Artemisia vulgaris

artemisia_vulgaris_mugwort_flowers_04-08-05-1

Aphotoflora. (2004). Aphotoflora. Retrieved from: http://www.aphotoflora.com/d_artemisia_vulgaris_mugwort.html

Botanical Name: Artemisia vulgaris
Common name: Mugwort, Motherwort, Cronewort (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
Family: Asteraceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)
Parts used: Leaf and root (Hoffmann, 2013, p. 531)

Folklore: The name “Motherwort” is derived from western folklore as a herb for the womb (Holms, 1989, p. 317)

Constituents: Volatile oil (linalool, 1,8-cineole, β-thujone, borneol, α- and β- pinene); sesquiterpene lactones (incl. vulgarin); flavonoids; coumarin derivatives and triterpenes (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531).

Actions

  • Bitter tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)
  • Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)
  • Nervine tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)

 

TCM actions:

  • Warms channels
  • Stops bleeding
  • Dispels cold
  • Relieves pain’
  • Drains dampness
  • Warms the uterus
  • Alleviates itching

(Hempen, 2009, p. 586)

 

Indications Traditional

  • Mugwort root is a traditional European treatment for epilepsy (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Traditionally used in Moxibustion in the treatment of damp-cold and pain due to cold (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

TCM indications

  • Amenorrhea (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • Dysmenorrhea (Hempen, 2009, p. 587; Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • PMS with dry skin, swollen breasts, confusion and loss of self esteem (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • Estrogen or progesterone deficiency (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • Failure to progress during labor (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • Restless foetus (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)
  • Infertility (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Anorexia (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Gastric and biliary dyspepsia (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Liver congestion (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Jaundice (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Edema (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Aches, pains, fever and chills (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Boils, ulcers, sores (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Urinary and intestinal infections (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Intestinal parasites (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Eczema or itching (internal or external) (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)
  • Cough, wheezing phlegm (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

 

Dosage & Preparation: 3-9g/day (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

 

Cautions

  • Avoid during pregnancy and lactation due to effect on uterus and “drying” quality (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Long term use/excessive dose may cause toxicity due to thujone content (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Yin deficentcy heat (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

 

Interactions: For heavy menstrual bleeding, restless foetus or premature labor: combine with Angelicae sinensis (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

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Rubus idaeus

799px-Rubus_idaeus_Sturm08014

Sturm, J. (1796). Deutschlands Flora in Abbildungen. Retrieved from: http://www.biolib.de

Botanical Name: Rubus idaeus
Common name: Red Raspberry (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
Family: Rosaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
Parts used: leaf, fruit (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)

 

History/Folklore: While the fruit have been eaten as a fruit, raspberry leaves have been used traditionally to prepare the uterus for childbirth (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 782).

 

Constituents:

  • Flavonoids: glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin
  • Tannins
  • Fruit sugar
  • Volatile oil
  • Pectin
  • Citric acid
  • Malic acid

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)

 

Actions

  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578; Bone, 2003, p. 381; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 783)
  • Tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 783)
  • Partus preparatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 783; Bone, 2003, p. 381; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)

 

Indications

  • Pregnancy
    • Strengthen and tones tissue of the uterus (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
    • Strengthens contractions (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Abnormal bleeding of uterus, stomach or intestine (Bone, 2003, p. 381)
  • Leukorrhea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Ulcers (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Bleeding gums (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Tonsillitis (Topical) (Bone, 2003, p. 381)
  • Conjunctivitis (Bone, 2003, p. 381)
  • Dysmenorrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 381)
  • Diarrhoea (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 783)

 

Dosage:

  • 5-14mL liquid extract (1:2)/day
  • 30-100mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

(Bone, 2003, p. 381)

 

Preparation

  • Gargle for sore throat (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Infusion: 4-8g dried leaf/tds (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 784)


Cautions

  • May cause gastrointestinal discomfort due to tannin content (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 784)
  • Clinical studies suggest that the herb is safest when consumed after the first trimester (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 784)

