Corydalis ambigua

pain2-1

Dharmananda, S. (n.d.). SIMPLE TRADITIONAL FORMULAS FOR PAIN. Retrieved from: http://www.itmonline.org/arts/pain.htm

Botanical Name: Corydalis ambigua, Corydalis spp., Corydalis yanhusuo, C. amurensis
Common name: Yan hu su (Chinese) (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
Family: Fumariaceae (Natural Standard, 2014).
Parts used: rhizome (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Qualities: Warm, pungent and bitter

Constituents: Alkaloids (incl. corydalin, corybulbin, apomorphic and berberine alkaloids) (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Actions

  • Analgesic (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Hypnotic (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Sedative (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532; Natural Standard 2014)
  • Anti-ulcerative (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Anti-parasitic (Natural Standard, 2014)

TCM specific: moves blood, relieves pain, breaks up blood stasis and moves and regulates qi (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Indications

  • Moves blood and relieves pain in dysmenorrheal (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Chest pain (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Epigastric and abdominal pain (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Pain following blunt trauma (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Hernia-like pain (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Angina pectoris (Natural Standard, 2014)

Dosage & Preparation: 3-15g/day (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Caution: Has shown to have inhibitory effect in K(ATP) channels (Natural Standard, 2014)

Contraindications:

  • Pregnancy (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • As a hypnotic and sedative, the herb is contraindicated in depression (Bone, 2013, p. 275).

 

Combinations: For dysmenorrhea and pain in limbs combine with Cortex cinnamomi (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

 

Interactions: May interact with sedatives, hypnotics, anti-arrythmias and analgesics (Natural Standard, 2014)

Advertisements

Filipendula ulmaria

tumblr_mgqkkr58l61qgzqeto1_1280

Systematica (2013). Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. [as Spiraea ulmaria L.]. Retrieved from: http://www.systematica.org/post/41370444569/filipendula-ulmaria-l-maxim-as-spiraea

1600px-Filipendula_ulmaria_(flowers)

Hillewaert, H. (2008). Meadowsweet at Kampenhout, Belgium. Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Filipendula_ulmaria_%28flowers%29.jpg

Botanical Name: Filipendula ulmaria
Common name: Medowsweet (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
Family: Rosaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 743).
Parts used: Aerial parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)

History/Folklore:

  • One of the three herbs most sacred to the Druids (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742).
  • One of 50 ingredients in drink ‘Save’ mentioned in Chaucer’s Knight’s Tale (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742).
  • Salic acid (from which acetylsalicyclic is derived) was extracted from its flowerbud playing an important role in the development of aspirin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742).

Constituents: Flavonoids (incl. rutin, glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol glycosides); hydrolysable tannins (notably rugosin-D); phenolic glycosides (incl. spiraein); and essential oil (containing salicylaldehyde, phenylethyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol and methylsalicylate) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 743).

Actions

  • Anti-ulcer (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 742, 743)
  • Antacid (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Diuretic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Mild urinary antiseptic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Astringent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Anti-thrombotic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Anti-coagulant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)
  • Antibacterial (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Antimicrobial (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Immunomodulatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 743)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)
  • Gastroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)

Indications

  • Cervical dysplasia (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 742, 744)
  • Acne (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)
  • Wound healing (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)

Traditional indicatons

  • Disorders of the upper GI tract (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Flatulence (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Dyspepsia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Indigestion (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Gastric reflux (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
  • Hyperacidity (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
  • Gastric ulcers (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Diarrhoea (notably in children) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Cystitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Kidney stones (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Gout and rheumatic disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
  • Fever (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Infusion: 12-18g dried herb/day
  • Liquid extract (1:1): 4.5-18mL/day
  • Tincture (1:5): 6-12ml/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 742-743)

Cautions

  • Constipation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Iron deficient anemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Malnutrition (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Long term use of high doses not advised (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Due to presence of salicylates, caution is to be taken in individuals with salicylate sensitivity or glucose-6-phosphate deficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
  • Bleeding disorders, due to anticoagulant activity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Caution to be taken in children under 15 years old (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 745)

Contraindications: Pregnancy and lactation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)

Interactions:

  • Presence of tannins may interfere with absorption of metal ions, thiamine and alkaloids. It is recommended the herb to be taken at least 2hrs away from other minteral supplementation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • May theoretically potentiate effects of anticoagulant drugs (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)

