Corydalis ambigua

pain2-1

Dharmananda, S. (n.d.). SIMPLE TRADITIONAL FORMULAS FOR PAIN. Retrieved from: http://www.itmonline.org/arts/pain.htm

Botanical Name: Corydalis ambigua, Corydalis spp., Corydalis yanhusuo, C. amurensis
Common name: Yan hu su (Chinese) (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
Family: Fumariaceae (Natural Standard, 2014).
Parts used: rhizome (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Qualities: Warm, pungent and bitter

Constituents: Alkaloids (incl. corydalin, corybulbin, apomorphic and berberine alkaloids) (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Actions

  • Analgesic (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Hypnotic (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Sedative (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532; Natural Standard 2014)
  • Anti-ulcerative (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Anti-parasitic (Natural Standard, 2014)

TCM specific: moves blood, relieves pain, breaks up blood stasis and moves and regulates qi (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Indications

  • Moves blood and relieves pain in dysmenorrheal (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Chest pain (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Epigastric and abdominal pain (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Pain following blunt trauma (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Hernia-like pain (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Angina pectoris (Natural Standard, 2014)

Dosage & Preparation: 3-15g/day (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Caution: Has shown to have inhibitory effect in K(ATP) channels (Natural Standard, 2014)

Contraindications:

  • Pregnancy (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • As a hypnotic and sedative, the herb is contraindicated in depression (Bone, 2013, p. 275).

 

Combinations: For dysmenorrhea and pain in limbs combine with Cortex cinnamomi (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

 

Interactions: May interact with sedatives, hypnotics, anti-arrythmias and analgesics (Natural Standard, 2014)

Aletris farinose

alfa3

Millsbaugh, C. F. (2010). Alertris farimosa/colicroot; unicorn root. Retrieved from: http://www.cumauriceriver.org/botany/Aletris_farinosa.html

Botanical Name: Aletris farinose
Common name: Unicorn root, true unicorn root.
Family: Liliaceae (Natural Standard, 2014)
Parts used: rhizome and root (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)

History/Folklore: Native to North America, Aletris farinose is unsustainable du to habitiat destruction and is considered to be endangered. Clinical trials are lacking (Natural Standard, 2014). The fresh root has been traditionally used as a narcotic, emetic and catharic, however the dried root is more commonly traditionally used in digestive disorders and as a women’s tonic (Natural Standard, 2014).

Constituents: Bitter principal (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)

Actions

  • Bitter (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)
  • Anti-spasmodic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)
  • Sedative (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)

 

Indications

  • Sluggish digestion (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)
  • Dyspepsia (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)
  • Flatulence (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)
  • Debility (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)
  • Anorexia (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)
  • Digestive colic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)
  • Considered beneficial for habitual miscarriage due to chronic uterine weakness (Natural Standard, 2014)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Decoction: 1-2tsp dried herb/tds
  • Tincture1-2mL/tds

(Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)

Cautions & Contraindications

  • Pregnancy due to oestrogenic activity (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • May irritate inflammatory gastric conditions (Natural Standard, 2014)

Paeonia lactiflora

Paeonia_lactiflora_White_Wings

Peony, White Wings. Retrieved from: http://www.insideiris.com/feature_plants/3573/Peony__White_Wings

Botanical Name: Paeonia lactiflora
Common name: White Peony, Paonia (Bone, 2003, p. 458), Bai shae (Chinese) (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 776)
Family: Paeoniaceae (Bone, 2003, p. 458)
Parts used: Root (Bone, 2003, p. 458)

Quality: Neutral, cool tendency (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 776)

Constituents: Paeoniflorin (a glucoside with cagelike monoterpene structure) (Bone, 2003, p. 458)

Actions

  • Sapsmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 458)
  • Skeletal muscle relaxant (Bone, 2003, p. 458)
  • Anti-convulsant (Bone, 2003, p. 458)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone, 2003, p. 458; Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 776)
  • Sedative (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 776)
  • In vitro research shows active constituent paeoniflorin to inhibit testosterone synthesis in ovaries but not in adrenal glands (Bone, 2003, p. 459)
  • TCM specific: tonifies blood, tonifies and nourishes jing, harmonizes and tonifies liver, relieves pain, descend yang, cools blood, moves and regulates qi and relieves spasm (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 776)

