Trigonella foenum-graecum

trigonella_foenum-graecum

Schoepke, T. (n.d.). Pískavice řecké seno Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fabaceae). Retrieved from: http://www.okhelp.cz/images/botanika/kohler/img/index.php?img=trigonella_foenum-graecum.jpg&txt=P%C3%ADskavice+%C5%99eck%C3%A9+seno+Trigonella+foenum-graecum+%28Fabaceae%29

Botanical Name: Trigonella foenum-graecum
Common name: Fenugreek, Methi (Hindi), Methika (Sanskrit) (Pole, 2006, p. 177)
Family: Fabaceae (Natural Standard, 2014)
Parts used: Seed (Bone, 2003, p. 210)

Quality: Warming, pungent, nourishing (Pole, 2006, p. 177)

Constituents: Saponins (incl. diogenin); coumarins; flavonoids (incl. quercetin, lilyn and kaempferol); and alkaloids (incl. trigonellin, lecithin and mucilage) (Pole, 2006, p. 177).

Actions

  • Appetite stimulant (Bone, 2003, p. 210)
  • Galactagogue (Bone, 2003, p. 210; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone, 2003, p. 210)
  • Demulcent (Bone, 2003, p. 210; Pole, 2006, p. 177)
  • Hypoglycemic (Bone, 2003, p. 210)
  • Bulk laxative (Pole, 2006, p. 177)
  • Aphrodisiac (Pole, 2006, p. 177)

TCM: Yang tonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 171)

Ayurvedic specific: Appetite builder, digestive, Encourages vāta to decend, mild laxative, allieviates vāta and kapha, allieviates symptoms of diabetes (Pole, 2006, p. 177)

 

Indications

  • Diabetes mellitus type 2 (A grade evidence) (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Diabetes mellitus type 1 (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Loss of appetite (Bone, 2003, p. 210)
  • Dyspepsia (Bone, 2003, p. 210; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Gastritis (Bone, 2003, p. 210)
  • Debility (Bone, 2003, p. 210)
  • Preventing athereosclerosis (Bone, 2003, p. 210)
  • Promoting lactation (Bone, 2003, p. 210)
  • Obesity (Natural Standard, 2014; Pole, 2006, p. 177)

Ayurvedia specific: Used to treat constipation, high cholesterol, diabetes and obesity (Pole, 2006, p. 177)

TCM specific: Yang deficiency marked by pain and coldness of the lower abdomen, hernia, weakness and edema of the legs caused by cold damp (Bone, 2003, p. 212).

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 2.0-4.5mL/day or 15-30mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 211)
  • Tincture (1:3 in 45%): 3-30mL/day

 

Cautions

  • High doses not recommended in Hypothyroidism (Bone, 2003, p. 210)
  • Excessive external use may cause skin reactions (Bone, 2003, p. 211)
  • Allergic reactions have been recorded for both internal and external use (Bone, 2003, p. 211)

 

Contraindications: In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is contraindicated in high pitta (Pole, 2006, p. 178)

Combinations: For bloating and constipation combine with fennel, cumin and coriander (Pole, 2006, p. 178)

Interactions:

  • May increase risk of bleeding when used in conjunction with warfarin (Bone, 2003, p. 210)
  • Associated with inhibiting iron absorption (Bone, 2003, p. 211)
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Galega officinalis

Goat_s_Rue_-_Galega_officinalis-4132

Wild About Britian. (2011). Goat’s Rue-Galega officinalis. Retrieved from: http://www.wildaboutbritain.co.uk/pictures/showphoto.php/photo/104660/size/big

Botanical Name: Galega officinalis
Common name: Goat’s Rue, French Lilac, Italian fitch, Professor-weed (Natural Standard, 2014)
Family: Leguminosae (Bone, 2003, p. 243)
Parts used: Aerial Parts (Bone, 2003, p. 243)

History/Folklore: Native to the Middle East (Natural Standard, 2014)

Constituents: Alkaloid: galegine (Bone, 2003, p. 243)

Actions

  • Hypoglycemic (Bone, 2003, p. 243; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 522)
  • Galactagogue (Bone, 2003, p. 243; Natural Standard, 2014; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 522)
  • Antidiabetic (Bone, 2003, p. 243)
  • Antiplatelet (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 552; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Diaphoretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 552; Natural Standard, 2014)

Indications

  • Non-insulin dependent diabeties mellitus (Bone, 2003, p. 243)
  • Improving lactation (Bone, 2003, p. 243; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 522)
  • Assisting weight loss (Bone, 2003, p. 243)

Preparation & Dosage:

  • 5-8.5mL liquid extract (1:2)/day
  • 30-60mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

(Bone, 2003, p. 243)

Cautions & Contraindications: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 243). Should not replace insulin therapy and should be monitored in the treatment of diabeties (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 522)

Interactions: May interact with antiplatelet and hypoglycaemic medication (Natural Standard, 2014)

Scutellaria baicalensis

Øëåìíèê áàéêàëüñêèé – Scutellariae baicalensis

Image I

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Image II

Botanical Name: Scutellaria baicalensis
Common name: Baical Skullcap, Chinese skullcap, huang quin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
Family: Lamiaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
Parts used: Root (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)

Constituents

Flavenoids and their glycosides

  • Baicalin and its aglycone: Baicalein
  • Wogonin
  • Resin
  • Tannins
  • Melatonin

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)

 

Baicalin is porely absorbed through the gut, however becomes hydrolysed to its alglycone baicalein by intestinal bacteria (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218).

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 219)
  • Antifibrotic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 219)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Anti-allergic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Hypotensive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Anti-platelet (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Antixiolytic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Antimicrobial, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 221-222)
  • Anti-ulcerogenic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Antidiabetic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Anti-emetic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 223)

 

History & Traditional Use

Traditionally used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to clear heat and dry dampness. (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218).

