Crataegus oxyacantha/C. monogyna

espino_blanco
HYPERnatural.com. (2014). ESPINO BLANCO. Retrieved from: http://www.hipernatural.com/es/pltespino_blanco.html

Botanical Name: Crataegus oxyacantha/C. monogyna
Common name: Hawthorn, C. laevingata (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671), Shan zha (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)
Family: Rosaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 672)
Parts used: Leaf, flower and berry (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)

Quality: Warm tendency, neutral, sour and sweet (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)

History/Folklore: Berry, flower and leaf have all being used medicinally, however modern research tends to focus on the leaves and flowers (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671). Traditionally Hawthorn was used to treat cardiovascular problems and circulatory disorders (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671).

Constituents: Oligomeric procyanidins (notably: procyanidin b-2); Monomers (epictechin and catechin); Flavonoids (incl. quercetin glycosides, hyperoside and rutin);

Actions

  • Cardiotonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Cardioprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 671, 674)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 671, 675)
    • Hawthorn acts as a co-factor for vitamin C (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Collagen stabilising (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Mild astringent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Mild hypotensive (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Anti-arrhythmic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Vasorelaxant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 674)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Stabilizes connective tissue tone (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Antibacterial (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)
  • Antibiotic (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)

TCM specific: Reduces stagnation, reduces food stagnantion, promotes digestion, harmonizes and tonifies spleen, Moves blood, Regulates blood and breaks up accumulation (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)

 

Indications

  • Cardiovascular disease (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Hypoxemia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 542)
  • Congestive heart disease as a result of ischaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 671, 677-678)
  • Hypertension (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 671, 681)
  • Acne (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Anxiety (in combination) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Hyperlipidaemia (notably the berries) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 671)
  • Hypercholesterolaemia (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)
  • Arteriosclerosis (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Infusion of dried plant: 1.5-3.5g/day
  • Berry liquid extract (1:2): 3-6mL/day
  • Leaf liquid extract (1:2): 3-7mL/day
  • Berry tincture (1:5): 17.6mL/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 672)

 

Cautions

  • As it stimulates gastric juice production, use with caution in individuals with a history of peptic ulcers or gastritis (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 682).

 

Combinations: For high blood pressure, Hawthron berries may be combined with Lime Blossom, Mistletoe and Yarrow (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 206)

 

Interactions:

  • Not to be used in conjunction with heart and blood pressure medications without practitioner supervision (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 682)

Plantago lanceolata

normal_plantago-lanceolata163

Buono, V. (2009). Plantago lanceolata. Retrieved from: http://luirig.altervista.org/schedenam/fnam.php?taxon=Plantago+lanceolata

 

Botanical Name: Plantago laceolata

Common name: Ribwort (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 242), Ribwort Plantain (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 574), English Plantain (Weiss, 2001, p. 198)

Family: Plantaginacea (Weiss, 2001, p. 198)

Parts used: Whole plant (Weiss, 2001, p. 198)

 

Constituents

  • Mucilage
  • Tannins
  • Silicic acid

(Weiss, 2001, p. 198)

 

Actions

  • Anticatarrhal (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 242)
  • Respiratory demulcent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 240)
  • Subtle antibiotic activity (Weiss, 2001, p. 198)

 

History

One of the more common plants in European Flora, Plantago lanceolata. The herb grows in great quantities in dry meadows, by wayside and in fields. Another similar variety Plantago major, is often collected and used in the same indication, however it appears to be inferior, notably in the treatment of coughs and therefore should not be confused (Weiss, 2001, p. 198).

 

Indications

  • Coughs (Syrup is a good cough remedy for children) (Weiss, 2001, p. 198)
  • Bronchitis (Weiss, 2001, p. 199)

 

Preparation

Syrup: Chop and express fresh herb, boil the crude juice with honey for 20 mins. Store in sealed container. Antibiotic properties will help with storage life (Weiss, 2001, pp. 198-199)

 

Dosage

(Dosage is based on close relative of Plantago lanceloata, Plantago major.)

Tincture: (1:5 in 40%) 2-3mL/tds

Infusion: 2 tsp dried her/1 cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 574)

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

According to Hoffmann, no side effects or drug interactions have been reported for Plantago major (2003, p. 574).

 

REFERENCE

Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Weiss, R. (2001). Weiss’s Herbal Medicine (classic ed.). New York: Thieme.