harmonizes and tonifies spleen, Moves blood, Regulates blood and breaks up accumulation (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)

 

Indications

  • Cardiovascular disease (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Hypoxemia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Congestive heart disease as a result of ischaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 671, 677-678)
  • Hypertension (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 671, 681)
  • Acne (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Anxiety (in combination) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Hyperlipidaemia (notably the berries) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Hypercholesterolaemia (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)
  • Arteriosclerosis (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Infusion of dried plant: 1.5-3.5g/day
  • Berry liquid extract (1:2): 3-6mL/day
  • Leaf liquid extract (1:2): 3-7mL/day
  • Berry tincture (1:5): 17.6mL/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 672)

 

Cautions

  • As it stimulates gastric juice production, use with caution in individuals with a history of peptic ulcers or gastritis (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682).

 

Combinations: For high blood pressure, Hawthron berries may be combined with Lime Blossom, Mistletoe and Yarrow (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 206)

 

Interactions:

  • Not to be used in conjunction with heart and blood pressure medications without practitioner supervision (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 682)