 

Indications

  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome (Bone, 2003, p. 458)
  • Infertility (Bone, 2003, p. 458)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 458)
  • Skeletal muscle cramps and spasm (Bone, 2003, p. 458)
  • Fibroids (Bone, 2003, p. 458)
  • Angina (Bone, 2003, p. 458)
  • Epilepsy (Bone, 2003, p. 458)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (Bone, 2003, p. 458)
  • Enhance memory (Bone, 2003, p. 458)
  • Anti-platelet (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 776)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 4.5-8.5mL/day or 30-60mL/day (Bone, 2003, p. 458)
  • 10-15g/day (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 776)

Contraindications: In TCM the herb in contraindicated in fullness and distension in the chest, cold deficiency and diarrhoea (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 777)

 

Combinations:

  • For dysmenorrhoea combine with licorice (Bone, 2003, p. 458)
  • For skeletal muscle cramps and spasm combine with licorice (Bone, 2003, p. 458)
  • For fibroids, combine with Paeonia suffructicosa, Poria cocos, Cinnamomum cassia and Prunus persica (Bone, 2003, p. 458)
  • For angina combine with Stervia rebaudiana and ginsenosides (Bone, 2003, p. 458)
  • For epilepsy combine with licorice and fossilized mammalian tooth (Bone, 2003, p. 458)

 

Interactions:

  • Use with caution in combination with barbiturates and sedatives (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 776)
  • Use with cation in combination with anti-coagulants and anti-platelet medications (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 776)

Lycopus virginicus

LYCOPUS_VIRGINICUS

Singh, M. (2006). LYCOPUS VIRGINICUSBugle-weed. Retrieved from: http://www.homeopathyandmore.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=770

Botanical Name: Lycopus virginicus
Common name: Bugleweed (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
Family: Lamiaceae (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
Parts used: Ariel Parts (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)

Constituents:

  • Phenolic acid derivatives: caffeic, rosmaninic , chlorogenic and ellagic acid
  • Pimaric acid
  • Methyl ester

(Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)

 

Actions

  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • Peripheral vasoconstrictor (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • Antitussive (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • TSH antagonist (Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • Mild sedative (Bone, 2010, p. 113)

 

Indications

  • Specific for overactive thyroid, notably symptoms such as:
    • Shortness of breath
    • Palpitations
    • Shaking (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563; Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • Graves disease (Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • Heart palpitations of nervous origin (Hoffmann, 2010, pp. 563-564)
  • Irritating coughs (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 564)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

2-6mL liquid extract (1:2)/day

15-40mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

(Bone, 2010, p. 113)

Cautions:

  • Blocks conversion of thyroxin to T3 in the liver and therefore may interfere with thyroid hormones (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 564)
  • High doses and extended therapy are not recommended (Bone, 2010, p. 113)

 

Contradictions

  • Hypothyroidism (Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • Pregnancy and lactation (Bone, 2010, p. 113)

 

Interactions

  • Preparations containing thyroid hormone (Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • May interfere with thyroid diagnostic procedures involving radioactive isotopes (Bone, 2010, p. 113)

Viscum album

Sturm04042

Stüber, K. (2006). BioLib alphabetic index of Latin plant species names. Retrieved from: http://caliban.mpiz-koeln.mpg.de/library/species/species_00365.html

Botanical Name: Viscum album
Common name: Mistletoe (European)
Family: Viscaceae (Bone, 2003, p. 329)
Parts used: Ariel Parts (Bone, 2003, p. 329)

History/Folklore: Eurapean Mistletoe was considered a sacred herb in Celtic tradition (Natural Standard, 2014). The herb has a history of use in ancient Greek and Roman medicine (Natural Standard, 2014). The Eclectic’s used large and frequent doses of the fresh plant to facilitate labour (Bone, 2003, p. 329). In the beginning of the 20th century Mistletoe became a cancer therapy in herbal medicine potentially due to the herbs immunostimulatory and cytotoxic actions, however it is yet to gain significant clinical evidence to support this (Natural Standard, 2014).

American Mistletoe (associated with Christmas tradition) is a different species with similar properties, but different traditional uses (Natural Standard, 2014).

