Capsicum minimum

Botanical-Chili-Plant-Printable-GraphicsFairy-sm-664x1024
Watson, K. (2013). Chili Pepper Botanical Printable. Retrieved from: http://thegraphicsfairy.com/chili-pepper-botanical-printable/

Botanical Name: Capsicum minimum
Common name: Cayenne (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
Family: Solonaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
Parts used: Fruit (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)

Constituents: Capsaicinoids (incl. capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin); carotenoids (incl. capsanthin, capsorubin and carotene; and Steroidal saponins (“capsicidins”) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)

Actions

  • Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 247)
  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Anti-catarrhal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Sialalgogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Rubefacient (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Antimicrobial (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Antiseptic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 247)
  • Local anesthetic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)

As a local anaesthetic, Cayenne only blocks impulses to nerve C fibers (strictly related to pain) therefore it does not interfe with temperature, touch and pressure (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536).

Cayenne blocks transmission of pain and itching by nerve fibers in skin and topically relieves pain by depleting local supplies of substance P (neurotransmitter) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536).

 

Indications

  • Flatulent dyspepsia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Colic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Insufficient peripheral circulation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Debility (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Lumbago and rheumatic pains (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Laryngitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Painful skin disorders, such as: psoriasis, pruritus or shingles (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Arthritis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Cluster headache (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Phantom limb pains (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Vasomotor rhinitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • GI infections (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 202)

In TCM the herb is used as an anticonvulsant and is indicated in epilepsy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 25%): 0.25-1mL/tds
  • Infusion: 0.5-1tsp/1 cup water. Infuse for 10mins. Drink when needed.

 

Cautions: The specific action Cayenne has on vansiloid receptors may creates an illusion of pain and burning, however tissue damage is not concurrent in these sensations and no harm results (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 43, 104)

 

Combinations

  • Combines with Myrrh in a gargle for laryngitis or as an antiseptic wash (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536).
  • High doses may cause tachecardia and hypertension in certain individuals (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • May aggravate gastrointestinal reflux (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Caution to be taken in individuals with bleeding disorders (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Interactions

  • May react with anticoagulant and anti-platelet medication (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • May inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes (Natural Standard, 2014)
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Tussilago farfara

1320px-Tussilago_farfara_whole

Botanical Name: Tussilago farfara
Common name: Coltsfoot (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)
Family: Asteraceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)
Parts used: Dried flower, leaf (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)

 

Constituents

  • Flavonoids: rutin, hyperoside, isoquercetin
  • Mucilage
  • Inulin
  • Pyrrolizidine alkaloids: including senkirkine and tussilagine
  • Tannins

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anticatarrhal
  • Antispasmodic
  • Antitussive
  • Expectorant
  • Demulcent
  • Diuretic
  • Immunostimulant

(Heinrich et al., 2010, p. 235; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)

 

Indications

  • Irritating or spasmodic coughs
  • Whooping cough
  • Bronchitis
  • Laryngitis
  • Asthma

(Heinrich et al., 2010, p. 235; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Fresh boiled leaves can be applied to boils, abscesses and suppurating ulcers
  • Tincture: (1:5 in 40%) 2-4mL/tds
  • Infusion: 1-2tsp dried herb/1 cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)

 

Cautions & Contradictions

  • The pyrrolizidine alkaloids have shown hepatotoxic activity in rats, fed daily in high doses, however appear not to cause damage in human chromosomes in vitro (Heinrich et al., 2010, p. 235).
  • Not recommended for long periods of time (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590).

 

Combinations

For coughs, Coltsfoot is often combines with White Horehound and Mullein (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 192)

 

REFERENCE
Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Heinrich, M., Barnes, J., Gibbons, S., & Williamson, E. (2012). Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Image: Lenes, K. (2007). File:Tussilago farfara whole.png. Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tussilago_farfara_whole.png

Commiphora molmol

Commiphora_myrrha_-_Köhler–s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-019

Image I

it-024

Image II

Botanical Name: Commiphora molmol
Common name: Myrrh
Family: Sterculiaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
Parts used: Gum resin (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)

Constituents

  • Volatile oil
  • Gum
  • Resins
  • Sterol

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)

 

Actions

  • Anti-catarrhal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 753)
  • Anti-parasitic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 753)
  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 753)
  • Antimicrobial (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 753)
  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
  • Expectorant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
  • Vulnerary (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 753)

 

As an anti-mircobial myrrh works in two complementary ways:

  1. Stimulates production of white blood corpuscles, which have anti-pathogenic actions.
  2. It has a direct anti-microbial effect

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)

 

History

The name ‘myrrh’ is likely derived from Arabic or Hebrew word ‘mur’ meaning bitter. The oleo-gum resin is obtained from the stem of Commiphora species native to Africa and Arabia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 753).

Has been used as a medicinal herb for thousands of years and is referenced, several times in the bible in the Psalms, the Song of Solomon and is commonly remembered as one of the three gifts the Magi brought to Christ (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 753).

