Artemisia vulgaris

artemisia_vulgaris_mugwort_flowers_04-08-05-1

Aphotoflora. (2004). Aphotoflora. Retrieved from: http://www.aphotoflora.com/d_artemisia_vulgaris_mugwort.html

Botanical Name: Artemisia vulgaris
Common name: Mugwort, Motherwort, Cronewort (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
Family: Asteraceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)
Parts used: Leaf and root (Hoffmann, 2013, p. 531)

Folklore: The name “Motherwort” is derived from western folklore as a herb for the womb (Holms, 1989, p. 317)

Constituents: Volatile oil (linalool, 1,8-cineole, β-thujone, borneol, α- and β- pinene); sesquiterpene lactones (incl. vulgarin); flavonoids; coumarin derivatives and triterpenes (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531).

Actions

  • Bitter tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)
  • Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)
  • Nervine tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)

 

TCM actions:

  • Warms channels
  • Stops bleeding
  • Dispels cold
  • Relieves pain’
  • Drains dampness
  • Warms the uterus
  • Alleviates itching

(Hempen, 2009, p. 586)

 

Indications Traditional

  • Mugwort root is a traditional European treatment for epilepsy (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Traditionally used in Moxibustion in the treatment of damp-cold and pain due to cold (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

TCM indications

  • Amenorrhea (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • Dysmenorrhea (Hempen, 2009, p. 587; Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • PMS with dry skin, swollen breasts, confusion and loss of self esteem (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • Estrogen or progesterone deficiency (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • Failure to progress during labor (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • Restless foetus (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)
  • Infertility (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Anorexia (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Gastric and biliary dyspepsia (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Liver congestion (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Jaundice (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Edema (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Aches, pains, fever and chills (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Boils, ulcers, sores (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Urinary and intestinal infections (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Intestinal parasites (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Eczema or itching (internal or external) (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)
  • Cough, wheezing phlegm (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

 

Dosage & Preparation: 3-9g/day (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

 

Cautions

  • Avoid during pregnancy and lactation due to effect on uterus and “drying” quality (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Long term use/excessive dose may cause toxicity due to thujone content (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Yin deficentcy heat (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

 

Interactions: For heavy menstrual bleeding, restless foetus or premature labor: combine with Angelicae sinensis (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

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Viburnum prunifolium

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Northern Family Farms. (2013). Flowering Shrubs. Retrieved from: http://www.northernfamilyfarms.com/detail.php?plant=313

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Cook, W. (2013). Blackhaw (Viburnum prunifolium). Retrieved from: http://www.carolinanature.com/trees/vipr.html,/span>

Botanical Name: Viburnum prunifolium
Common name: Black Haw
Family: Caprifoliaceae (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
Parts used: Bark (Bone, 2003, p. 100)

 

Constituents: Flavonoids (incl. biflavone amentoflavone), iridoid glycosides, triterpenes and triterpenic acids and coumarins (incl. scopoletin) (Bone, 2003, p. 101)

Actions

  • Astringent (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Hypotensive (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Uterine sedative (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Bronchospasmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Antiasthmatic (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Indications

  • Dysmenorrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Threatened miscarriage (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • False labor pains (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Asthma (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Postpartum hemorrhage (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Hypertension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • 5-4.5mL liquid extract (1:2)/day or 10-30mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Tincture (1:5 in 60%): 5-10mL/tds
  • Decoction: 2tsp dried herb/1 cup water/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 594).

 

Cautions: Caution to be taken in individuals with kidney stones due to oxolate content

Combinations: For threatened miscarriage: combine with False Unicorn root and Cramp Bark (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 181)

Interactions: Due to scopoletin content, caution should be taken when used in combination with anticoagulant medications (Bone, 2003, p. 100).