Vaccinium myrtillus

203_Vaccinum_myrtillus_L

Masclef, A. (1891). 203 Vaccinum myrtillus L. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccinium_myrtillus#mediaviewer/File:203_Vaccinum_myrtillus_L.jpg

Botanical Name: Vaccinium myrtillus
Common name: Bilberry, Blueberry, Huckleberry (Heinrich, Barnes, Gibbons & Williamson, 2012, p. 221)
Family: Ericaceae (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
Parts used: Fruit (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 221)

History/Folklore: Bilberry fruit is a well-known food. In World War II Bilberry wine and jam was consumed by RAF pilots to improve night vision (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 419). Although the herb was traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, modern research revolves around the cardiovascular system (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222). Other traditional indications include scurvy, urinary complaints, and to “dry up” breast milk” (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 419).

Constituents: anthocyanosides (notably: galactosides and glucosides of cyaniding); delphidin; malvidin; vitamin C; and volatile flavour components (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 221).

Actions

  • Vasoprotective (Bone, 2003, p. 93; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 419)
  • Antioxidant (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone, 2003, p. 93; Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Anti-platelet (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Anti-atherosclerotic (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Spasmolytic (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Anti-ulcer (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Astringent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 419).

 

Indications

  • Vision disorders (Bone, 2003, p. 93; Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Simple glaucoma (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Venus insufficiency (notably of lower limbs) (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Peripheral vascular disorders (Bone, 2003, p. 93; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 419)
  • Diabetic retinopathy (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Chronic primary dysmenorrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Raynaud’s syndrome (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Venous disorders during pregnancy (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Hemorrhoids (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Decreased capillary resistance (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Nonspecific acute diarrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Mild inflammation of mouth and throat (topical) (Bone, 2003, p. 93)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:1): 3-6mL/day or 20-40mL/week
  • Tablet: tablets providing 20-120mg of anthocyanins/day

Cautions: Doses exceeding 100mg/day of anthocyanins should be used cautiously in patients with haemorrhagic disorders (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 424).

Interactions: Possible interactions with warfarin and anti-platelet drugs when administered in high doses (Bone, 2003, p. 93)

Glycyrrhiza glabra

3eb270
Mharr. (2008). PlantFiles: Picture #7 of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Retrieved from: http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/showimage/186125/

Botanical Name: Glycyrrhiza glabra
Common name: Licorice, licorice root, yashimadhu (Sanskrit), ganco (Chinese), Kanzo (Japanese) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
Family: Leguminosae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650)
Parts used: Root and stolen (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650)

History/Folklore: Use of licorice root dates back to 2500BC, found referenced on Assyrian clay and Egyptian papyri. The herb is also used extensively in both Auyrvedia and Traditional Chinese Medicine (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650).

Constituents: Triterpenoid saponins (notably: glycyrrhizin); Glycyrrhetic acid; flavonoids (incl. liquiritigenin glycosides); chalchones (incl. isoliquiritin); isoflavonoids (incl. glabridin, glabrone and formononetin); sterols; coumrains; fatty acids; phenolics; and arabinogalactans (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 721)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-allergic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651)
  • Anti-ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651)
  • Anti-viral (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Antibacterial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652)
  • Expectorant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-tussive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 653)
  • Antidepressant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 653)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 653-654; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-platelet (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Immunomodulatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Adrenal tonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Demulcent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Mild laxative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)

 

Indications

  • Peptic ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Gastritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Dyspepsia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Dermatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Allergies (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Viral Infections (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Respiratory tract infection (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Chronic stress (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Polycystic ovary disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 730)
  • Complications of diabeties (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Menopause (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 655-656)
  • Weight loss (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Addison’s disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 730)
  • Hypercholesterolaemia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Depression (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Urinary tract inflammation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Adrenal insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Viral Hepatitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 731)
  • HIV/AIDS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 731)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Decoction: 3-12g/day
  • Liquid extract (1:1): 2-6mL/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)

 

Cautions

  • Adverse reactions have been recorded at doses > 100-400mg/day (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • High doses over a long period of time may lead to increased blood pressure, therefore caution should be taken in individuals with hypertension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 656-658)
  • Caution to be taken in men with a history of impotence, infertility or decreased libido due to potential ability to reduce testosterone (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 658)

 

Contraindications

  • Pregnancy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 567; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Cholestatic liver disease and cirrhosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Hypokalaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Severe kidney insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)

 

Interactions:

  • Anti-hypertensives (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 657)
  • Digoxin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 657)
  • May potentate effects of diuretics and laxatives (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 734)

Bacopa monniera

bacopa-monnieri-isp

Herbal Extracts Plus. (2012). BACOPA MONNIERI. Retrieved from: http://www.herbalextractsplus.com/bacopa-monnieri.html

Botanical Name: Bacopa monniera
Common name: Bacopa, Brahmi (Sanskrit) (not to be confused with Gotu Kola), Indian pennywort (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 263)
Family: Scrophulariaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 263)
Parts used: Aerial parts (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 263)

Constituents: Dammarene-type saponins; Bacosaponins; Alkaloids (brahmine and herpestine); Flavonoids; Phytosterols; Luteolin; and Phenylethanoid glycosides (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 263)

 

Actions:

  • Antioxidant
  • Neuroprotective
  • Antidepressant
  • Anti-ulcer
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Hepatoprotectice
  • Adaptogen (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 263-264)

Associated with

  • Mast cell stabilization
  • Increases thyroid hormone levels
  • Antispasmodic (smooth muscle)
  • Anticlastogenic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 264)

 

History: Bacopa monniera has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for almost 3000 years. A notable nervine tonic, Bacopa monniera is classified as ‘Medhya rasayana’ as a medicinal plant that rejuvenates memory and interlect. The herb’s brain tonic potential has now gained a reputation in modern western herbal medicine (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 263).

 

Indications

Traditional indications include:

  • Asthma
  • Mental disorders
  • Epilepsy (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Clinical trails have shown potential for Bacopa in:

  • Cognition (B grade evidence)
  • Anxiety
  • Epilepsy
  • Irritable bowel Syndrome
  • Memory enhancement (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

Dried herb: 5-10g/day

Fluid extract: (1:2) 5-13mL/day (in divided doses)

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 266)

 

Cautions

  • Caution advised in hyperthyroidism
  • May cause gastrointestinal symptoms in individuals with celiac disease, fat malabsorption, vitamin A, D, E and K deficiency or dyspepsia due to high saponin content.

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 266)

 

Interactions

  • Drugs or herbs metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzyme
  • Thyroid medication
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Sedatives

(Natural Standard, 2014)

Scutellaria baicalensis

Øëåìíèê áàéêàëüñêèé – Scutellariae baicalensis

Image I

post-19386-1182271924

Image II

Botanical Name: Scutellaria baicalensis
Common name: Baical Skullcap, Chinese skullcap, huang quin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
Family: Lamiaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
Parts used: Root (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)

Constituents

Flavenoids and their glycosides

  • Baicalin and its aglycone: Baicalein
  • Wogonin
  • Resin
  • Tannins
  • Melatonin

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)

 

Baicalin is porely absorbed through the gut, however becomes hydrolysed to its alglycone baicalein by intestinal bacteria (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218).

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 219)
  • Antifibrotic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 219)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Anti-allergic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Hypotensive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Anti-platelet (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Antixiolytic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Antimicrobial, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 221-222)
  • Anti-ulcerogenic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Antidiabetic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Anti-emetic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 223)

 

History & Traditional Use

Traditionally used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to clear heat and dry dampness. (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218).

 

Indications

  • Respiratory infections (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Bone marrow stimulation during chemotherapy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Epilepsy (in combination) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Chronic active hepatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Liver fibrosis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Chronic inflammation
    • Asthma
    • Arthritis
    • Allergies (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Hepatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Common cold (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Nausea and vomiting (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Mild hyper-tension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Dried herb: 6-15g/day
  • Liquid extract: (1:2) 4.5-8.5mL/day in divided doses

 

Cautions: Safety in pregnancy has not being defined by clinical trials. The herb is used in TCM for “restless foetus” (threatened abortion) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Contradictions

  • Contradicted during interferon therapy
  • Contradicted in “cold” conditions in TCM

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Combinations

Scutellaria baicalensis is an ingredient in popular Chinese/Japanese formulation Minor Burpleureum Combination (Xiao Chai Hu Tang in Chinese and Sho-saiko-to in Japanese). This combination contains:

  • Bulpleurum falcatum
  • Scutellaria baicalensis
  • Pinellia ternata
  • Panax ginseng
  • Zizyphus jujuba
  • Glycyrrhiza uralensis
  • Zingiber officinale

This treatment has been used for 3000 years in the treatment of pyretic disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224).