Despite ancient record, clinical trials are relatively recent. The herb is of significant value in the treatment of parasites, appearing to be active against parasites that infest deeper in the body than the gut, such as the liver and gallbladder (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 753).

 

Indications

  • Infections of the mouth

Mouth ulcers (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
Gingivitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
Pyorrhea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)

  • Catarrhal problems

Pharyngitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
Sinusitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)

  • Common cold (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
  • Respiratory complaints (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
  • Boils (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
  • Glandular fever (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
  • Brucellosis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
  • Wounds & abrasions (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Tincture (1:1 in 90%): 1-4mL/tds
Infusion*: 1-2tsp myrrh powder/1 cup water/tds

*Resin does not easily dissolve in water and therefore must be powdered well. Tincture preparation is the preferred preparation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540).

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

  • Undiluted tincture may irritate mouth (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
  • According to Chinese Medicine myrrh is contraindicated in pregnancy and in cases of excessive uterine bleeding, however animal studies have found no harmful effects (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 758).

 

Combinations

  • Combines well with Echinacea for infections and in mouth washes
  • For external use, should be combined with distilled Witch Hazel

(Hoffmann, 1990, p. 218)

 

REFERENCE
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Image I: Köhler, F. (1897). Köhler’s Medizinal-Pflanzen. Retrieved from:http://pharm1.pharmazie.uni-greifswald.de/allgemei/koehler/koeh-eng.htm

Image II: Image juicy. (n.d.). Plants-Commiphora. Retrieved from: http://www.imagejuicy.com/images/plants/c/commiphora/2/

Phytolacca decandra/P. americana

Pokeweed, Phytolacca americana

Image I

phytolaque 2-1

Image II

Botanical Name: Phytolacca decandra/P. americana
Common name: Poke Root, Poke Weed (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795)
Family: Phytolacceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 796)
Parts used: Berries, leaves, roots(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795)

Constituents

  • Tripenoid saponins: Phytolaccosides, esculentosides, phytolaccasaponins
  • Algycone: Phytolaccagenin
  • Sterols

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 796)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795)
  • Lymphatic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795)
  • Depurative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795)
  • Immunostimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795)
  • Anti-rheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Anti-catarrhal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Emetic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Expectorant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)

 

Indications

  • Depurative for skin conditions acting primarily via the lymphatic system (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795)
  • Inflammatory conditions of the respiratory and reproductive systems (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795)
  • Skin irritation or infection (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795)
  • Female reproductive conditions (notably mastitis, mammary abscess and uterine cancer) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795)
  • Infections of the upper respiratory tract (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Lymphatic problems (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Long standing rheumatism and arthritis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Neurolagia and lumbargo (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Tonsilitis and parotitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Mastitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Ovaritis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Enlarged thyroid (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Poultice (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Lotion or ointment (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Decoction: 0.2g of dried root/day
  • Tincture: (1:5) 0.15-0.7mL/day

For use up to 6 months

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795)

 

Cautions

  • Care must be taken as it is a strong herb, powerful emetic and purgative in large doses (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Liquid extracts and fresh herb has the potential to cause poisoning due to presence of high levels of PWM (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 796)
  • Large doses of liquid extracts have shown to impair liver function in animal studies (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 796)
  • Saponins may cause irritation of gastric mucus membranes (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 797)

 

Contradictions

  • Contraindicated in pregnancy and lactation
  • Lymphatic leukaemia
  • Children

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 797)

 

Combinations

For lymphatic problems, may be combined with Galium aparine or Iris versicolour (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 225)

 

REFERENCE
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Image I: Miranda, K. (2012). American Society of Botanical Artists. Retrieved from: http://www.asba-art.org/member-gallery/kathie-miranda

Image II: IDS. (n.d.). La phytolaque. Retrieved from: http://isaisons.free.fr/phytolaque.htm

Baptisia tinctoria

Wild Indigo (Baptisia tinctoria)

Botanical Name: Baptisia tinctoria
Common name: Wild indigo (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 533)
Family: Fabaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 533)
Parts used: Root (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 533)

Constituents

  • Isoflavenoids: Genistein & Biochanin A
  • Flavonoids
  • Alkaloids (Notably: cytosine)
  • Coumarins
  • Polysaccharides

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 533)

 

Actions

  • Antimicrobial (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 533)
  • Anticatarrhal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 533)
  • Immunomodulator (Conquer, Costa, Culwell, Dao, Isaac, Giese, Kyomitmaitee Mintzer Ulbricht & Weissner, 2013)
  • Antibacterial (Conquer et al., 2013)
  • Antiviral (Conquer et al., 2013)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Conquer et al., 2013)

 

Indications

  • Treatment of infections and catarrh of ear, nose and throat. Specifically laryngitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis and catarrh infections of the sinuses (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 533)
  • Enlarged and inflamed lymph glands (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 533)
  • Mouth conditions: ulcers, pyorrhoea and gingervitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 533)
  • Fevers (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 533)
  • Inflammation of the bowels where there is a tendency to typhoid conditions (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 533)
  • Ulcerative inflammation of any organ (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 533)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Mouth wash
  • Tincture: (1:5 in 60% alcohol) 1mL/tds
  • Decoction: 0.5-1.0tsp dried root/1 cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 533)

