Chamaelirium luteum

Chamaelirium_luteum,I_DL373

Discover Life. (n.d.). Index of /IM/I_DL/0003/mx. Retrieved from: http://www.discoverlife.org/IM/I_DL/0003/mx/

Botanical Name: Chamaelirium luteum
Common name: False Unicorn Root, Helonias root (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
Family: Melanthiaceae
Parts used: root (Bone, 2003, p. 204)

History/Folklore: The herb has been used by the Eclectics and Native Americans as a tonic for the female reproductive system (Bone, 2003, p. 204). Today the herb is endangered (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 384).

Constituents: Steroidal saponins incl. chamaelitin (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)

Actions

  • Uterine tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 204; Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Ovarian tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Estrogen modulating (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Anthelmintic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Emetic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)

Steroidal saponins act by binding with estrogen receptors of the hypothalamus (Bone, 2003, p. 205).

 

Indications

  • Amenorrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 204; Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Dysmenorrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Ovarian pain (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Leukorrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Prolapse (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Atony of reproductive organs (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Threatened miscarriage (Bone, 2003, p. 204; Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Morning sickness (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Menopause symptoms (notably hot flushes) (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Infertility (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Sexual lassitude (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Morning sickness (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)

Hoffmann suggests that this herb is a superior tonic or the reproductive system and may be indicated for both men and women (1990, p. 199).

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 2-6ml/day or 15-40mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Decoction: 1-2tsp/1 cup water/tds (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)

Contraindications: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 204)

Interactions: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 204)

Lobelia inflata

Lobelia_inflata_-_Köhler–s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-218-1

Image I

LOBELIA_INFLATA

Image II
Botanical Name: Lobelia inflata
Common name: Lobelia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 563), Indian tobacco (Costa, Giese, Isaac, Kyomitmaitee, Reynolds, Rusie, Ulbricht & Zhou, 2013).
Family: Campanulaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 563)
Parts used: Aerial parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 563)

Constituents

  • Piperidine alkaloids: lobeline, lobelanidine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 563)
  • Lobeline is known as “wild tobacco” and “pukeweed” (leaves) (Heinrich, Barnes, Gibbons & Williamson, 2012, p. 96).
  • Chelidonic acid
  • Misc. resins, gums and fats

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 563)

Actions

  • Anti-asthmatic
  • Antispasmodic
  • Expectorant
  • Emetic
  • Nervine

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 563)

 

Indications

Lobelia has a depressant action on the central nervous system (CNS), autonomic nervous system (ANS) and neuromuscular activity. Active constituent lobeline has peripheral and central effects similar to that of nicotine, however is less potent. It acts by causing CNS stimulation and then respiratory depression.

 

Primary specific use is for bronchial asthma and bronchitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 563).

 

Other traditional indications include

  • Respiratory problems from exalted nerve force and nerve irritation
  • Spasmodic asthma
  • Whooping cough
  • Spasmodic croup
  • Membranous croup
  • Infantile convulsions
  • Puerperal eclampsia
  • Epilepsy
  • Tetanus
  • Hysterical paroxysms
  • Hysterical convulsions
  • Diphtheria
  • Tonsilitis
  • Pnemonia

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 563)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Tincture (1:5 in 40%) 0.5-1mL/tds

Infusion: 0.25 tsp dried herb/1 cup water/tds

 

Cautions

  • According to secondary sourced all parts of the plant are potentially toxic, therefore the herb is not to be taken in large doses (Costa et al., 2013)
  • Indication in asthma is conflicting, due to its potential respiratory stimulatory effect (Costa et al., 2013; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 563)

 

Contradictions

  • Contraindicated in cardiovascular disease as it may raise heart rate and create hypotension
  • In individuals using CNS depressants
  • In individuals using nicotine
  • In pregnancy due to potential emesis

(Costa et al., 2013)

 

Combinations

In the treatment of Asthma, combines well with Cayenne, Grindelia, Pill-Bearing Spurge, Sundew and Ephedra (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 212)

 

REFERENCE
Costa, D., Giese, N., Isaac, R., Kyomitmaitee, E., Reynolds, A., Rusie, E., Ulbricht, C., & Zhou, S. (2013). Lobelia. Natural Standard Professional Monograph. Retrieved from: http://www.naturalstandard.com.ezproxy.think.edu.au/databases/herbssupplements/indiantobacco.asp?