Viburnum opulus

viburnum-opulus-fl-rboutwell viburnum-opulus-trilobum-fr-fbramley-b

Images: New England Wild Flower Society. (2013). Virburnum opulus/Highbush-cranberry. Retrieved from: https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/viburnum/opulus/

Botanical Name: Viburnum opulus
Common name: Cramp Bark (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
Family: Caprifoliaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
Parts used: Dried Bark (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

Constituents: Hydroquinones (incl. arbutin and methylarbutin), coumarines (incl. scopoletin and scopoline) and tannins (mainly catechins) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Actions

  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593; Bone, 2013, p. 212)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Vasorelaxant (Bone, 2013, p. 226)

 

Indications

  • Relaxes muscular spasm and tension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Cramps of both voluntary and involuntary muscles (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Dysmenorrhea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Excessive menstrual blood loss (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Delayed or sparse menstruation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Irregular bleeding during miscarriage (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Protect against threatened miscarriage (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Atonic conditions of pelvic organs (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Angina (Bone, 2013, p. 228)
  • IBS (Bone, 2013, p. 201)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture: 4-8mL/tds
  • Decoction: 2tsp dried her/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Interactions: Use cautiously with immune modulators and hypertensive agents (Natural Standard, 2014)

Turnera diffusa

Das Entfernen des Urheberrechtsvermerks ist gem‰fl dem "Gesetz ¸ber Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte (Urheberrechtsgesetz) strafbewehrt und wird verfolgt.

B.Bos. (n.d.). Damiana (Turnera diffusa). Retrieved from: http://www.giftpflanzen.com/turnera_diffusa.html

Botanical Name: Turnera diffusa
Common name: Damiana (Bone, 2003, p. 171)
Family: Turneraceae (Bone, 2003, p. 171)
Parts used: Leaves and stems (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 144)

 

History/Folklore: Traditionally used by Native Brazillian, Mexican and Mayan people (Bone, 2003, p. 171). In Mexico the herb was consumed as a stimulating beverage in place of tea/coffee (Bone, 2003, p. 171). Mayan Indians are believed to have used the herb to prevent giddiness, loss of balance and also as an aphrodisiac (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 144)

 

Constituents:

  • Sesquiterpenes
  • Alkaloids
  • Volatile oils
  • Thymol
  • Gozalitosin
  • Resin
  • Tannins
  • Gum
  • Mucilage
  • Starch
  • Bitter element

(Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 144)

 

Actions

  • Nervine tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 171)
  • Mild laxative (Bone, 2003, p. 171)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 144)

 

Indications

  • Anxiety (Bone, 2003, p. 171)
  • Depression (Bone, 2003, p. 171)
  • Impotence (Bone, 2003, p. 171)
  • Decreased libido (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 144)
  • Nervousness (Bone, 2003, p. 171)
  • Nervous dyspepsia (Bone, 2003, p. 171)
  • Constipation (Bone, 2003, p. 171)

 

Traditional indications in Mexico include:

  • Sterility
  • Aphrodisiac
  • Childbirth aid
  • Nervous debility
  • Spermatorrhea
  • Irritable bladder
  • Suppressed menstruation

(Bone, 2003, p. 171)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • 3-6mL liquid extract (1:2)/day (Bone, 2003, p. 171)
  • 20-40mL liquid extract (1:2)/week (Bone, 2003, p. 171)
  • Dried leaf: 2-4g/tds (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 144)

 

Cautions & Contraindications: None Known (Bone, 2003, p. 171)

Interactions: May theoretically have an additive effect with hypoglycemic agents, although there is not enough evidence to support this (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 144)

Asparagus racemosa

Asparagus racemosus-1

Prasad, S. R. (n.d.). ASPARAGUS (Shatavari) as Multi target Drug in Women. Retrieved from: http://technoayurveda.com/Shatavari.html

Botanical Name: Asparagus racemosa
Common name: Shatavari, Wild Asparagus, Satavar (Hindi), Satavari (Sanskrit) (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
Family: Liliaceae (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
Parts used: Root (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
Quality: Bitter, sweet, cooling (Pole, 2006, p. 217)

History: Shatavari is regarded in Ayurvedic medicine as part of the rasayana group, which translates to the path that primordial tissue takes (Bone, 2003, p. 410). Australian aboriginals used shatavari topically in a wash for scabies, ulceration and chicken pox (Bone, 2003, p. 410).

Constituents: Steroidal saponins (incl. shatavarin I); alkaloids (incl. pyrrolizidine alkaloid ‘asparagamine A’); and mucilage (Bone, 2003, p. 410).

