Turnera diffusa

Das Entfernen des Urheberrechtsvermerks ist gem‰fl dem "Gesetz ¸ber Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte (Urheberrechtsgesetz) strafbewehrt und wird verfolgt.

B.Bos. (n.d.). Damiana (Turnera diffusa). Retrieved from: http://www.giftpflanzen.com/turnera_diffusa.html

Botanical Name: Turnera diffusa
Common name: Damiana (Bone, 2003, p. 171)
Family: Turneraceae (Bone, 2003, p. 171)
Parts used: Leaves and stems (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 144)

 

History/Folklore: Traditionally used by Native Brazillian, Mexican and Mayan people (Bone, 2003, p. 171). In Mexico the herb was consumed as a stimulating beverage in place of tea/coffee (Bone, 2003, p. 171). Mayan Indians are believed to have used the herb to prevent giddiness, loss of balance and also as an aphrodisiac (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 144)

 

Constituents:

  • Sesquiterpenes
  • Alkaloids
  • Volatile oils
  • Thymol
  • Gozalitosin
  • Resin
  • Tannins
  • Gum
  • Mucilage
  • Starch
  • Bitter element

(Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 144)

 

Actions

  • Nervine tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 171)
  • Mild laxative (Bone, 2003, p. 171)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 144)

 

Indications

  • Anxiety (Bone, 2003, p. 171)
  • Depression (Bone, 2003, p. 171)
  • Impotence (Bone, 2003, p. 171)
  • Decreased libido (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 144)
  • Nervousness (Bone, 2003, p. 171)
  • Nervous dyspepsia (Bone, 2003, p. 171)
  • Constipation (Bone, 2003, p. 171)

 

Traditional indications in Mexico include:

  • Sterility
  • Aphrodisiac
  • Childbirth aid
  • Nervous debility
  • Spermatorrhea
  • Irritable bladder
  • Suppressed menstruation

(Bone, 2003, p. 171)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • 3-6mL liquid extract (1:2)/day (Bone, 2003, p. 171)
  • 20-40mL liquid extract (1:2)/week (Bone, 2003, p. 171)
  • Dried leaf: 2-4g/tds (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 144)

 

Cautions & Contraindications: None Known (Bone, 2003, p. 171)

Interactions: May theoretically have an additive effect with hypoglycemic agents, although there is not enough evidence to support this (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 144)

Angelica polymorpha/Angelica sinensis

97612523

Panoramio. (n.d.). Angelica polymorpha(Wildflower) @ Fukushima Japan. Retrieved from: http://www.panoramio.com/photo/97612523

Botanical Name: Angelica polymorpha/Angelica sinensis
Common name: Dong Quai, dan giu (Chinese) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 517)
Family: Umbelliferae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 518)
Parts used: root (Bone, 2003, p. 182)

Quality: warm, pungent, sweet (Pole, 2006, p. 768)

History/Folklore: Dong quai has a long history of use as a female tonic, and is ofter referred to as ‘the woman’s ginseng’ (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 517).

Constituents: Essential oil (mainly phthalides ligustilide and n-butylindenephthalide); phytosterols; ferulic aicd; coumarins (incl. angelol and angelicone) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 518).

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 517; Pole, 2006, p. 768)
  • Anti-anemic (Bone, 2003, p. 182; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 517)
  • Anti-platelet (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 517; Pole, 2006, p. 768)
  • Female tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Mild laxative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 517; Pole, 2006, p. 768)
  • Anti-arrhythmic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 517)
  • Immune-stimulant (Pole, 2006, p. 768)
  • Anti-spasmodic (Pole, 2006, p. 768)
  • Antibiotic (Pole, 2006, p. 768)
  • Analgesic (Pole, 2006, p. 768)
  • Hepatoprotective (Pole, 2006, p. 768)
  • Mild sedative (Pole, 2006, p. 768)

TCM specific: Tonifies and moves blood, drains wind-dampness, moistens dryness and unblocks bowles (Pole, 2006, p. 768)

 

Indications

  • Dysmenorrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Irregular menstruation (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Amenorrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Chronic hepatitis (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Chronic cirrhosis (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Constipation (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Abdominal Pain (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Swelling (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Bruising (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Infertility (Bone, 2003, p. 182)

