Aletris farinose

alfa3

Millsbaugh, C. F. (2010). Alertris farimosa/colicroot; unicorn root. Retrieved from: http://www.cumauriceriver.org/botany/Aletris_farinosa.html

Botanical Name: Aletris farinose
Common name: Unicorn root, true unicorn root.
Family: Liliaceae (Natural Standard, 2014)
Parts used: rhizome and root (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)

History/Folklore: Native to North America, Aletris farinose is unsustainable du to habitiat destruction and is considered to be endangered. Clinical trials are lacking (Natural Standard, 2014). The fresh root has been traditionally used as a narcotic, emetic and catharic, however the dried root is more commonly traditionally used in digestive disorders and as a women’s tonic (Natural Standard, 2014).

Constituents: Bitter principal (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)

Actions

  • Bitter (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)
  • Anti-spasmodic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)
  • Sedative (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)

 

Indications

  • Sluggish digestion (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)
  • Dyspepsia (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)
  • Flatulence (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)
  • Debility (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)
  • Anorexia (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)
  • Digestive colic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)
  • Considered beneficial for habitual miscarriage due to chronic uterine weakness (Natural Standard, 2014)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Decoction: 1-2tsp dried herb/tds
  • Tincture1-2mL/tds

(Hoffmann, 1990, p. 238)

Cautions & Contraindications

  • Pregnancy due to oestrogenic activity (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • May irritate inflammatory gastric conditions (Natural Standard, 2014)
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Harpagophytum procumbens

harpagofito

HIPERnatural.COM. (2014). HARPAGOFITO. Retrieved from: http://www.hipernatural.com/es/pltharpagofito.html

Botanical Name: Harpagophytum procumbens
Common name: Devil’s Claw (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
Family: Pedaliaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 510)
Parts used: Rhizome (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557), secondary root tuber (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)

History/Folklore: Native to Kalahari region of South Africa (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509). In South African traditional medicine, the herb is used in pregnancy to relieve pain and as a postpartum (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514).

Constituents: Iridoid glycosides (incl. harpagide, harpagoside and procumbide); flavonoids (kaempferol and luteolin glycosides); phenolic acids (cholorogenic and cinnamic acid); quinone (harpagoquinone; triterpenes; oleanolic and ursolic acids derivatives; esters and sugars (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Anodyne (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Hepatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Analgesic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Bitter (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Anti-arrhythmia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)

Indications

  • Arthritis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Endometriosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Muscle pain (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Fever (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Allergic reactions (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Wound, ulcers, boils (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 40%): 1-2mL/tds
  • Decoction: 0.5 tsp/cup water/tds
  • 5g/day (for loss of appetite 1.5g/day)

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)

 

Cautions

  • Oesophageal reflux and states of hyperacidity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)
  • Pregnancy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)

 

Contraindications: Gastric or duodenal ulcers (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)

Interactions:

  • Moderate inhibitory effect towards cytochrome P450 enzyme: CYP 2C8, CYP 2C9, CYP 2C19 and CYP 3A4 (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)
  • May potentiate effects of Warfarin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)
  • May theoretically interact with anti-arrhythmic drugs (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)

Ginkgo biloba

896px-Ginkgo_biloba_SZ136

Von Siebold, P. F., & Zuccarini, J. G. (1870). Flora Japonica, Sectio Prima (Tafelband). Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ginkgo_biloba_SZ136.png

Botanical Name: Ginkgo biloba
Common name: Ginko (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
Family: Ginkoaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597)
Parts used: Leaf, seed kernel (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)

Folklore: Perhaps one of the oldest living tree species, Ginko’s origin is believe to be remote mountainous valleys of Zhejiang. First introduced into Europe in 1690 by Botanist Engelbert Kaempfer, up until 350 years ago the medicinal knowledge was restricted to China (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 493). Traditional therapeutic use is not well documented (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597).

Constituents:

  • Flavonols (inlc. quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, quercetin-3-beta-D-glucoside, quercitrin and rutin and coumaric acid esters of these flavonoids)
  • Terpene lactones (“terpenoids”) including bilobalide and ginkgolides A, B, C & J.
  • Biflavonoids, ginkgolic acids, sterols, procyanidins and polysaccharides

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597)

 

Actions

  • Anti –platelet activating factor (PAF) activity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Tissue perfusion enhancer (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Circulatory stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Nootropic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Neuroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anxiolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Adaptogen (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Vasodilator (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Digestive bitter (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Uterine Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)

 