 

REFERENCE
Braun, L., & Cohen, M. (2010). Herbs & Natural Supplements: An Evidence based Guide (3rd ed.). Chatswood NSW: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Image: Beauty & Health Philosophy. (2008-2014). Beauty & Health Philosophy. Retrieved from: http://nsp-zdorovje.narod.ru/fito/wlemnik-scutellaria.html

Image II: Molbiol.ur. (2001-2014). Шлемник байкальский (Scutellaria baicalensis, Labiatae/Lamiaceae). Retrieved from: http://molbiol.ru/forums/lofiversion/index.php/t173641.html

Aloe vera

aloe

Natural Histroy Museum (n.d.). Seeds of Trade. Retrieved from: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/life/plants-fungi/seeds-of-trade/page.dsml?section=crops&ref=aloe

beauty-benefits-of-aloe-vera

Isslieb, A. (2014). Aloe Vera Juice. Retrieved from: http://simplyhealthjh.com/?page_id=225

Botanical Name: Aloe vera
Common name: Aloe
Family: Asphodeliaceae (Heinrich, Barnes, Gibbons & Williamson, 2012, p. 286)
Parts used: Leaf and its exudate gel (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 192)

Constituents

  • Polysaccharides including: Mannose-6- phosphate
  • Gluco-mannans: also referred to as “acemannan” and marketed as “Carrisyn”
  • Glycoproteins: including Alprogen, a glycoprotein with anti-allergic properties
  • C-glucoyl chromone: anti-inflammatory compound
  • Ligans
  • Saponins
  • Salicyclic acid
  • Sterols (including beta-sitosterol)
  • Triterpenoids
  • Anthraquinones

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 192)

Actions

  • Wound healing
  1. Glycoprotein fraction: found to increase proliferation of human keratinocytes and increase epidermal growth factor in vitro (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 192-193)
  2. b-sitosterol: appears to improve wound healing by stimulating angiogenesis and neovascularisation in vivo. (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 193)
  3. Allantonin has shown to stimulate epithelialisation (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 195)
  4. Acemannan has shown to stimulate machrophahe production of IL-1 And TNF associated with wound healing (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 195).
  • Anti-oxidant

Two dihydroisocoumarines have been identified demonstrating ontioxidant properties (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 193)

  • Immunostimulant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 193)

In one study 400-800mg of acemannan/day significantly increased circulating monocytes in patients with HIV (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 197).

  • Anti-inflammatory

Gel has shown to reduce oxidation of arachidonic acid, prostaglandin synthesis and inflammation. One study in vivo found aloe to reduced leukocyte adhesion in a burn injury, thus reducing inflammation (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 194)

  • Laxative

Anthraquinone constituent found in aloe latex is known to stimulate laxative activity however long term use of aloe latex has seen negative results and thus alternatives are preferred (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 194).

  • Anti-ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 194)
  • Hypoglycaemic

Glucomannans slow carbohydrate absorption and postprandial insulin response up to 50% (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 195).

Antimicrobial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 195)

  • Anti viral

Anti viral activity is due to aloe’s potential to interfere with DNA synthesis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 195).

Polysaccharide fractions of aloe have shown to inhibit binding of benzopyrene in an animal study conducted on rat hepatocytes and preventing the formation of potential cancer-initiating benzopyrene-DNA adductions.

  • Potential anti-cancer activity (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 197)

 

Indications

Various skin conditions including burns, wounds, radiation burns, ulcers, frostbite. Psoriasis and genital herpes (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 195).

Gastro-intestinal conditionals such as: irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis and some colonic bacterial activity (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 197).

 

Preparation & Dosage

Fresh plant gel prepared as a succus (internal use): 0.1-0.3g (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 175).

Gel: Gel is scraped and applied topically to afflicted area (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 175; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 198).

 

Cautions

Used as a laxative aloe may induce “gripping” pains and is contradicted for indication as a laxative in children (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 198).

 

Contradictions

Known hypersensitivity (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 198).

As a strong laxative aloe latex is contraindicated in pregnancy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 198).

Not to be administed orally during lactation (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 175).

 

Interactions

In one preliminary clinical trial, active constituent acemannan may enhance activity of the anti HIV medication AZT (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 197).

REFERENCE

Braun, L., & Cohen, M. (2010). Herbs & Natural Supplements: An Evidence based Guide (3rd ed.). Chatswood NSW: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Heinrich, M., Barnes, J., Gibbons, S., & Williamson, E. (2012). Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons