Tribulus terrestris

demirdikeni1

Tuscu, S. (2008). Çocuk İstiyorum Tüp Bebek. Retrieved from: http://www.cocukistiyorum.com/tr/content.asp?PID=%7B1050DD8C-F0E6-4668-9FCB-32EF4A44F9FA%7D&PT=%20Yumurta%20kalitesi%20ve%20sperm%20say%FDs%FDn%FD%20art%FDran%20bitki

Botanical Name: Tribulus terrestris
Common name: Tribulus, Gokshur (Sanskrit), Gokharu (Hindi), Puncture vine (Chhatre, Nesari, Somani, Kanchan & Sathaye, 2014).
Family: Zygophyllaceae (Chhatre et al., 2014).
Parts used: Dried fruit (Chhatre et al., 2014).

Quality: In Ayurvedia medicine Tribulus is describes as madhura (sweet), gura (heavy to digest), brumhema (nourishing) and Vatanut (pacifies vata dhsa).

Constituents: Saponins (incl. furostanol, spirostanol and sarsasapogenin), flavonoids, glycosides (incl. spirostanol glycosides) and alkaloids (Chhatre et al., 2014).

 

Actions

  • Diuretic
  • Aphrodisiac
  • Antiurolithic
  • Immunomodulatory
  • Cardiotonic
  • Hepatoprotective
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Analgesic
  • Anti-spasmodic
  • Anti-cancer
  • Anti-bacterial
  • Anthelmintic

(Chhatre et al., 2014).

 

Indications

  • Coronary Artery Disease (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Infertility (men) (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Infertility (women) (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Exercise performance enhancement (Natural Standard, 2014)

In Auyrvedic medicine, the herb is indicated in the genitourinary tract to clear urinary stones, as a urinary disinfectant and for impotence (Chhatre et al., 2014)

Accoring to Chhatre, in TCM the herb is used to “restore depressed liver, treat feeling of fullness in chest, mastitis, flatulence, acute conjunctivitis, headache and vitiligo” (2014).

 

Cautions

  • Individuals with menstrual disorders as it may cause menorrhagia (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia as it may increase prostate volume (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Hypoglycemia/diabetes as it may decrease blood sugar levels (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Pregnancy due to traditional use as abortifacent (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Contraindications: Know allergy (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Interactions

  • Beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Digoxin due to evidence of positive ionotropic activity (Natural Standard, 2014)

Asparagus racemosa

Asparagus racemosus-1

Prasad, S. R. (n.d.). ASPARAGUS (Shatavari) as Multi target Drug in Women. Retrieved from: http://technoayurveda.com/Shatavari.html

Botanical Name: Asparagus racemosa
Common name: Shatavari, Wild Asparagus, Satavar (Hindi), Satavari (Sanskrit) (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
Family: Liliaceae (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
Parts used: Root (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
Quality: Bitter, sweet, cooling (Pole, 2006, p. 217)

History: Shatavari is regarded in Ayurvedic medicine as part of the rasayana group, which translates to the path that primordial tissue takes (Bone, 2003, p. 410). Australian aboriginals used shatavari topically in a wash for scabies, ulceration and chicken pox (Bone, 2003, p. 410).

Constituents: Steroidal saponins (incl. shatavarin I); alkaloids (incl. pyrrolizidine alkaloid ‘asparagamine A’); and mucilage (Bone, 2003, p. 410).

Actions

  • Tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Galactagogue (Bone, 2003, p. 409; (\Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Sexual tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Female reproductive tonic (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Adaptogen (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Sapsmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Antidiarrheal (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Diuretic (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Aphrodisiac (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Immunosuppressant (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Immunomodulator (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Nervine (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Demulcent (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Anti-bacterial (Pole, 2006, p. 217)

Indications

  • Promote conception (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Sexual debility (Both male and female) (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Infertility (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Impotence (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Promote lactation (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Menopause (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Promote appetite in children (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Infections (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Diarrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Colic (Pole, 2006, p. 217)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 4.5-8.5mL/day or 30-60mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 409)

Contraindications

  • Acute lung congestion (Pole, 2006, p. 218)
  • High kapha and/or āma (Pole, 2006, p. 218)

Combinations: Combine with Ashwagandha for a uterine tonic or to promote fertility in both male and females (Pole, 2006, p. 218)

Interactions: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 409)

Salvia miltiorrhiza

salvia1
Dharmananda, S. (n.d.). Salvia. Retrieved from: http://www.itmonline.org/arts/salvia.htm

Botanical Name: Salvia miltiorrhiza
Common name: dan shen (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 229), red sage.
Family: Lamiaceae
Parts used: dried root (Lin & Hsieh, 2010)

History/Folklore: TCM herb traditionally used for huo xue hua yu (activating blood circulation to disperse stasis), jie du xiao zhong (removing toxic substances and reducing swelling), and qing xin an shen (nourishing the heart to calm the mind) (Gao, Mendoza, Lu & Lawrence, 2012).