 

Contraindications

  • Constipation
  • Peptic ulcer
  • Gastrointestinal conditions associated with inflammation

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 784)

 

Interactions: May decrease absorption of iron, magnesium and calcium (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 784)

Chamaelirium luteum

Chamaelirium_luteum,I_DL373

Discover Life. (n.d.). Index of /IM/I_DL/0003/mx. Retrieved from: http://www.discoverlife.org/IM/I_DL/0003/mx/

Botanical Name: Chamaelirium luteum
Common name: False Unicorn Root, Helonias root (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
Family: Melanthiaceae
Parts used: root (Bone, 2003, p. 204)

History/Folklore: The herb has been used by the Eclectics and Native Americans as a tonic for the female reproductive system (Bone, 2003, p. 204). Today the herb is endangered (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 384).

Constituents: Steroidal saponins incl. chamaelitin (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)

Actions

  • Uterine tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 204; Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Ovarian tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Estrogen modulating (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Anthelmintic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Emetic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)

Steroidal saponins act by binding with estrogen receptors of the hypothalamus (Bone, 2003, p. 205).

 

Indications

  • Amenorrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 204; Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Dysmenorrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Ovarian pain (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Leukorrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Prolapse (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Atony of reproductive organs (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Threatened miscarriage (Bone, 2003, p. 204; Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Morning sickness (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Menopause symptoms (notably hot flushes) (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Infertility (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Sexual lassitude (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Morning sickness (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)

Hoffmann suggests that this herb is a superior tonic or the reproductive system and may be indicated for both men and women (1990, p. 199).

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 2-6ml/day or 15-40mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Decoction: 1-2tsp/1 cup water/tds (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)

Contraindications: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 204)

Interactions: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 204)

Asparagus racemosa

Asparagus racemosus-1

Prasad, S. R. (n.d.). ASPARAGUS (Shatavari) as Multi target Drug in Women. Retrieved from: http://technoayurveda.com/Shatavari.html

Botanical Name: Asparagus racemosa
Common name: Shatavari, Wild Asparagus, Satavar (Hindi), Satavari (Sanskrit) (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
Family: Liliaceae (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
Parts used: Root (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
Quality: Bitter, sweet, cooling (Pole, 2006, p. 217)

History: Shatavari is regarded in Ayurvedic medicine as part of the rasayana group, which translates to the path that primordial tissue takes (Bone, 2003, p. 410). Australian aboriginals used shatavari topically in a wash for scabies, ulceration and chicken pox (Bone, 2003, p. 410).

Constituents: Steroidal saponins (incl. shatavarin I); alkaloids (incl. pyrrolizidine alkaloid ‘asparagamine A’); and mucilage (Bone, 2003, p. 410).

Actions

  • Tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Galactagogue (Bone, 2003, p. 409; (\Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Sexual tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Female reproductive tonic (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Adaptogen (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Sapsmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Antidiarrheal (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Diuretic (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Aphrodisiac (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Immunosuppressant (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Immunomodulator (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Nervine (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Demulcent (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Anti-bacterial (Pole, 2006, p. 217)

Indications

  • Promote conception (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Sexual debility (Both male and female) (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Infertility (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Impotence (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Promote lactation (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Menopause (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Promote appetite in children (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Infections (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Diarrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Colic (Pole, 2006, p. 217)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 4.5-8.5mL/day or 30-60mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 409)

Contraindications

  • Acute lung congestion (Pole, 2006, p. 218)
  • High kapha and/or āma (Pole, 2006, p. 218)

Combinations: Combine with Ashwagandha for a uterine tonic or to promote fertility in both male and females (Pole, 2006, p. 218)

Interactions: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 409)

Vitex agnus castus

Vitex_agnus-castus

Bauer, F. (1831). Vitex agnus-castus. Retrieved from: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/scientific-resources/natural-resources/homeopathy/database/index.jsp?row=&img=2&action=browse&searchterm=&remedy=&remcode=30

Botanical Name: Vitex agnus castus
Common name: Chaste tree, vitex, Monk’s pepper (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 220)
Family: Labiatae (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 220)
Parts used: ripe fruits (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 220)

History/Folklore: The herb has being used traditionally for gynaecological conditions such as promoting menstruation (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 220). The berries have long been considered a symbol of chastity, and were used in the Middle ages to suppress sexual excitability and was used by wonks to suppress libido (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 489). The Eclectics used the herb as a galactagogue, emmenagogue, to ‘repress the sexual passions’, for impotence, sexual melancholia, sexual irritability, melancholia and mild dementia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 489).