 

Contradictions

No side effects reported (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 533)

 

Combinations

Infections: combine with Echinacea angustifolia and Commiphora myrrha

Lymphatic problems: combines with Galium aparine and Phytolacca decandra

(Hoffmann, 1990, p. 241)

 

REFERENCE
Conquer, J., Costa, D., Culwell, S., Dao, J., Isaac, R., Giese, N., Kyomitmaitee, E., Mintzer, M., Ulbricht, C., & Weissner, W. (2013). Wild indigo (Baptisia tinctoria). Natural Standard Professional Monograph. Retrieved from: http://www.naturalstandard.com.ezproxy.think.edu.au/databases/herbssupplements/wildindigo.asp?

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Image: Flora Finder. (n.d.). Baptisia tinctora. Retrieved from: http://www.florafinder.com/Species/Baptisia_tinctoria.php

Berberis aquifolium

Mahonia_aquifolium_flowers2

Image I

Mahonia_aquifolium_plant

Image II

Botanical Name: Berberis aquifolium, Mahonia aquifolium (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
Common name: Oregon grape, Mountain grape, (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
Family: Berberidaceae (Natural Standard, 2013)
Parts used: rhizome, root and bark (Natural Standard, 2013)

 

Constituents

Isoquinoline alkaloids: berberine, hydratine and oxycanthine

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)

 

Actions

  • Cholagogue (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 210; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Alterative/Depurative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 318; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Laxative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Antiemetic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Anticatarrhal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)

 

Indications (traditional

Native to West Coast of North America, traditionally used by Native Americans for treatment of digestive problems and inflammatory skin conditions (Natural Standard, 2013, p. 564)

 

Indications

  • Chronic skin conditions (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Atopic dermatitis (Natural Standard, 2013; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 318)
  • Psoriasis (Natural Standard, 2013; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Eczema (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Tonic for liver and gallbladder (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Stomach and gallbladder conditions associated with nausea and vomiting (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Wound healing (Natural Standard, 2013).

 

Preparation & Dosage

Tincture (1:5): 1-4mL/tds

Decoction: 1-2tsp of root in 1-cup water, simmer 10-15mins/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)

 

Cautions & Contradictions

  • Berbine constituent may worsen symptoms of jaundice (Natural Standard, 2013)
  • Excessive use is considered toxic, recommended to not exceed 2-3 weeks of oral use (Natural Standard, 2013)
  • To be used with caution in individuals with liver or gallbladder disease (Natural Standard, 2013)
  • Known allergy (Natural Standard, 2013)

 

REFERENCE
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Natural Standard (2013). Natural Standard Professional Monograph: Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifolium, Berberis aquifolium). Retrieved from: http://www.naturalstandard.com/databases/herbssupplements/mahonia.asp?#

Images: Missouri Plants. (2000). Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh) Nutt. Retrieved from: http://www.missouriplants.com/Yellowalt/Mahonia_aquifolium_page.html

Plantago lanceolata

normal_plantago-lanceolata163

Buono, V. (2009). Plantago lanceolata. Retrieved from: http://luirig.altervista.org/schedenam/fnam.php?taxon=Plantago+lanceolata

 

Botanical Name: Plantago laceolata

Common name: Ribwort (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 242), Ribwort Plantain (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 574), English Plantain (Weiss, 2001, p. 198)

Family: Plantaginacea (Weiss, 2001, p. 198)

Parts used: Whole plant (Weiss, 2001, p. 198)

 

Constituents

  • Mucilage
  • Tannins
  • Silicic acid

(Weiss, 2001, p. 198)

 

Actions

  • Anticatarrhal (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 242)
  • Respiratory demulcent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 240)
  • Subtle antibiotic activity (Weiss, 2001, p. 198)

 

History

One of the more common plants in European Flora, Plantago lanceolata. The herb grows in great quantities in dry meadows, by wayside and in fields. Another similar variety Plantago major, is often collected and used in the same indication, however it appears to be inferior, notably in the treatment of coughs and therefore should not be confused (Weiss, 2001, p. 198).

 

Indications

  • Coughs (Syrup is a good cough remedy for children) (Weiss, 2001, p. 198)
  • Bronchitis (Weiss, 2001, p. 199)

 

Preparation

Syrup: Chop and express fresh herb, boil the crude juice with honey for 20 mins. Store in sealed container. Antibiotic properties will help with storage life (Weiss, 2001, pp. 198-199)

 

Dosage

(Dosage is based on close relative of Plantago lanceloata, Plantago major.)

Tincture: (1:5 in 40%) 2-3mL/tds

Infusion: 2 tsp dried her/1 cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 574)

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

According to Hoffmann, no side effects or drug interactions have been reported for Plantago major (2003, p. 574).

 

REFERENCE

Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Weiss, R. (2001). Weiss’s Herbal Medicine (classic ed.). New York: Thieme.