Constituents:

  • Tanshinone I
  • Tanshinone IIA
  • Cryptotanshinone
  • Dihydrotanshinone
  • Danshensu
  • Salvianolic acid B

(Lin & Hsieh, 2010)

 

Actions

  • Hypotensive (Lin & Hsieh, 2010)
  • Anti-coagulant (Gao et al., 2012)
  • Anti-platelet (Lin & Hsieh, 2010; Gao et al., 2012)
  • Antioxidant (Lin & Hsieh, 2010; Gao et al., 2012)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Lin & Hsieh, 2010)
  • GABA receptor (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 229)
  • Neuroprotective (Lin & Hsieh, 2010)
  • Hepatoprotective (Gao et al., 2012)
  • Immunomodulatory (Gao et al., 2012)

 

Indications

Traditional:

  • Irrengular menstruation
  • Dysmenorrhea
  • Amenorrhea
  • Precordial pain
  • Abdominal pain
  • Body/joint pain
  • Skin ulcer
  • Palpitations
  • Insomnia

(Gao et al., 2012)

 

Contemporary:

  • Angina pectoris (Gao et al., 2012)
  • Coronary heart disease (Gao et al., 2012)
  • Ischaemic damage following stroke (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 229; Gao et al., 2012)
  • Reduce/prolongs development of altherosclerosis (Lin & Hsieh, 2010)
  • Prevents cerebral infarction (Lin & Hsieh, 2010)
  • Myocardial infarction (Gao et al., 2012)

 

Combinations: Combines with Astraglais membranaceus and Polygonum multiflorum in a age tonic (Bone, 2010, p. 77)

 

Interactions: Contraindicated in individuals on warfarin (Lin & Hsieh, 2010)

Glycyrrhiza glabra

3eb270
Mharr. (2008). PlantFiles: Picture #7 of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Retrieved from: http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/showimage/186125/

Botanical Name: Glycyrrhiza glabra
Common name: Licorice, licorice root, yashimadhu (Sanskrit), ganco (Chinese), Kanzo (Japanese) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
Family: Leguminosae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650)
Parts used: Root and stolen (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650)

History/Folklore: Use of licorice root dates back to 2500BC, found referenced on Assyrian clay and Egyptian papyri. The herb is also used extensively in both Auyrvedia and Traditional Chinese Medicine (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650).

Constituents: Triterpenoid saponins (notably: glycyrrhizin); Glycyrrhetic acid; flavonoids (incl. liquiritigenin glycosides); chalchones (incl. isoliquiritin); isoflavonoids (incl. glabridin, glabrone and formononetin); sterols; coumrains; fatty acids; phenolics; and arabinogalactans (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 721)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-allergic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651)
  • Anti-ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651)
  • Anti-viral (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Antibacterial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652)
  • Expectorant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-tussive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 653)
  • Antidepressant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 653)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 653-654; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-platelet (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Immunomodulatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Adrenal tonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Demulcent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Mild laxative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)

 

Indications

  • Peptic ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Gastritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Dyspepsia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Dermatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Allergies (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Viral Infections (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Respiratory tract infection (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Chronic stress (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Polycystic ovary disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 730)
  • Complications of diabeties (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Menopause (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 655-656)
  • Weight loss (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Addison’s disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 730)
  • Hypercholesterolaemia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Depression (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Urinary tract inflammation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Adrenal insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Viral Hepatitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 731)
  • HIV/AIDS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 731)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Decoction: 3-12g/day
  • Liquid extract (1:1): 2-6mL/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)

 

Cautions

  • Adverse reactions have been recorded at doses > 100-400mg/day (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • High doses over a long period of time may lead to increased blood pressure, therefore caution should be taken in individuals with hypertension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 656-658)
  • Caution to be taken in men with a history of impotence, infertility or decreased libido due to potential ability to reduce testosterone (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 658)

 

Contraindications

  • Pregnancy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 567; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Cholestatic liver disease and cirrhosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Hypokalaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Severe kidney insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)

 

Interactions:

  • Anti-hypertensives (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 657)
  • Digoxin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 657)
  • May potentate effects of diuretics and laxatives (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 734)

Rhodiola rosea

ss-rhodiola2-300x300-1

Serenity Station. Rhodiola for Relaxation. (2013). Retrieved from: http://www.serenity-station.com/rhodiola-relaxation/

Botanical Name: Rhodiola rosea
Common name: Rhodiola, Golden root, Rose root, Arctic root (Huang, Perry, Ernst, 2011, p. 235)
Family: Crassulaceae (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
Parts used: Root (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 794)

History/Folklore: Found in high altitudes of Arctic regions, and throughout Europe and Asia (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235). The herb is used widely throughout Russia and Scandinavia (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235).

Constituents: Salidroside and aglycones; rhodiolo A, rosiridol and sachalinol; Rosavins; gossypectin-7-acid, rhodioflavonoside, gallic acid, trans-p-hydroycinnamic acid and p-tyrosol; cinnamic acid; hydroquinone (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 795)

Actions

  • Adaptogen (Hoffmann, 2003, p.484; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 795)
  • Tonic (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Antidepressant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 796)
  • Immunomodulatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 796)
  • Antibacterial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 796)
  • Cardioprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 796)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 797)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 797)
  • Cytoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 797)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 797)

Acts as an adaptogen by modulating the stress response (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 795). Some ways it achieves this is by:

  • Increasing the bio-electrical activity of the brain (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Inhibiting enzymes that degrade neurotransmitters such as dopamine, adrenaline, seratonin and achetlycholine (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Preventing a rise in mediators for the stress response (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)

 

Indications

  • Stress induced depression (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 798)
  • General Anxiety Disorder (GAD) (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 798)
  • Fatigue (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 798)
  • Anaemia (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Impotence (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Infections (incl. cold and flu) (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Cancer (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Nervous System disorders (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Headache (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Improves memory and attention span (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Increases physical endurance (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 798)
  • Resistance to altitude sickness (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Diabetes (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 799)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

Fluid extract (1:2): 20-49mL/week (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 799)

Cautions: No major risks are associated with Rhodiola (Huang et al., 2011, p. 242)

 

Contraindications: Contraindicated in bipolar disorder (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 799)

 

Interactions: Emit caution when used in conjunction with Adriamycin, Cyclophosphamide and antidepressants based on theoretical evidence (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 799)

Withania somnifera

WITHANIsomNIFERA
Nijemegen, B. J. (n.d.). Withania somnifers. Retrieved from: http://www.oocities.org/eagal14u/WithaniasSomnifera.html

Botanical name: Withania somnifera
Common Name: Ashwagandha, “Indian Ginseng”, Winter Cherry, Ajagandha, Karaj Hindi, Saam Al Ferakt (Ven Murthy et al., 2010, Abstract).
Family: Solanaceae (Ven Murthy et al., 2010, Abstract)
Part used: Root, leaves and bark (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949)

Active constituents: Ashwagandha contains steroidal alkaloids and lactones, which together are known as “withanoilides” (Ojha & Arya, 2009, p.156).

Origin: Native to South Asia, Central Asia and Africa, Ashwagandha is traditionally used in ayurvedic medicine (Ven Murthy et al., 2010, Abstract)

Qualities: Described as “medharasayan” in Ayurvedic medicine, which means ‘promoter of learning and memory revival’ (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949)

 

Actions

  • Adaptogen (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949; Ven Murthy et al., 2010, Abstract)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949; Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335; Wollen, 2010, p. 231)
  • Anti-tumor, antiproliferative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949; Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335)
  • Anti-stress (Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335; Wollen, 2010, p. 231)
  • Antioxidant (Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335; Wollen, 2010, p. 231)
  • Immunomodulator (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949; Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335)
  • Hematopoietic (Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335)
  • Mild sedative (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 949)
  • Tonic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 949)

 

Indications:

Rheumatologic conditions and Musculoskeletal disorders

Bone and Mills discuss the traditional indication in India and the Middle East in rheumatic pain (2013, p. 949). Mishra suggests that Ashwaganda’s use in rheumatologic conditions is likely a result of the herbs anti-inflammatory properties (2000, p. 335) and that the herb is indicated in variety musculoskeletal conditions (2000, p. 334).

 

Anxiety and Stress related physiological effects

Bone & Mills state that Ashwaganda indication in both anxiety and pathology associated with negative impact of stress is supported by clinical trials (2013, p. 949). Ashwaganda has been trialed for it’s assistance in the treatment of anxiety with some positive results (Bhattacharya, Bhattacharya, Sairam & Ghosal, 2000, Abstract). A recent randomized control trial found that Ashwaganda reduced symptoms of stress (Wollen, 2010, p.231).

 

Cardiovascular Disease

Withanolides of Ashwaganda have demonstrated cardiotonic activity including increasing contractively and relaxation, and decreasing preload (Ojha & Arya, 2009, pp. 156-157). While studies surrounding around Ashwaganda’s cardiovascular effects are fairly preliminary, with many based around animal models, evidence is encouraging and further research is warranted (Ojha & Arya, 2009, p.156).

 

Growth improvement in children (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 949)

Bone & Mills comment on Ashwaganda’s benefit in child growth (2010, p. 949). Withania is a source of iron (Mishra at al., 2000, p. 336, and is described as an anti-anemic by Bone & Mills (2010, p.949). Iron is also an important nutrient in fetal development and thus the herb could have a positive effect in increasing iron levels in an individual (Yang, 2012, pp. 65-69.)

 

Conditions associated with aging

Aging results in a progressive shift in the body’s homeostatic adaptive responses, increasing the body’s vulnerability to both stress and disease (Tortora & Derrickson, 2012, p. 105). As discussed previously, Ashwaganda’s role as an adaptogen and anti-stress herb allows non-specific support in such stressors encountered with aging (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 949). Many of the contemporary indications are pathology associated with aging such as musculoskeletal disorders and cardiovascular disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949).

 

Alzheimer’s Disease

Withanolides possess neuroprotective properties (Wollen, 2010, p. 213). In vitro research demonstrated Ashwaganda’s ability to repair damage axons, dendrites and synapses, suggesting the potential of the herb in the indication of Alzheimer’s Disease (Wollen, 2010, p. 231). Human trials demonstrated the herbs ability to reduce symtoms associated with stress including forgetfulness and inability to concentrate (Wollen, 2010, p. 231).

 

Traditional Use:

In Ayurveda Ashwaganda root is indicated in a number of vata and kapha conditions, and is seen as an aphrodisiac, tonic and depurative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949). In the Middle East the root is used as a sedative, hypnotic and for rheumatic pains (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949)

 

Preparation: Decoction, liquid extract, capsules, tablet (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949)

 

Dose:

  • Capsule: 1-6g in capsule form/day
  • Decoction: 1 part root 10 parts water/tds
  • Fluid extract: 2-4mL/tds

 

Cautions and Contradictions: Wollen states that no adverse effects were found in doses up to 500mg/day (2010, p. 231)

Eleutherococcus senticosus

eleutherocoque---eleutheroc_352

Herboplanet.eu. (n.d.). ELEUTHEROCOCCUS SENTICOSUS radice (Eleuterococco, Ginseng siberiano). Retrieved from: http://www.herboplanet.eu/prodotto.asp?id=352

EleutherococcusSenticosusPhoto03

MDidea.com. (2013). What Is Siberian Ginseng?.  Retrieved from: http://www.mdidea.net/products/herbextract/eleutherosides/photogallery.html

Botanical Name: Eleutherococcus senticosus
Common name: Siberian ginseng, Elecuthro, Acanthopanax senticosus (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
Family: Araliaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
Parts used: Root (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)

Folklore and traditional use:

Traditionally used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to reinforce qi, to invigorate spleen and kidney and calm nervce. The herb is also indicated in insomnia and dream disturbed sleep (Bone, 2003, p. 196).

 

Constituents:

  • Eleuthrosides (ligans and phenylpropanoids) including:
    • Eleuthrosides E (syringaresinol diglucoside)
    • Eleuthrosides B (syringin)
    • Eleuthrosides B4 (Sesamin)
    • Eleuthrosides D
  • Triterpenoid saponins
  • Glycans (elecuthrans A, B, C, D, E, F & G)

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 819)

 

Actions

  • Adaptogen (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Immune modulating (Bone, 2003, p. 195)
  • Tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 195)

 

Indications

  • Angina (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Hypertension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Hypotension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Chronic bronchitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Cancer (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Exhaustion (Bone, 2003, p. 195; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Irritability (Bone, 2003, p. 195; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Insomnia (Bone, 2003, p. 195; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Mild depression (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Convalescence (Bone, 2003, p. 195; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Debilitating effects of chemotherapy (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 545)
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 81)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

1:2 liquid extract

  • Dose per day: 2-8mL
  • Dose per week: 15-55mL

 

Cautions

  • Hypotension (Bone, 2003, p. 195)
  • High does may cause insomnia, palpitations, tachycardia and hypertension (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 823).
  • ‘Ginseng abuse syndrome’ (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 823)

 

Contradictions: Not to be used during the acute phase of infections (Bone, 2003, p. 195)