Rehmannia glutinosa

Scrophularianingpoensis
MDidea. (2013). Rehmannia glutinosa and Its Relatives. Retrieved from: http://www.mdidea.com/products/new/new08611.

Botanical Name: Rehmannia glutinosa
Common name: Rehmannia,
Family: Gesneriaceae (Bone, 2003, p. 386), Scrophulariaceae (Zhang, Li & Jia, 2008, Abstract)
Parts used: Root (Bone, 2003, p. 386)

Quality: Neutral/warm (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 780)

Constituents: Iridoid glycosides (Bone, 2003, p. 387).

Actions

  • Antipyretic (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Adrenal tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Anti-haemorrhagic (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone, 2003, p. 386)

 

TCM specific: Tonifies blood, tonifies yin and tonifies jing (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 780)

 

Indications

  • Rheumatoid arthritis (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Asthma (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Urticaria (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Chronic nephritis (in combination) (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Fevers (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Haemorrhage (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Skin rashes (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Insomnia (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Constipation (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Suporting adrenal function (notably in the presence of hypertension) (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Preventing suppressive effects of corticosteroid drugs (Bone, 2003, p. 386)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 4.5-8.5mL/day or 20-60mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • 10g/day (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 780)

 

Cautions: Excess dosage may lead to abdominal distension and loose stool (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 780)

 

Contraindications: In TCM the herb in contraindicated in individuals with spleen and stomach deficiency, lack of appetite and diarrhoea (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 781)

 

Combinations:

  • For dizziness, palpitations, insomnia and menstrual disturbances or heavy uterine bleeding: combine with Angelica sinensis or Paeoniae lactiflora (radix) (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 781)
  • For insomnia and palpitations: combine with Angelica sinensis or Paeoniae lactiflora (radix) or Ziziphus spinosa (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 781)

Glycyrrhiza glabra

3eb270
Mharr. (2008). PlantFiles: Picture #7 of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Retrieved from: http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/showimage/186125/

Botanical Name: Glycyrrhiza glabra
Common name: Licorice, licorice root, yashimadhu (Sanskrit), ganco (Chinese), Kanzo (Japanese) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
Family: Leguminosae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650)
Parts used: Root and stolen (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650)

History/Folklore: Use of licorice root dates back to 2500BC, found referenced on Assyrian clay and Egyptian papyri. The herb is also used extensively in both Auyrvedia and Traditional Chinese Medicine (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650).

Constituents: Triterpenoid saponins (notably: glycyrrhizin); Glycyrrhetic acid; flavonoids (incl. liquiritigenin glycosides); chalchones (incl. isoliquiritin); isoflavonoids (incl. glabridin, glabrone and formononetin); sterols; coumrains; fatty acids; phenolics; and arabinogalactans (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 721)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-allergic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651)
  • Anti-ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651)
  • Anti-viral (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Antibacterial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652)
  • Expectorant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-tussive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 653)
  • Antidepressant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 653)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 653-654; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-platelet (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Immunomodulatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Adrenal tonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Demulcent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Mild laxative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)

 

Indications

  • Peptic ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Gastritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Dyspepsia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Dermatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Allergies (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Viral Infections (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Respiratory tract infection (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Chronic stress (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Polycystic ovary disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 730)
  • Complications of diabeties (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Menopause (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 655-656)
  • Weight loss (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Addison’s disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 730)
  • Hypercholesterolaemia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Depression (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Urinary tract inflammation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Adrenal insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Viral Hepatitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 731)
  • HIV/AIDS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 731)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Decoction: 3-12g/day
  • Liquid extract (1:1): 2-6mL/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)

 

Cautions

  • Adverse reactions have been recorded at doses > 100-400mg/day (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • High doses over a long period of time may lead to increased blood pressure, therefore caution should be taken in individuals with hypertension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 656-658)
  • Caution to be taken in men with a history of impotence, infertility or decreased libido due to potential ability to reduce testosterone (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 658)

 

Contraindications

  • Pregnancy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 567; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Cholestatic liver disease and cirrhosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Hypokalaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Severe kidney insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)

 

Interactions:

  • Anti-hypertensives (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 657)
  • Digoxin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 657)
  • May potentate effects of diuretics and laxatives (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 734)