Indications

  • Restricted cerebral blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Memory and/or cognitive impairment (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Fatigue (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Stroke (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Vertigo (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Acute cochlear deafness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Tinnitus of vascular origin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Peripheral arterial disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Favorable modification or cardiovascular risk (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Early stages of Alzheimer’s-type dementia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Multi-infarct dementia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Reduced retinal blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Normal tension glaucoma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Age-related muscular degeneration (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Congestive dysmenorrhea and PMS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Hypoxia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anxiety (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Adjuvant therapy in chronic schizophrenia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Symptoms associated with Multiple Sclerosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Allergic conjunctivitis (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Asthma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Protections from radiation damage (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Idiopathic oedema (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Vitilogo (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

120-140 standardized extract/day

120-140mg dry extract (in divided doses)/day

4-8 weeks treatment for optimal results (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 554)

 

Cautions

  • Caution should be taken in individuals with coagulation disorders when used in conjunction with antiplatelet or anticoagulant medication, although clinical trials suggesting this are insufficient (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617).
  • Individuals undergoing surgery are advised to cease taking it 5-7 days prior due to potential (minor) risk of increased blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617)

 

Contraindications:

  • Known sensitivity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617)
  • If unusual bleeding or bruising occurs cease treatment immedietly (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 505)

 

Interactions: Theoretically Ginko may increase bleeding risk when taken in conjunction with Warfarin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 505)

Olea europea

215_Olea_europaea_L
Masclef, A. (1981). Atlas des plantes de France. Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:215_Olea_europaea_L.jpg

Botanical Name: Olea europea
Common name: Olive leaf (Bone, 2003, p. 352
Family: Oleaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 710)
Parts used: Leaf (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 710)

Constituents:

  • Phenolic compounds: notably oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol
  • Rutin, Luteolin, Catechin and Apigenin
  • Nutrients: selenium, chromium, iron, zinc, vitamin C, beta-carotene.

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 710)

Actions

  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 710; Bone, 2003, p. 352)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 710)
  • Anti-thrombotic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 711)
  • Antimicrobial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 711)
  • Antiviral (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 711)
  • Anti-hypertensive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 711)
  • Bitter tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 352)

 

Indications

  • Hypertension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 713; Bone, 2003, p. 352)
  • Angina pectoris (Bone, 2003, p. 352)
  • Gout and fluid retention (Bone, 2003, p. 352)

Traditional indications include coughs, obstinate and intermittent fever, angina, stomachaches associated with acidity, mouth ulcers and snakebites (Bone, 2003, p. 352)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • 5-7.0mL liquid extract (1:2)/day
  • 25-50mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

Cautions & Contraindications: Allergy to plants of the Oleaceae family (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 715)

Interactions: May have additive effects when used in conjunction with Hypoglycaemic and hypotensive agents (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 715)

Crataeva nurvala

amara02222

Forst, G. (1786). Crataeva religiosa -Tempelbaum – Temple Plant. Übersetzt von Alois Payer. Retrieved from: http://www.payer.de/amarakosa/amara205a.htm

Botanical Name: Crataeva nurvala

Common name: Crateva, Varuna (Sanskrit), Varun (Hindi), Buch-Hum.

Family: Capparidaceae (Bhattacharjee, Shashindara & Ashwathanaryana, 2012, p. 1162)

Parts used: Steam and root bark (Premila, 2006, p. 157)

 

Qualities: The bark is hot and bitter with a sharp, sweet taste (Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162)

 

Constituents:

  • Alkaloids: incl. cadabicine, cadabicine diacetate and cadabicine dimethyl ether
  • Sterols: incl. diosgenin, b-sitosterol
  • Flavonoids: incl. rutin and quercitin
  • Isothiocyanate glucoside: glucoapparin
  • Saponins,
  • Triterpenes, notably lupeol
  • Tannins
  • Glucosinolates
  • Phytosterols

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162; Premila, 2006, pp. 157-158).

 

Actions:

Active principle “lupeol” has potential diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-rheumatic, contraceptive, rubefacient and vesicant actions (Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162).

 

Additional traditional actions include

  • Bitter tonic
  • Laxative
  • Anti-emetic

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162).

 

Indications

Traditional Indications include:

  • Urolithiasis
  • Urinary infections
  • Kidney and bladder stones
  • Promote appetite

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, pp. 1162-1163; Premila, 2006, p. 157)

  • Breathing problems
  • Fever
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Weak immune system
  • Wound healing
  • Memory loss
  • Heart and lung weakness
  • Decrease secretion of bile and phlegm
  • Hepatitis
  • Edema
  • Ascites arthritis
  • Jaundice
  • Ecezma
  • Rabies
  • Birth control
  • Irregular menstruation
  • Convulsions
  • Tympanites

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, pp. 1162-1163).

  • Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
  • Rheumatism (internally and externally)

(Premila, 2006, p. 157)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

Decoction: In one trail a stem bark decoction of 1 part stem bark/16 parts water/tid for a period of 6 months in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy found to relieve related symptoms (Premila, 2006, p. 157)

Herbalists recommend around 3,000 – 6,000 mg crude herb per day (Herbosophy, 2014).

Juniperus communis

Juniper berries; Photographer unknown; No date

Florafinder.com (n.d.). Juniperus communis. Retrieved from: http://www.florafinder.com/Species/Juniperus_communis.php,/span>

Botanical Name: Juniperus communis

Common name: Juniper, Cade oil, Cedar, Cedarwood (Natural Standard, 2014)

Family: Cupressaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 561)

Parts used: Dried fruit (berry) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 561)

 

Constituents: Diterpenes; Flavonoids (amentoflavone, quercetin, isoquercirtin, apigenin); Resin; Vitamin C; Volatile oil (myrcene, sabinene, a- and b-pinene, 4-cineole, camphene and limonene); and Condensed tannins

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 561)

 

Actions:

  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 561)
  • Antimicrobial (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 561)
  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 561)
  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 561)
  • Bitter (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 561)

 

Traditional Indications:

Juniper has a long history of use in both Europe and China (Natural Standard, 2014). Actions are associated with volatile oil content and indications include:

  • Cystitis
  • Flatulent colic
  • Rheumatism and arthritis (internal and external indication)
  • Joint and muscle pain

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 561)

 

Clinical: Juniper extract has shown to be a potent inhibiter of the herpes simplex virus in human cell culture (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 561). According to The Natural Standard no published clinical trails are available (2014).

 

Preparation & Dosage:

Tincture: 0.5-1mL/tds (1:5 in 40%)

Infusion: 1 tsp/1 cup water (infuse for 20mins)/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 561)

 

Cautions

  • The essential oil content stimulates the nephrons of the kidney and therefore the herb should be avoided in individuals with kidney disease (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 561).
  • Prolonged use or overdose may result in kidney damage (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 561)

 

Contradictions:

Pregnancy

Kidney disease

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 561; Natural Standard, 2014)

Tanacetum parthenium

TanacetumParthenium

Image I

TanacetumParthenium2

Image II

 

Botanical Name: Tanacetum parthenium
Common name: Feverfew (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 566)
Family: Compositae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 567)
Parts used: Leaf(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 566)

 

Constituents

  • Sesquiterpene lactones: Parthenolide, Articanin and Santamarine
  • Sesquiterpenes and onoterpenes: Thujone, Sabinene, Camphor, 1,8- cineole and Umbellulone (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 587)
  • Monoterpenes
  • Polyacetylene compounds
  • Essential oil
  • Flavenoids
  • Dicaffeoylquinic
  • Melatonin

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 567)

 

Actions

  • Anti-secretory: Inhibition of platelet aggregation and granule secretion from polymorphonuclear leucocytes
  • Anti-inflammatory: Inhibits NF-kappaB activation and prostaglandin secretion

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 566)

  • Vasodilator (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 587)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 587)
  • Bitter (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 587)

 

History & Traditionaal Use

Tanacetum parthenium was traditionally used to cure fevers. The herb’s common name is derived from the Latin name febris (fever) and fugure (to drive away).

Traditional indications include

  • Prophylaxis and treatment of migraine, tension headache and associated symptoms
  • Cleanse the kidneys
  • Stimulate menstruation
  • Expel worms
  • Face and ear pain relied in rheumatic conditions

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 566)

The Eclectics used feverfew as a tonic that influenced the whole gastro-intestinal tract, increased appetite and improved digestion and secretion. The herb gained popularity in Europe in the 1980’s as a migraine remedy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 566).

 

Indications (contemporary)

  • Coughs & colds
  • Febrile diseases
  • Atonic dyspepsia
  • Nervous debility

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 566)

  • Migraine headaches (particularly those eased by the application of warmth to the head).
  • Arthritis (in inflammatory stage)
  • May help alleviate dizziness and tinnitus
  • May relieve painful periods and sluggish menstrual flow

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 587)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Warm infusion
  • Decoction
  • Poultice
  • Fresh plant tincture (1:1) 0.7-2mL/day
  • Died plant tincture: (1:5) 1-2mL/day
  • Tablet: 150mg dried herb/1-2 times a day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 566)

 

Cautions & Contradictions

  • Dose should be minimal in pregnancy, especially in the first trimester (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 574). Hoffmann suggests that it is contraindicated in pregnancy (2003, p. 578).
  • Known allergy to feverfew or other members of Compositae family (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 574)

 

REFERENCE
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Images: Plants For Our Future. (2012). Tanacetum parthenium – (L.)Sch.Bip. Retrieved from: http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Tanacetum+parthenium