TCM specific

  • Blood deficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 517)
  • Congealed blood (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 517)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 4.8-8.5mL/day or 30-60mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Decoction: 3-15g/day dried root (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 517)
  • Tincture (1:5): 10-15mL/day (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 517)

 

Cautions: There has been a report of a man developing gynaecomastia after ingestion of Don Quai capsuals for 1 months (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 522)

 

Contraindications

TCM specific:

  • Diarrhoea caused by weak digestion
  • Haemorrhagic disease
  • Heavy periods or bleeding tendency
  • Tendency to spontaneous abortion
  • Acute viral infections (Bone, 2003, p. 182)
  • Pregnancy (Bone, 2003, p. 182)

 

Combinations: For dysmenorrhoea combine with Corydalis, white peony and Ligusticum (Bone, 2003, p. 182)

Interactions: Warfarin (Bone, 2003, p. 182)

Trigonella foenum-graecum

trigonella_foenum-graecum

Schoepke, T. (n.d.). Pískavice řecké seno Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fabaceae). Retrieved from: http://www.okhelp.cz/images/botanika/kohler/img/index.php?img=trigonella_foenum-graecum.jpg&txt=P%C3%ADskavice+%C5%99eck%C3%A9+seno+Trigonella+foenum-graecum+%28Fabaceae%29

Botanical Name: Trigonella foenum-graecum
Common name: Fenugreek, Methi (Hindi), Methika (Sanskrit) (Pole, 2006, p. 177)
Family: Fabaceae (Natural Standard, 2014)
Parts used: Seed (Bone, 2003, p. 210)

Quality: Warming, pungent, nourishing (Pole, 2006, p. 177)

Constituents: Saponins (incl. diogenin); coumarins; flavonoids (incl. quercetin, lilyn and kaempferol); and alkaloids (incl. trigonellin, lecithin and mucilage) (Pole, 2006, p. 177).

Actions

  • Appetite stimulant (Bone, 2003, p. 210)
  • Galactagogue (Bone, 2003, p. 210; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone, 2003, p. 210)
  • Demulcent (Bone, 2003, p. 210; Pole, 2006, p. 177)
  • Hypoglycemic (Bone, 2003, p. 210)
  • Bulk laxative (Pole, 2006, p. 177)
  • Aphrodisiac (Pole, 2006, p. 177)

TCM: Yang tonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 171)

Ayurvedic specific: Appetite builder, digestive, Encourages vāta to decend, mild laxative, allieviates vāta and kapha, allieviates symptoms of diabetes (Pole, 2006, p. 177)

 

Indications

  • Diabetes mellitus type 2 (A grade evidence) (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Diabetes mellitus type 1 (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Loss of appetite (Bone, 2003, p. 210)
  • Dyspepsia (Bone, 2003, p. 210; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Gastritis (Bone, 2003, p. 210)
  • Debility (Bone, 2003, p. 210)
  • Preventing athereosclerosis (Bone, 2003, p. 210)
  • Promoting lactation (Bone, 2003, p. 210)
  • Obesity (Natural Standard, 2014; Pole, 2006, p. 177)

Ayurvedia specific: Used to treat constipation, high cholesterol, diabetes and obesity (Pole, 2006, p. 177)

TCM specific: Yang deficiency marked by pain and coldness of the lower abdomen, hernia, weakness and edema of the legs caused by cold damp (Bone, 2003, p. 212).

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 2.0-4.5mL/day or 15-30mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 211)
  • Tincture (1:3 in 45%): 3-30mL/day

 

Cautions

  • High doses not recommended in Hypothyroidism (Bone, 2003, p. 210)
  • Excessive external use may cause skin reactions (Bone, 2003, p. 211)
  • Allergic reactions have been recorded for both internal and external use (Bone, 2003, p. 211)

 

Contraindications: In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is contraindicated in high pitta (Pole, 2006, p. 178)

Combinations: For bloating and constipation combine with fennel, cumin and coriander (Pole, 2006, p. 178)

Interactions:

  • May increase risk of bleeding when used in conjunction with warfarin (Bone, 2003, p. 210)
  • Associated with inhibiting iron absorption (Bone, 2003, p. 211)

Glycyrrhiza glabra

3eb270
Mharr. (2008). PlantFiles: Picture #7 of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Retrieved from: http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/showimage/186125/

Botanical Name: Glycyrrhiza glabra
Common name: Licorice, licorice root, yashimadhu (Sanskrit), ganco (Chinese), Kanzo (Japanese) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
Family: Leguminosae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650)
Parts used: Root and stolen (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650)

History/Folklore: Use of licorice root dates back to 2500BC, found referenced on Assyrian clay and Egyptian papyri. The herb is also used extensively in both Auyrvedia and Traditional Chinese Medicine (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650).