 

Indications

  • Respiratory infections (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Bone marrow stimulation during chemotherapy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Epilepsy (in combination) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Chronic active hepatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Liver fibrosis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Chronic inflammation
    • Asthma
    • Arthritis
    • Allergies (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Hepatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Common cold (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Nausea and vomiting (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Mild hyper-tension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Dried herb: 6-15g/day
  • Liquid extract: (1:2) 4.5-8.5mL/day in divided doses

 

Cautions: Safety in pregnancy has not being defined by clinical trials. The herb is used in TCM for “restless foetus” (threatened abortion) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Contradictions

  • Contradicted during interferon therapy
  • Contradicted in “cold” conditions in TCM

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Combinations

Scutellaria baicalensis is an ingredient in popular Chinese/Japanese formulation Minor Burpleureum Combination (Xiao Chai Hu Tang in Chinese and Sho-saiko-to in Japanese). This combination contains:

  • Bulpleurum falcatum
  • Scutellaria baicalensis
  • Pinellia ternata
  • Panax ginseng
  • Zizyphus jujuba
  • Glycyrrhiza uralensis
  • Zingiber officinale

This treatment has been used for 3000 years in the treatment of pyretic disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224).

 

REFERENCE
Braun, L., & Cohen, M. (2010). Herbs & Natural Supplements: An Evidence based Guide (3rd ed.). Chatswood NSW: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Image: Beauty & Health Philosophy. (2008-2014). Beauty & Health Philosophy. Retrieved from: http://nsp-zdorovje.narod.ru/fito/wlemnik-scutellaria.html

Image II: Molbiol.ur. (2001-2014). Шлемник байкальский (Scutellaria baicalensis, Labiatae/Lamiaceae). Retrieved from: http://molbiol.ru/forums/lofiversion/index.php/t173641.html

Aloe vera

aloe

Natural Histroy Museum (n.d.). Seeds of Trade. Retrieved from: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/life/plants-fungi/seeds-of-trade/page.dsml?section=crops&ref=aloe

beauty-benefits-of-aloe-vera

Isslieb, A. (2014). Aloe Vera Juice. Retrieved from: http://simplyhealthjh.com/?page_id=225

Botanical Name: Aloe vera
Common name: Aloe
Family: Asphodeliaceae (Heinrich, Barnes, Gibbons & Williamson, 2012, p. 286)
Parts used: Leaf and its exudate gel (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 192)

Constituents

  • Polysaccharides including: Mannose-6- phosphate
  • Gluco-mannans: also referred to as “acemannan” and marketed as “Carrisyn”
  • Glycoproteins: including Alprogen, a glycoprotein with anti-allergic properties
  • C-glucoyl chromone: anti-inflammatory compound
  • Ligans
  • Saponins
  • Salicyclic acid
  • Sterols (including beta-sitosterol)
  • Triterpenoids
  • Anthraquinones

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 192)

Actions

  • Wound healing
  1. Glycoprotein fraction: found to increase proliferation of human keratinocytes and increase epidermal growth factor in vitro (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 192-193)
  2. b-sitosterol: appears to improve wound healing by stimulating angiogenesis and neovascularisation in vivo. (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 193)
  3. Allantonin has shown to stimulate epithelialisation (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 195)
  4. Acemannan has shown to stimulate machrophahe production of IL-1 And TNF associated with wound healing (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 195).
  • Anti-oxidant

Two dihydroisocoumarines have been identified demonstrating ontioxidant properties (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 193)

  • Immunostimulant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 193)

In one study 400-800mg of acemannan/day significantly increased circulating monocytes in patients with HIV (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 197).

  • Anti-inflammatory

Gel has shown to reduce oxidation of arachidonic acid, prostaglandin synthesis and inflammation. One study in vivo found aloe to reduced leukocyte adhesion in a burn injury, thus reducing inflammation (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 194)

  • Laxative

Anthraquinone constituent found in aloe latex is known to stimulate laxative activity however long term use of aloe latex has seen negative results and thus alternatives are preferred (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 194).

  • Anti-ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 194)
  • Hypoglycaemic

Glucomannans slow carbohydrate absorption and postprandial insulin response up to 50% (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 195).

Antimicrobial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 195)

  • Anti viral

Anti viral activity is due to aloe’s potential to interfere with DNA synthesis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 195).

Polysaccharide fractions of aloe have shown to inhibit binding of benzopyrene in an animal study conducted on rat hepatocytes and preventing the formation of potential cancer-initiating benzopyrene-DNA adductions.

  • Potential anti-cancer activity (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 197)

 

Indications

Various skin conditions including burns, wounds, radiation burns, ulcers, frostbite. Psoriasis and genital herpes (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 195).

Gastro-intestinal conditionals such as: irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis and some colonic bacterial activity (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 197).

 

Preparation & Dosage

Fresh plant gel prepared as a succus (internal use): 0.1-0.3g (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 175).

Gel: Gel is scraped and applied topically to afflicted area (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 175; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 198).

 

Cautions

Used as a laxative aloe may induce “gripping” pains and is contradicted for indication as a laxative in children (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 198).

 

Contradictions

Known hypersensitivity (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 198).

As a strong laxative aloe latex is contraindicated in pregnancy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 198).

Not to be administed orally during lactation (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 175).

 

Interactions

In one preliminary clinical trial, active constituent acemannan may enhance activity of the anti HIV medication AZT (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 197).

REFERENCE

Braun, L., & Cohen, M. (2010). Herbs & Natural Supplements: An Evidence based Guide (3rd ed.). Chatswood NSW: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Heinrich, M., Barnes, J., Gibbons, S., & Williamson, E. (2012). Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons