Filipendula ulmaria

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Systematica (2013). Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. [as Spiraea ulmaria L.]. Retrieved from: http://www.systematica.org/post/41370444569/filipendula-ulmaria-l-maxim-as-spiraea

1600px-Filipendula_ulmaria_(flowers)

Hillewaert, H. (2008). Meadowsweet at Kampenhout, Belgium. Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Filipendula_ulmaria_%28flowers%29.jpg

Botanical Name: Filipendula ulmaria
Common name: Medowsweet (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
Family: Rosaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 743).
Parts used: Aerial parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)

History/Folklore:

  • One of the three herbs most sacred to the Druids (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742).
  • One of 50 ingredients in drink ‘Save’ mentioned in Chaucer’s Knight’s Tale (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742).
  • Salic acid (from which acetylsalicyclic is derived) was extracted from its flowerbud playing an important role in the development of aspirin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742).

Constituents: Flavonoids (incl. rutin, glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol glycosides); hydrolysable tannins (notably rugosin-D); phenolic glycosides (incl. spiraein); and essential oil (containing salicylaldehyde, phenylethyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol and methylsalicylate) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 743).

Actions

  • Anti-ulcer (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 742, 743)
  • Antacid (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Diuretic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Mild urinary antiseptic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Astringent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Anti-thrombotic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Anti-coagulant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)
  • Antibacterial (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Antimicrobial (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Immunomodulatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 743)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)
  • Gastroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)

Indications

  • Cervical dysplasia (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 742, 744)
  • Acne (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)
  • Wound healing (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)

Traditional indicatons

  • Disorders of the upper GI tract (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Flatulence (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Dyspepsia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Indigestion (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Gastric reflux (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
  • Hyperacidity (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
  • Gastric ulcers (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Diarrhoea (notably in children) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Cystitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Kidney stones (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Gout and rheumatic disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
  • Fever (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Infusion: 12-18g dried herb/day
  • Liquid extract (1:1): 4.5-18mL/day
  • Tincture (1:5): 6-12ml/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 742-743)

Cautions

  • Constipation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Iron deficient anemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Malnutrition (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Long term use of high doses not advised (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Due to presence of salicylates, caution is to be taken in individuals with salicylate sensitivity or glucose-6-phosphate deficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
  • Bleeding disorders, due to anticoagulant activity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Caution to be taken in children under 15 years old (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 745)

Contraindications: Pregnancy and lactation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)

Interactions:

  • Presence of tannins may interfere with absorption of metal ions, thiamine and alkaloids. It is recommended the herb to be taken at least 2hrs away from other minteral supplementation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • May theoretically potentiate effects of anticoagulant drugs (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
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Olea europea

215_Olea_europaea_L
Masclef, A. (1981). Atlas des plantes de France. Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:215_Olea_europaea_L.jpg

Botanical Name: Olea europea
Common name: Olive leaf (Bone, 2003, p. 352
Family: Oleaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 710)
Parts used: Leaf (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 710)

Constituents:

  • Phenolic compounds: notably oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol
  • Rutin, Luteolin, Catechin and Apigenin
  • Nutrients: selenium, chromium, iron, zinc, vitamin C, beta-carotene.

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 710)

Actions

  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 710; Bone, 2003, p. 352)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 710)
  • Anti-thrombotic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 711)
  • Antimicrobial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 711)
  • Antiviral (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 711)
  • Anti-hypertensive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 711)
  • Bitter tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 352)

 

Indications

  • Hypertension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 713; Bone, 2003, p. 352)
  • Angina pectoris (Bone, 2003, p. 352)
  • Gout and fluid retention (Bone, 2003, p. 352)

Traditional indications include coughs, obstinate and intermittent fever, angina, stomachaches associated with acidity, mouth ulcers and snakebites (Bone, 2003, p. 352)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • 5-7.0mL liquid extract (1:2)/day
  • 25-50mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

Cautions & Contraindications: Allergy to plants of the Oleaceae family (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 715)

Interactions: May have additive effects when used in conjunction with Hypoglycaemic and hypotensive agents (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 715)