Constituents: Triterpenoid saponins (notably: glycyrrhizin); Glycyrrhetic acid; flavonoids (incl. liquiritigenin glycosides); chalchones (incl. isoliquiritin); isoflavonoids (incl. glabridin, glabrone and formononetin); sterols; coumrains; fatty acids; phenolics; and arabinogalactans (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 721)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-allergic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651)
  • Anti-ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651)
  • Anti-viral (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Antibacterial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652)
  • Expectorant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-tussive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 653)
  • Antidepressant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 653)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 653-654; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-platelet (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Immunomodulatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Adrenal tonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Demulcent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Mild laxative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)

 

Indications

  • Peptic ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Gastritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Dyspepsia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Dermatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Allergies (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Viral Infections (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Respiratory tract infection (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Chronic stress (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Polycystic ovary disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 730)
  • Complications of diabeties (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Menopause (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 655-656)
  • Weight loss (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Addison’s disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 730)
  • Hypercholesterolaemia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Depression (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Urinary tract inflammation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Adrenal insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Viral Hepatitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 731)
  • HIV/AIDS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 731)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Decoction: 3-12g/day
  • Liquid extract (1:1): 2-6mL/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)

 

Cautions

  • Adverse reactions have been recorded at doses > 100-400mg/day (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • High doses over a long period of time may lead to increased blood pressure, therefore caution should be taken in individuals with hypertension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 656-658)
  • Caution to be taken in men with a history of impotence, infertility or decreased libido due to potential ability to reduce testosterone (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 658)

 

Contraindications

  • Pregnancy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 567; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Cholestatic liver disease and cirrhosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Hypokalaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Severe kidney insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)

 

Interactions:

  • Anti-hypertensives (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 657)
  • Digoxin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 657)
  • May potentate effects of diuretics and laxatives (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 734)

Avena sativa

wheat-sativum-oats

Martin, A. (1858). Wheat & Oats. Retrieved from: http://www.reusableart.com/v/food/wheat-sativum-oats.jpg.html?g2_imageViewsIndex=1

Botanical Name: Avena sativa
Common name: Oats
Family: Poaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 704)
Parts used: The whole flowering plant including straw and seed (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 704)

Constituents:

  • Beta-glucan
  • Triterpenoid saponins: incl. avenacosides A and B
  • Phenolic compounds: incl. avenanthramides A, B and C
  • Alkaloids: indol alkaloid, gramine, trigonelline, avenine
  • Sterol (avenasterol)
  • Flavonoids
  • Starch
  • Phytates
  • Protein (including gluten)
  • Coumarins
  • Nutrients: silicic acid, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, zinc
  • Vitamins: a, B-complex, C, E and K

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 704)

 

Actions:

  • Lipid lowering
  • Anti-atherogenic
  • Anti-hypertensive
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antioxidant
  • Anti-carcinogenic
  • Laxative (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 705)
  • Sedative
  • Emollient (Heinrich, Barnes, Gibbons & Williamson, 2012, p. 285)
  • Nervine tonic
  • Anti-depressant
  • Nutritive
  • Demulcent
  • Vulnerary (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 219)

 

History: Avena sativa is a widely distributes cereal crop.

 

Indications

  • Hyperlipidaemia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 705- 706)
  • Hypertension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 706)
  • Blood sugar regulation (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 706)
  • Atopic dermatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 707)
  • Ecezma, Pruritus and dry skin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 707; Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 285)

In vitro studies of avenanthramides demonstrate significant inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activity and sebseqent reduction of interlukin-8 release.

 

Hoffmann describes Avena sativa as a remedy for “feeding” the nervous system when under stress. Considered specific in nervous debility, exhaustion and general debility (1990, p. 219).

