Corydalis ambigua

pain2-1

Dharmananda, S. (n.d.). SIMPLE TRADITIONAL FORMULAS FOR PAIN. Retrieved from: http://www.itmonline.org/arts/pain.htm

Botanical Name: Corydalis ambigua, Corydalis spp., Corydalis yanhusuo, C. amurensis
Common name: Yan hu su (Chinese) (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
Family: Fumariaceae (Natural Standard, 2014).
Parts used: rhizome (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Qualities: Warm, pungent and bitter

Constituents: Alkaloids (incl. corydalin, corybulbin, apomorphic and berberine alkaloids) (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Actions

  • Analgesic (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Hypnotic (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Sedative (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532; Natural Standard 2014)
  • Anti-ulcerative (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Anti-parasitic (Natural Standard, 2014)

TCM specific: moves blood, relieves pain, breaks up blood stasis and moves and regulates qi (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Indications

  • Moves blood and relieves pain in dysmenorrheal (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Chest pain (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Epigastric and abdominal pain (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Pain following blunt trauma (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Hernia-like pain (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Angina pectoris (Natural Standard, 2014)

Dosage & Preparation: 3-15g/day (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Caution: Has shown to have inhibitory effect in K(ATP) channels (Natural Standard, 2014)

Contraindications:

  • Pregnancy (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • As a hypnotic and sedative, the herb is contraindicated in depression (Bone, 2013, p. 275).

 

Combinations: For dysmenorrhea and pain in limbs combine with Cortex cinnamomi (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

 

Interactions: May interact with sedatives, hypnotics, anti-arrythmias and analgesics (Natural Standard, 2014)

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Curcuma longa

turmeric-info0
HowStuffWorks. (2014). Tumeric. Retrieved from: http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/botany/turmeric-info.htm

Turmeric-Root-and-Powder-1024x666
Christie, D. (2014). Top 5 Benefits of Tumeric. Retrieved from: http://www.harboursidefitness.com.au/blog-post/top-5-benefits-of-turmeric/

Botanical Name: Curcuma longa
Common name: Tumeric, Indian saffron, jianghuang (Chinese), shati (Sanskrit) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900)
Family: Zingeberaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)
Parts used: root and rhizome Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)

Quality: Pungent, bitter, astringent, heating (Pole, 2006, p. 282). In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is used to dry damp and move stagnation in the blood (Pole, 2006, p. 282).

History/Folklore: Native to India and South-East Asia, Tumeric has been recorded in medical texts dating back to 600BC (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Constituents: Essential oil (sesquiterpene ketones, zingiberene, phellandrene, sabinene, cineole and borneol); Yellow pigments “diarylheptanoids” or “curcuminoids” (incl. curcumin) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901).

Yellow pigment curcumin has been shown to influence transcription factors, cytokines, growth factors, kinases and other enzymes (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 902-903; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Anti-platelet (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 903; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 904; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Hepatoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 904-905)
  • Nephroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 904-905)
  • Neuroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 905)
  • Cardioprotective and vasoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 905)
  • Hypolipidaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 905-906)
  • Antibacterial (Pole, 2006, p. 282; Zorotchian Moghadamtousi, Abdul Kadir, Hassandarvish, Tajik, Abubakar & Zandi, 2014, p. 2)
  • Antimicrobial (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 906-907)
  • Antiparasitic (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 907)
  • Antiviral (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, pp. 2-3)
  • Antiparasitic (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 2)
  • Antitumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 908)
  • Anti-depressant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 909)
  • Radioprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Antiallergic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Emmenagogue (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Blood tonic (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Carminative (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Alterative (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Vulunary (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Anti-carcinogenic (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • TCM specific: blood and qi tonifier with analgesic properties (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Indications

  • Cancer prevention (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 907)
  • Cystic fibrosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 909)
  • HIV/AIDS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
    • One human trial exhibited an increase in CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte counts (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
    • Another human trial showed relief of HIV-associated chronic diarrhoea (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Eye disorders (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 911)
  • Genetic diseases (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 911)
  • Alzehimer’s disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 916)
  • Skin conditions (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 916)
  • Candida (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 7)
  • Helicobacter pylori (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 8)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:1): 5-14mL/day
  • 4g powdered tumeric mixed with water/1-2 day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)

Cautions

  • Doses > 15g/day should not be administered long term or in conjunction with anti-platelet or anti-coagulant medication (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Individuals complaining of hair loss (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Women trying to conceive (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Pregnancy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 918)

Contraindications

  • Biliary tract obstruction (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is contraindicated in high vāta and pitta (Pole, 2006, p. 283).
  • Acute jaundice and hepatitis (Pole, 2006, p. 283).

Combinations

  • For liver congestion: combine with kutki, bhumiamalaki and pippali (Pole, 2006, p. 283)
  • Small amounts of long/black pepper enhances anti-inflammatory activity of turmeric (Pole, 2006, p. 283)
  • For congestion of the lower abdomen and menstrual imbalance: combine with guggulu, mustaka and purnarnava (Pole, 2006, p. 283)

Interactions: Turmeric may potentiate effects of anti-platelet or anticoagulant medications (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 918).

Zingiber officinalis

1
Harvest Newsletter. (2011). Grow Local Ginger. Retrieved from: http://archive.constantcontact.com/fs033/1106770492400/archive/1107516061313.html

Botanical Name: Zingiber officinalis
Common name: Ginger
Family: Zinziberaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
Parts used: rhizome (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)

History/Folklore: Medicinal use of ginger is recorded in early Sanskrit and Chinese texts as well as in Ancient Greek, Roman and Arabic medical literature (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578).

Constituents: Essential oil (incl. zingiberene, sesquiphellandrene and β-bisabolene); gingerols and shogoals (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)

Actions

  • Carminative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Antiemetic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Peripheral circulatory stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Anti-platelet (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 578, 582)
  • Diaphoretic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578: Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Digestive stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Anti-ulcer (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 581)
  • Anti-microbial (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 583)
  • Antiparasitic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 583)
  • Anti-tumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Rubefacient (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Cholagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)

 

Indications

  • Motion sickness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Morning sickness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Post-operative and drug induced nausea (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 578-579)
  • Osteoarthritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 570)
  • Gastroparesis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • Chilbains (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Stimulate appetite (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Chemotherapy-induce nausea (Ryan, Heckler, Roscoe, Dakhil, Kirshner, Flynn, Hickok & Morrow, 2011)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Fresh rhizome: 500-1000mg/tds
  • Dried rhizome: 500mg/2-4 times a day
  • Liquid extract (1:2): 0.7-3mL/day
  • Tincture (1:5): 1.7-7.5ml/day (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)

 

Cautions

  • May enhance bioavailability of other medications (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • May cause heart burn (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • May have a blood thinning effect (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Some sources say it is unsuitable for morning sickness and results are conflicting (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Treatment during pregnancy should not exceed a daily dose of 2g of dried ginger (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)
  • Inhibits thromboxane synthase and acts as a prostaglandin agonist (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)

 

Contraindications:

  • Gallstones (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)

Interactions:

  • Increases bioavilability of other drugs by increasing absorption from GI tract and/or protecting the drug from metabolized by the liver’s first phase (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591).
  • In Individuals already taking blood thinning medication, daily dose of ginger should not exceed 4g (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)
  • May increase bleeding when combined with other anti-coagulants (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)

Thymus vulgaris

thyme-live

Botanical Name: Thymus vulgaris
Common name: Thyme (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 885)
Family: Lamiaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 886)
Parts used: Leaf and Flowers (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 885)

Constituents

  • Essential oil (antimicrobial and antioxidant)
  • Phenols: thymol and/or carvacrol
  • Carnosol, rosmanols, galdosol, carnosic acid (strong antioxidants)
  • Flavonoids
  • Acetophenone glycosides
  • Salicylates
  • Polysaccharide with anti-complementory properties

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 886)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antibacterial
  • Antimicrobial
  • Antioxidant
  • Antiparasitic
  • Antiseptic
  • Antiviral
  • Expectorant
  • Rubefacient
  • Spasmolytic

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 885)

 

History

Traditionally considered a major antispasmodic cough remedy, thyme also has a long history of culinary use and as a flavouring agent in teas and liquors. Tea was administered for colic, dyspepsia and to control fever in common cold. Thyme oil was used in rheumatism and neuralgic pain.

Eclectic physicians considered thyme to be an emmenagogue and tonic and indicated the tea in disorders such as hysteria, dysmennorhea and convalescence (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 885).

 

Indications

Indications supported by clinical trials include:

  • Productive cough
  • Acute bronchitis (in combination)

Traditional indications include:

  • Bronchitis
  • Whooping cough
  • Asthma
  • Catarrh and inflammations of upper respiratory tract
  • Dyspepsia
  • Colic
  • Flatulence
  • Diarrhoea (notably in children)
  • Tonsilitis (topical)

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 885)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Infusion: 3-12g/day

Liquid extract (1:2): 2-6mL/day

Tablet or Capsule: 2-6mL or equivilant/day

Tincture (1:5): 6-18mL/day

Gargle or mouthwash

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 886)

 

Cautions

  • Allergic reactions are possible, notably from tropical use (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 886)
  • Large doses are not recommended in pregnancy, however the herb is compatible with lactation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 891)

 

Contradictions

None known (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 891)

 

Combinations

Asthma: combines with Lobelia and Ephedra

Whooping cough: combine with Wild Cherry and Sundew

 

REFERENCE
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Image: Herbosophy. (2014). THYME (THYMUS VULGARIS). Retrieved from: http://www.herbosophy.com.au/thyme-thymus-vulgaris/

Commiphora molmol

Commiphora_myrrha_-_Köhler–s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-019

Image I

it-024

Image II

Botanical Name: Commiphora molmol
Common name: Myrrh
Family: Sterculiaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
Parts used: Gum resin (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)

Constituents

  • Volatile oil
  • Gum
  • Resins
  • Sterol

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)

 

Actions

  • Anti-catarrhal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 753)
  • Anti-parasitic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 753)
  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 753)
  • Antimicrobial (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 753)
  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
  • Expectorant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
  • Vulnerary (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 753)

 

As an anti-mircobial myrrh works in two complementary ways:

  1. Stimulates production of white blood corpuscles, which have anti-pathogenic actions.
  2. It has a direct anti-microbial effect

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)

 

History

The name ‘myrrh’ is likely derived from Arabic or Hebrew word ‘mur’ meaning bitter. The oleo-gum resin is obtained from the stem of Commiphora species native to Africa and Arabia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 753).

Has been used as a medicinal herb for thousands of years and is referenced, several times in the bible in the Psalms, the Song of Solomon and is commonly remembered as one of the three gifts the Magi brought to Christ (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 753).

Despite ancient record, clinical trials are relatively recent. The herb is of significant value in the treatment of parasites, appearing to be active against parasites that infest deeper in the body than the gut, such as the liver and gallbladder (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 753).

 

Indications

  • Infections of the mouth

Mouth ulcers (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
Gingivitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
Pyorrhea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)

  • Catarrhal problems

Pharyngitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
Sinusitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)

  • Common cold (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
  • Respiratory complaints (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
  • Boils (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
  • Glandular fever (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
  • Brucellosis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
  • Wounds & abrasions (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Tincture (1:1 in 90%): 1-4mL/tds
Infusion*: 1-2tsp myrrh powder/1 cup water/tds

*Resin does not easily dissolve in water and therefore must be powdered well. Tincture preparation is the preferred preparation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540).

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

  • Undiluted tincture may irritate mouth (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 540)
  • According to Chinese Medicine myrrh is contraindicated in pregnancy and in cases of excessive uterine bleeding, however animal studies have found no harmful effects (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 758).

 

Combinations

  • Combines well with Echinacea for infections and in mouth washes
  • For external use, should be combined with distilled Witch Hazel

(Hoffmann, 1990, p. 218)

 

REFERENCE
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Image I: Köhler, F. (1897). Köhler’s Medizinal-Pflanzen. Retrieved from:http://pharm1.pharmazie.uni-greifswald.de/allgemei/koehler/koeh-eng.htm

Image II: Image juicy. (n.d.). Plants-Commiphora. Retrieved from: http://www.imagejuicy.com/images/plants/c/commiphora/2/