Actions

  • Tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Galactagogue (Bone, 2003, p. 409; (\Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Sexual tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Female reproductive tonic (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Adaptogen (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Sapsmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Antidiarrheal (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Diuretic (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Aphrodisiac (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Immunosuppressant (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Immunomodulator (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Nervine (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Demulcent (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Anti-bacterial (Pole, 2006, p. 217)

Indications

  • Promote conception (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Sexual debility (Both male and female) (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Infertility (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Impotence (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Promote lactation (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Menopause (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Promote appetite in children (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Infections (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Diarrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Colic (Pole, 2006, p. 217)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 4.5-8.5mL/day or 30-60mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 409)

Contraindications

  • Acute lung congestion (Pole, 2006, p. 218)
  • High kapha and/or āma (Pole, 2006, p. 218)

Combinations: Combine with Ashwagandha for a uterine tonic or to promote fertility in both male and females (Pole, 2006, p. 218)

Interactions: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 409)

Lycopus virginicus

LYCOPUS_VIRGINICUS

Singh, M. (2006). LYCOPUS VIRGINICUSBugle-weed. Retrieved from: http://www.homeopathyandmore.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=770

Botanical Name: Lycopus virginicus
Common name: Bugleweed (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
Family: Lamiaceae (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
Parts used: Ariel Parts (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)

Constituents:

  • Phenolic acid derivatives: caffeic, rosmaninic , chlorogenic and ellagic acid
  • Pimaric acid
  • Methyl ester

(Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)

 

Actions

  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • Peripheral vasoconstrictor (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • Antitussive (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • TSH antagonist (Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • Mild sedative (Bone, 2010, p. 113)

 

Indications

  • Specific for overactive thyroid, notably symptoms such as:
    • Shortness of breath
    • Palpitations
    • Shaking (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563; Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • Graves disease (Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • Heart palpitations of nervous origin (Hoffmann, 2010, pp. 563-564)
  • Irritating coughs (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 564)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

2-6mL liquid extract (1:2)/day

15-40mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

(Bone, 2010, p. 113)

Cautions:

  • Blocks conversion of thyroxin to T3 in the liver and therefore may interfere with thyroid hormones (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 564)
  • High doses and extended therapy are not recommended (Bone, 2010, p. 113)

 

Contradictions

  • Hypothyroidism (Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • Pregnancy and lactation (Bone, 2010, p. 113)

 

Interactions

  • Preparations containing thyroid hormone (Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • May interfere with thyroid diagnostic procedures involving radioactive isotopes (Bone, 2010, p. 113)

Leonurus cardiaca

show_image
UniProt Consortium (2014). SPECIES Leonurus japonicus (Chinese motherwort) (Leonurus artemisia). Retrieved from: hengduan.huh.harvard.edu

Botanical Name: Leonurus cardiaca
Common name: Motherwort (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
Family: Lamiaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
Parts used: Aerial parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)

Constituents: Iridoids (incl. leonuride); labdane diterpenes (incl. leocardin); flavonoids (incl. apigenin, kaempferol, and quercetin glucosides); caffeic acid; alkaloids (incl. tachydrine, betonicine, turicin, leonurine); tannins; and volatile oil (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562).

Actions

  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562; Bone, 2003, p. 331)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562; Bone, 2003, p. 331)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562; Bone, 2003, p. 331)
  • Hepatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Cardiotonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562; Bone, 2003, p. 331)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562; Bone, 2003, p. 331)
  • Anti-arrhythmic (Bone, 2003, p. 331)

 

Indications

  • Delayed or suppressed menstruation (esp. when related to anxiety and tension) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562).
  • Congestive amenorrhea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562; Bone, 2003, p. 331)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562; Bone, 2003, p. 331)
  • False labor pains (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Menopausal symptoms (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Tachycardia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562; Bone, 2003, p. 331)
  • Anxiety and tension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Insomnia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Anemic nervousness (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Cardiac weakness following infection (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Hyperthyroidism (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Neuralgia (Bone, 2003, p. 331)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2):2,0-3.5mL/day or 15-25mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 331)
  • Tincture (1:5 in 40%): 1-4mL/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)
  • Infusion: 1-2tsp/1cup water/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)

 

Contraindications

  • Pregnancy (Bone, 2003, p. 331)

 

Interactions: May interfere with cardiovascular medications (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 562)