Heinrich, M., Barnes, J., Gibbons, S., & Williamson, E. (2012). Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Image I: Köhler, F. (1897). Köhler’s Medizinal-Pflanzen Retrieved from: http://pharm1.pharmazie.uni-greifswald.de/allgemei/koehler/koeh-eng.htm

Image II: Singh, M. (2006). LOBELIA INFLATA. Retrieved from: http://www.homeopathyandmore.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=764

Phytolacca decandra/P. americana

Pokeweed, Phytolacca americana

Image I

phytolaque 2-1

Image II

Botanical Name: Phytolacca decandra/P. americana
Common name: Poke Root, Poke Weed (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795)
Family: Phytolacceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 796)
Parts used: Berries, leaves, roots(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795)

Constituents

  • Tripenoid saponins: Phytolaccosides, esculentosides, phytolaccasaponins
  • Algycone: Phytolaccagenin
  • Sterols

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 796)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795)
  • Lymphatic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795)
  • Depurative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795)
  • Immunostimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795)
  • Anti-rheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Anti-catarrhal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Emetic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Expectorant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)

 

Indications

  • Depurative for skin conditions acting primarily via the lymphatic system (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795)
  • Inflammatory conditions of the respiratory and reproductive systems (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795)
  • Skin irritation or infection (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795)
  • Female reproductive conditions (notably mastitis, mammary abscess and uterine cancer) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795)
  • Infections of the upper respiratory tract (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Lymphatic problems (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Long standing rheumatism and arthritis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Neurolagia and lumbargo (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Tonsilitis and parotitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Mastitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Ovaritis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Enlarged thyroid (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Poultice (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Lotion or ointment (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Decoction: 0.2g of dried root/day
  • Tincture: (1:5) 0.15-0.7mL/day

For use up to 6 months

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 795)

 

Cautions

  • Care must be taken as it is a strong herb, powerful emetic and purgative in large doses (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 572)
  • Liquid extracts and fresh herb has the potential to cause poisoning due to presence of high levels of PWM (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 796)
  • Large doses of liquid extracts have shown to impair liver function in animal studies (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 796)
  • Saponins may cause irritation of gastric mucus membranes (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 797)

 

Contradictions

  • Contraindicated in pregnancy and lactation
  • Lymphatic leukaemia
  • Children

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 797)

 

Combinations

For lymphatic problems, may be combined with Galium aparine or Iris versicolour (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 225)

 

REFERENCE
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Image I: Miranda, K. (2012). American Society of Botanical Artists. Retrieved from: http://www.asba-art.org/member-gallery/kathie-miranda

Image II: IDS. (n.d.). La phytolaque. Retrieved from: http://isaisons.free.fr/phytolaque.htm

Rhamnus purshiana

Rhamnus_purshiana-3
Image I

Rha-pur-226-47
Image II

Botanical Name: Rhamnus purshiana
Common name: Buckthorn, Cascara sagrada (Heinrich, Barnes, Gibbons & Williamson, 2012, p. 204).
Family: Rhamnaceae (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 204).
Part used: Bark (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 204).

  • Active constituents:

  • Cascarosides A, B, C, D, E and F (stereoisomeres of aloin and derivatives) (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 204).
  • Anthraquinone Glycosides
  • Anthrone and dianthrone glycosides -have emetic effects (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 204).

 

Actions

  • Laxative (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 51).
  • Purgative (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 204).
  • Emetic (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 204).
  • Bitter tonic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 188)

 

Indications (contemporary)

Native to Pacific coast of North America (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 204). Anthraquinone Glycosides are stimulant laxatives that act on the large intestine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 201). In extreme cases of hypothyroidism related constipation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 462).

 

Preparation

Due to emetic effects of active constituents anthrone and dianthrone, the herb is often kept for a year or “aged artificially” via heating, in order to oxidise these into anthraquinones, which have fewer undesirable side effects (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 204).

 

Dosage

Decoction: 1-2 teaspoons/1 cup of water
Tincture: 1-2mL
*To be taken before sleep.
(Hoffmann, 1990, p. 188)

 

Contradictions

  • At high doses Anthraquinone Glycosides are gastrointestinal irritants. (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 201). Abuse may result in pseudomelanosis coli, which is associated with colorectal carcinoma (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 265). While short-term use is generally safe, long term use is not recommended (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 265)
  • As a strong laxative Rhamnus palmatum is contraindicated in pregnancy (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 394).

 

Combinations

Should be combined with aromatics and carminatives (e.g. Liquorice) (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 188).

 

REFERENCE

Heinrich, M., Barnes, J., Gibbons, S., & Williamson, E. (2012). Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Image I: McCguigan & Krug. (1942). Color Illustrations from “An Introduction to Materia Medica and Pharmacology. Retrieved from: http://wolf.mind.net/swsbm/Images/New10-2003.html

Image II: Oregon State University. (n.d.). Common Trees of the Pacific Northwest. Retrieved from: http://oregonstate.edu/trees/broadleaf_genera/species/cascara_buckthorn.htm