 

Constituents:

  • Lectin-I , lectin-II & lectin-III
  • ViscalbCBA,
  • Chitin-binding protein, and
  • Viscotoxins (A1-3; B),
  • Eleutheroside E
  • Flavanone glycosides,
  • Alkaloids
  • Green parts of the plant contain highly esterified D-galacturonan.
  • Mistletoe berries contain arabinogalactan, phenylpropanoids: syringin, syringenin-apiosylglucoside)

(Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Actions

  • Hypotensive (Bone, 2003, p. 329)
  • Peripheral vasodilator (Bone, 2003, p. 329)
  • Mild sedative (Bone, 2003, p. 329)

 

Indications

  • Hypertension (Bone, 2003, p. 329; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Tachycardia (Bone, 2003, p. 329)
  • Cardiac hypertrophy (Bone, 2003, p. 329)
  • Atherosclerosis (Bone, 2003, p. 329)
  • Epilepsy (Bone, 2003, p. 329)
  • Nervous excitability (Bone, 2003, p. 329)
  • Anxiety (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Vertigo (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • The German commission E acknowledges the herb in the treatment of malignant tumors and degenerative inflammation of joints (Natural Standard, 2014).

 

Preparation & Dosage

3-6mL liquid extract (1:2)/day

20-40mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

 

Cautions & Contraindications:

  • Raw berries are considered toxic, caution to be taken when administered orally (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Historical use as emmenagogue, suggest caution to be taken in pregnancy (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Combinations: For raised blood pressure, combine with Hawthorn Berries and Lime Blossom (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 215)

Tilia spp.

linden_flower

Kidman, D. (2014). Linden Flower (Tilia spp.) and its Uses. Retrieved from: http://dkmommyspot.com/linden-flower-tilia-spp-and-its-uses/

Botanical Name: Tilia spp.
Common name: Linden flower, Lime blossom (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
Family:
Parts used: Flower (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

History/Folklore: In Western Herbal Medicine, the most commonly used species is T. cordata and T. platyphyllos

Constituents:

  • Essential oil (Bone, 2003, p. 319)
  • Flavonids (Bone, 2003, p. 319)

 

Actions

  • Spasmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Peripheral vasodilator (Bone, 2003, p. 318; Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 203)
  • Mild sedative (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Diaphoretic (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

 

Indications

  • Common cold (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Cold-related coughs (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Catarrhal respiratory conditions (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Anxiety, restlessness (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Insomnia (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Heachache (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Hypertension (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Palpitations (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  1. 0-4.5mL liquid extract (1:2)/day

15-30mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

(Bone, 2003, p. 318)

 

Cautions: Due to potential for the herb to interact with iron absorption, in individuals with anaemia, the herb should be taken away from meals (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

 

Contraindications: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

 

Interactions

  • May reduce iron absorption (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

Zizyphus spinosa

201212050952596831

Maya. (2010). Zizyphus spinosa cv Suanzao. Retrieved from: http://e.zgqjz.com/2012/12/05/1180.htm

Botanical Name: Zizyphus spinosa
Common name: Suan zao ren (Chinese), sour jujube, spiny ziziphus, wild ziziphus (Natural Standard, 2014)
Family: Rhamnaceae (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
Parts used: Seed and stem bark (Natural Standard, 2014)

Quality: sour, sweet taste and neutral temperature (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)

Constituents: Saponins, alkaloids, flavones and vitamin C (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)

Actions

  • Analgesic (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Antipyretic (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Anxiolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 279)
  • Hypnotic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 274)
  • Sedative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 274)

 

Indications

  • Hypertension (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Insomnia (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Irritability (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Anxiety (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 278)
  • Nocturnal emissions (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • 10-30g/day (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)

 

Cautions

  • Pregnancy (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 447)

 

Contraindications:

  • TCM specific: severe diarrhoea and repletion heat (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 447)
  • Individuals with a latex allergy (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Individuals with allergy to Rhamnaceae (buckthorn) family (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Due to sedative nature, individuals should not operate heavy machinery under the influence of this herb (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Combinations: In TCM Ziziphus is an ingredient in Suan Zao Ren Tang decoction, which is administered for insomnia, nocturnal emissions, somnolence, neurasthenia, menopausal symptoms and excessive worrying (Natural Standard, 2014).

 

Interactions:

  • May potentialte effects of barbiturates and other sedative medications (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Decreases the effect of caffeine (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)

Withania somnifera

WITHANIsomNIFERA
Nijemegen, B. J. (n.d.). Withania somnifers. Retrieved from: http://www.oocities.org/eagal14u/WithaniasSomnifera.html

Botanical name: Withania somnifera
Common Name: Ashwagandha, “Indian Ginseng”, Winter Cherry, Ajagandha, Karaj Hindi, Saam Al Ferakt (Ven Murthy et al., 2010, Abstract).
Family: Solanaceae (Ven Murthy et al., 2010, Abstract)
Part used: Root, leaves and bark (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949)

Active constituents: Ashwagandha contains steroidal alkaloids and lactones, which together are known as “withanoilides” (Ojha & Arya, 2009, p.156).

Origin: Native to South Asia, Central Asia and Africa, Ashwagandha is traditionally used in ayurvedic medicine (Ven Murthy et al., 2010, Abstract)

Qualities: Described as “medharasayan” in Ayurvedic medicine, which means ‘promoter of learning and memory revival’ (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949)

 

Actions

  • Adaptogen (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949; Ven Murthy et al., 2010, Abstract)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949; Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335; Wollen, 2010, p. 231)
  • Anti-tumor, antiproliferative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949; Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335)
  • Anti-stress (Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335; Wollen, 2010, p. 231)
  • Antioxidant (Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335; Wollen, 2010, p. 231)
  • Immunomodulator (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949; Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335)
  • Hematopoietic (Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335)
  • Mild sedative (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 949)
  • Tonic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 949)

 

Indications:

Rheumatologic conditions and Musculoskeletal disorders

Bone and Mills discuss the traditional indication in India and the Middle East in rheumatic pain (2013, p. 949). Mishra suggests that Ashwaganda’s use in rheumatologic conditions is likely a result of the herbs anti-inflammatory properties (2000, p. 335) and that the herb is indicated in variety musculoskeletal conditions (2000, p. 334).

 

Anxiety and Stress related physiological effects

Bone & Mills state that Ashwaganda indication in both anxiety and pathology associated with negative impact of stress is supported by clinical trials (2013, p. 949). Ashwaganda has been trialed for it’s assistance in the treatment of anxiety with some positive results (Bhattacharya, Bhattacharya, Sairam & Ghosal, 2000, Abstract). A recent randomized control trial found that Ashwaganda reduced symptoms of stress (Wollen, 2010, p.231).

 

Cardiovascular Disease

Withanolides of Ashwaganda have demonstrated cardiotonic activity including increasing contractively and relaxation, and decreasing preload (Ojha & Arya, 2009, pp. 156-157). While studies surrounding around Ashwaganda’s cardiovascular effects are fairly preliminary, with many based around animal models, evidence is encouraging and further research is warranted (Ojha & Arya, 2009, p.156).

 

Growth improvement in children (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 949)

Bone & Mills comment on Ashwaganda’s benefit in child growth (2010, p. 949). Withania is a source of iron (Mishra at al., 2000, p. 336, and is described as an anti-anemic by Bone & Mills (2010, p.949). Iron is also an important nutrient in fetal development and thus the herb could have a positive effect in increasing iron levels in an individual (Yang, 2012, pp. 65-69.)

 

Conditions associated with aging

Aging results in a progressive shift in the body’s homeostatic adaptive responses, increasing the body’s vulnerability to both stress and disease (Tortora & Derrickson, 2012, p. 105). As discussed previously, Ashwaganda’s role as an adaptogen and anti-stress herb allows non-specific support in such stressors encountered with aging (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 949). Many of the contemporary indications are pathology associated with aging such as musculoskeletal disorders and cardiovascular disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949).

 

Alzheimer’s Disease

Withanolides possess neuroprotective properties (Wollen, 2010, p. 213). In vitro research demonstrated Ashwaganda’s ability to repair damage axons, dendrites and synapses, suggesting the potential of the herb in the indication of Alzheimer’s Disease (Wollen, 2010, p. 231). Human trials demonstrated the herbs ability to reduce symtoms associated with stress including forgetfulness and inability to concentrate (Wollen, 2010, p. 231).