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Bath preparations for eczema or itchy or dry skin: boill 500g of shredded straw in 2L water for 0.5hour. Strain the liquid before adding to the bath (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 219; Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 285)
  • Tinctures for sedative properties (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 285)
  • Fluid extract: 3-5mL/tds (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 219).

 

Cautions & Contradictions: May cause irritation in individuals with coeliac disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 708)

 

Interactions: Theoretically may interefere with antihypertensives, lipid-lowering medications, insulin and diabetic medication (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 707).

 

Combinations: For depression may be combined with Skullcap and Lady’s Slipper (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 219).

Crataeva nurvala

amara02222

Forst, G. (1786). Crataeva religiosa -Tempelbaum – Temple Plant. Übersetzt von Alois Payer. Retrieved from: http://www.payer.de/amarakosa/amara205a.htm

Botanical Name: Crataeva nurvala

Common name: Crateva, Varuna (Sanskrit), Varun (Hindi), Buch-Hum.

Family: Capparidaceae (Bhattacharjee, Shashindara & Ashwathanaryana, 2012, p. 1162)

Parts used: Steam and root bark (Premila, 2006, p. 157)

 

Qualities: The bark is hot and bitter with a sharp, sweet taste (Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162)

 

Constituents:

  • Alkaloids: incl. cadabicine, cadabicine diacetate and cadabicine dimethyl ether
  • Sterols: incl. diosgenin, b-sitosterol
  • Flavonoids: incl. rutin and quercitin
  • Isothiocyanate glucoside: glucoapparin
  • Saponins,
  • Triterpenes, notably lupeol
  • Tannins
  • Glucosinolates
  • Phytosterols

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162; Premila, 2006, pp. 157-158).

 

Actions:

Active principle “lupeol” has potential diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-rheumatic, contraceptive, rubefacient and vesicant actions (Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162).

 

Additional traditional actions include

  • Bitter tonic
  • Laxative
  • Anti-emetic

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162).

 

Indications

Traditional Indications include:

  • Urolithiasis
  • Urinary infections
  • Kidney and bladder stones
  • Promote appetite

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, pp. 1162-1163; Premila, 2006, p. 157)

  • Breathing problems
  • Fever
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Weak immune system
  • Wound healing
  • Memory loss
  • Heart and lung weakness
  • Decrease secretion of bile and phlegm
  • Hepatitis
  • Edema
  • Ascites arthritis
  • Jaundice
  • Ecezma
  • Rabies
  • Birth control
  • Irregular menstruation
  • Convulsions
  • Tympanites

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, pp. 1162-1163).

  • Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
  • Rheumatism (internally and externally)

(Premila, 2006, p. 157)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

Decoction: In one trail a stem bark decoction of 1 part stem bark/16 parts water/tid for a period of 6 months in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy found to relieve related symptoms (Premila, 2006, p. 157)

Herbalists recommend around 3,000 – 6,000 mg crude herb per day (Herbosophy, 2014).

Iris versicolour

irisver

Image I

image2

Image II

 

Botanical Name: Iris versicolour
Common name: Blue flag (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560).
Family: Iridaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560).
Parts used: Rhizome (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560).

 

Constituents

  • Volatile oil: ‘Furfual’
  • Iridin (irisin)
  • Salic and isophthalic acids

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)

 

Actions

  • Cholagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560).
  • Heaptic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560).
  • Alterative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560).
  • Laxative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560).
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560).
  • Anti-inflammatory

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)

 

Indications

  • Skin diseases (eczema, psoriasis, herpes, scrophulous skin conditions) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560).
  • Hepatic congestion (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560).
  • Chronic hepatitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560).
  • Rheumatic conditions (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560).
  • Enlarged thyroid gland (goitre) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560).
  • Uterine fibroids (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560).

 

Preparation & Dosage

Tincture (1:5): 1mL/tds

Decoction: 1tsp dried herb/1cup of water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 561)

 

Contradictions

None known (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 561)

 

Combinations

Combines with Echinachea angustifolia or Arctium lappa and Rumex crispus (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 183).

 

REFERENCE
Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Image I: Holoweb. (n.d.). Iris versicolor poisoning. Retrieved from: http://www.holoweb.com/cannon/wildiris.htm

Image II: Egbert, J. (n.d.). Iris versicolor poisoning. Retrieved from: http://www.holoweb.com/cannon/wildiris.htm