Constituents: Essential oil (incl. monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, sabinene, cineole, β-caryophyllene & trans-β-farnesence); Flavonoids (incl. methoxylated flavones such as casticin, eupatorin and penduletin) and other flavonoids incl. vitexin and orientin; iridoid glycosides (incl. aucubin and agnuside); diterpenes (incl. rotundifuran, vitexilactone, vitetrifolin B and C and viteagnusins A-I) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 491)

Actions

  • Prolactin inhibitor (Braun & Cohen, 2007, pp. 220-221; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 489)
  • Dopamine agonist (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 489)
  • Oestrogen-receptor binding (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 221)
  • Increases progesterone levels (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 221)
    • By enhancingcorpus luteal development via dopaminergic activity on the anterior pituitary (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 489)
  • Opioid receptor (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 221)
    • Vitex works on the μ-opiate receptor, which is the primary action site for β-endorphon (in vivo), a peptide which assists in regulating the menstrual cycle through inhibition of the hyperthalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 221)
  • Galactagogue (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 489; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 595)
  • Antitumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 493)
  • Antimicrobial (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 493)
  • Uterine tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 595)

Indications

  • Premenstrual syndrome (Braun & Cohen, 2007, pp. 221-222; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 489)
  • Mastalgia (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 222)
  • Menstrual cycle irregularities (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 222; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 489)
  • Poor lactation (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 222; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 489)
  • Fertility disorders (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 222)
  • Acne vulgaris (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 223)
  • Menopausal symptoms (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 223)
  • Help expel placenta after birth (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 223)
  • Fibroids (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 223)
  • Premature ovarian failure (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 223)
  • Cystic hyperplasia of the endometrium (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 489)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 1.0-2.5mL/day or 6-18mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 143)
  • Tincture (1:5 in 60%): 2.5mL/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)

Cautions

  • Traditionally not recommended in pregnancy (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 223)

Contraindications

  • Oestrogen or progesterone sensitive tumors (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 223)

Interactions

  • May have an antagonistic reaction on dopamine receptor antagonists (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 223)
  • Oral contraceptives may interfere with the effectiveness of Vitex (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 223)

Curcuma longa

turmeric-info0
HowStuffWorks. (2014). Tumeric. Retrieved from: http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/botany/turmeric-info.htm

Turmeric-Root-and-Powder-1024x666
Christie, D. (2014). Top 5 Benefits of Tumeric. Retrieved from: http://www.harboursidefitness.com.au/blog-post/top-5-benefits-of-turmeric/

Botanical Name: Curcuma longa
Common name: Tumeric, Indian saffron, jianghuang (Chinese), shati (Sanskrit) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900)
Family: Zingeberaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)
Parts used: root and rhizome Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)

Quality: Pungent, bitter, astringent, heating (Pole, 2006, p. 282). In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is used to dry damp and move stagnation in the blood (Pole, 2006, p. 282).

History/Folklore: Native to India and South-East Asia, Tumeric has been recorded in medical texts dating back to 600BC (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Constituents: Essential oil (sesquiterpene ketones, zingiberene, phellandrene, sabinene, cineole and borneol); Yellow pigments “diarylheptanoids” or “curcuminoids” (incl. curcumin) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901).

Yellow pigment curcumin has been shown to influence transcription factors, cytokines, growth factors, kinases and other enzymes (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 902-903; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Anti-platelet (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 903; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 904; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Hepatoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 904-905)
  • Nephroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 904-905)
  • Neuroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 905)
  • Cardioprotective and vasoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 905)
  • Hypolipidaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 905-906)
  • Antibacterial (Pole, 2006, p. 282; Zorotchian Moghadamtousi, Abdul Kadir, Hassandarvish, Tajik, Abubakar & Zandi, 2014, p. 2)
  • Antimicrobial (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 906-907)
  • Antiparasitic (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 907)
  • Antiviral (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, pp. 2-3)
  • Antiparasitic (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 2)
  • Antitumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 908)
  • Anti-depressant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 909)
  • Radioprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Antiallergic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Emmenagogue (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Blood tonic (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Carminative (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Alterative (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Vulunary (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Anti-carcinogenic (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • TCM specific: blood and qi tonifier with analgesic properties (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Indications

  • Cancer prevention (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 907)
  • Cystic fibrosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 909)
  • HIV/AIDS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
    • One human trial exhibited an increase in CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte counts (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
    • Another human trial showed relief of HIV-associated chronic diarrhoea (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Eye disorders (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 911)
  • Genetic diseases (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 911)
  • Alzehimer’s disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 916)
  • Skin conditions (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 916)
  • Candida (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 7)
  • Helicobacter pylori (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 8)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:1): 5-14mL/day
  • 4g powdered tumeric mixed with water/1-2 day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)

Cautions

  • Doses > 15g/day should not be administered long term or in conjunction with anti-platelet or anti-coagulant medication (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Individuals complaining of hair loss (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Women trying to conceive (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Pregnancy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 918)

Contraindications

  • Biliary tract obstruction (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is contraindicated in high vāta and pitta (Pole, 2006, p. 283).
  • Acute jaundice and hepatitis (Pole, 2006, p. 283).

Combinations

  • For liver congestion: combine with kutki, bhumiamalaki and pippali (Pole, 2006, p. 283)
  • Small amounts of long/black pepper enhances anti-inflammatory activity of turmeric (Pole, 2006, p. 283)
  • For congestion of the lower abdomen and menstrual imbalance: combine with guggulu, mustaka and purnarnava (Pole, 2006, p. 283)

Interactions: Turmeric may potentiate effects of anti-platelet or anticoagulant medications (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 918).

Salix alba

Salix alba

Plantelemedicinale. (2014). Salcie – tratamente naturiste salcie. Retrieved from: http://plantelemedicinale.info/p-s/salcie-tratamente-naturiste-salcie/

Botanical Name: Salix alba
Common name: White willow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935)
Family: Salicaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)
Parts used: Bark (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)

History/Folklore: Generally considered to be the natural form and original source of aspirin (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579).

Constituents: Phenolic glycosides (incl. salicin and salicylic acid); tannins; catechin; p-coumaric acid and flavanoids (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)

Actions

  • Analgesic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579; Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 935, 937)
  • Tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)
  • Antipyretic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Antirheumatic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935)

 

Indications

  • Lower back pain (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Temporary relief of acute or chronic musculoskeletal pain (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935)
  • Rheumatism (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)
  • Gout (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)
  • Fevers (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935)
  • Headache (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935; Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 25%): 3-6mL/tds
  • Decoction: 1-2tsp dried bark/1 cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)           

 

Cautions

  • Willow bark cannot be substituted for asprin in the prevention of stoke or myocardial infarction (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)
  • Use cautiously in inflammation or ulceration of the gastro-intestinal tract (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)
  • Iron deficiency anemia due to tannin content (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)
  • Severe constipation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)

 

Contraindications

  • Sensitivity or allergy to salicylates (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)
  • In individuals with glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)
  • Children with chickenpox or other viral infections due to association between salicylates and Rene’s Syndrome (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Pregnancy and lactation (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Congestive heart failure (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Individuals with elevated serum calcium due to presence of cadmium (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Interactions:

  • May potentiate effects of anti-platelet medication (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)
  • Warfarin and other anti-coagulant medication (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)