 

Traditional Use:

In Ayurveda Ashwaganda root is indicated in a number of vata and kapha conditions, and is seen as an aphrodisiac, tonic and depurative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949). In the Middle East the root is used as a sedative, hypnotic and for rheumatic pains (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949)

 

Preparation: Decoction, liquid extract, capsules, tablet (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949)

 

Dose:

  • Capsule: 1-6g in capsule form/day
  • Decoction: 1 part root 10 parts water/tds
  • Fluid extract: 2-4mL/tds

 

Cautions and Contradictions: Wollen states that no adverse effects were found in doses up to 500mg/day (2010, p. 231)

Valeriana officinalis

val1
Grieve M, (1971). Figure 1: Valeriana officinalis. Retrieved from: http://www.itmonline.org/arts/valerian.htm#figure%201

Botanical Name: Valeriana officinalis
Common name: Valerian
Family: Valerianaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
Parts used: Rhizome, stolon, root (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)

Folklore and traditional use:

  • Medicinal use of Valarian dates back to the Dioscordis and Galen, in which the plant was administered for epilepsy.
  • In was used during World War II for sleep promotion amongst civilians.
  • IN Europe, Valarian oil was used as a remedy for cholera.
  • The Eclectricts used the herb as a cerebral stimulant in chorea, hysteria (associated with mental depression) and in fever.
  • IN Ayurvedic medicine Valarian was used for hysteria, neurosis and epilepsy.

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)

 

Constituents:

  • Iridoids or “valepotriates” (including valtrate, isovaltrate, didrovaltrate and acevaltrate.
  • Essential oil: containing monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and carboxylic compounds
  • Valerenic acid (non-volatile cyclopentane sesquiterpenes)

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 582)

 

Actions

  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Anxiolytic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Mild Sedative (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Hypnotic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Spasmolytic/Antispasmodic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)

 

Indications

  • Insomnia (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Restlessness (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Nervous tension (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Depression (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Anxiety (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Alleviation of symptoms of benzodiazepine withdrawal (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Stress related heart conditions (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Dried root: 3-9g /day
  • Liquid extract: (1:2) 2-6mL / day
  • Tincture: (1:5) 5-15mL /day

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)

 

Cautions & Contradictions: None known (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 587)

 

Interactions: Although no reports have been made, Valarinan may theoretically increase effects of CNS depressants when taken in conjunction (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 587).

 

Combinations:

  • For depression and anxiety combines with Hypericum perforatum (Bone, 2003, p. 447)
  • For insomnia combine with Melissa officinalis or Humulus lupulus (Bone, 2003, p. 447)

Piscidia erythrina

jdkwapr

Medowbeautynursey.com. (n.d.). Piscidia piscipula. Retrieved from: http://meadowbeautynursery.com/jamaica-dogwood/

Botanical Name: Piscidia erythrina
Common name: Jamaica Dogwood
Family: Fabaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
Parts used: Root Bark (Bone, 2003, p. 289) Stem (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)

Folklore and traditional use: Originated in West India, traditionally used as a fish poison (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573).

 

Constituents: Isoflavins (incl. lisetin, jamaicin, ichtyone); Rotenoids (rotenone, milletone, isomilletone); and organic acids (incl. piscidic acid, beta-sitosterol and tannins) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)

 

Actions

  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Anodyne (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573; Bone, 2003, p. 289)
  • Analgesic (Bone, 2003, p. 289)
  • Mild sedative (Bone, 2003, p. 289)

 

Indications

  • Migrane (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Neuralgia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Pain relief from nervous tension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Toothache (Bone, 2003, p. 289)
  • Ovarian and uterine pain (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Insomnia (Bone, 2003, p. 289)
  • Anxiety (Bone, 2003, p. 289)
  • Dysmenorrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 289)
  • Muscular spasm (Bone, 2003, p. 289)
  • Rheumatism (Bone, 2003, p. 289)

 

Preparation: tincture, fluidextract or decoction (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)

 

Dosage: 3-6mL of 1:2 liquid extract/day (20-40mL/week) (Bone, 2003, p. 289)

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

  • Overdose produces toxic effects (Bone, 2003, p. 289)
  • Contraindicated in pregnancy and lactation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573; Bone, 2003, p. 289)
  • Contraindicated in cardiac insufficiency (Bone, 2003, p. 289)

 

Interactions: May increase effects of concomitant therapies (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)