Alchemilla vulgaris

sy4662

Plymley, K. (n.d.). Darwin Country. Retrieved from: http://www.darwincountry.org/explore/002939.html?ImageID=1334&Page=42&sid=

Botanical Name: Alchemilla vulgaris
Common name: Lady’s Mantle
Family: Rosaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
Parts used: Leaf and flowering shoots (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
 

Constituents: Tannins (mainly glycosides of ellagric acid) and salicycle acid (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)

 

Actions

  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Vunerary (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)

 

Indications

  • Menstrual pain (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Excessive bleeding (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Symptoms of menopause (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 300)
  • Menorrhagia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Metrorrhagia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Diarrhoea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Ulcers and sores of oral cavity (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 141)
  • Laryngitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:4 in 25%): 2-4mL/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Infusion: 2tsp/1 cup water/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Prepared as a mouthwash for laryngitis and mouth ulcers (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)

 

Cautions: Not recommended in constipation, iron-deficent anaemia and malnutrition due to tannin content (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 191)

Hypericum perforatum

Hypericum_perforatum_i01-1

Florafinder.com. (2012). 7/3/2012 · Yellow Trail from Pearl Hill State Park to Willard Brook State Park, Ashby, MA. Retrieved from: http://www.florafinder.com/Species/Hypericum_perforatum.php

St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum)

Thomé, O. W. (1885). Hypericum perforatum. Retrieved from: www.biolib.de.

Botanical Name: Hypericum perforatum
Common name: St. John’s Wort, Hypericum (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 826)
Family: Clusiaceae (Guttiferae) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 827)
Parts used: Dried Aerial Parts (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 827)

Constituents: Naphthodianthrones (incl. hypericin and pseudohypericin); Flavanoids (incl. biapigenin, quercetrin and rutin); Xanthones; Phenolics (incl. hyperforin and adhyperforin); Procyanidins; and Essential oil (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 827)

 

Actions:

  • Nervine
  • Anti-depressant
  • Vulnerary
  • Antiseptic
  • Antiviral (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 826)
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Astringent
  • Antimicrobial (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 559)

 

Folklore: An ancient remedy used to treat ulcers, burns, wounds, abdominal pains and bacterial disease, Hypericum perforatum has recently gained attention for the treatment of depression in clinical trials. The generic name Hypericum is derived from Greek and translates to “to overcome an apparition” (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 826).

While not a weed in its native Europe, Asia and North Africa, the plant has become a weed in most temperate regions of the world (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 826).

 

Indications

Traditional

  • Nervous afflictions: excitability, menopausal neurosis and hysteria
  • Disorders of the spine
  • Spinal injury
  • Neuralgia
  • Sciatica
  • Muscular rheumatism
  • Urinary problems
  • Diarrhoea
  • Dysentery
  • Parasitic infestation
  • Jaundice
  • Haemorrhages
  • Menorrhagia
  • Bed wetting
  • Topically used to treat ulcers, swellings, bruises

 

Indications supported by clinical trials

  • Mild-moderate depression (high level evidence)
  • Anxiety
  • Orofacial and genital herpes
  • Premature ejaculation
  • Psychological symptoms of menopause
  • Premenstrual syndrome
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • Social phobia
  • Psycological symptoms associated with IBS
  • Aerobic endurance in athletes
  • Wound healing and scar healing (topical)
  • Mild- moderate dermatitis (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 826)

 

Has shown potential in:

  • Treatment and prevention of enveloped viruses (e.g. cold sores, genital herpes, chicken pox, shingles, glandular fever, cytomeglalovirus infection, viral herpes).
  • Sleeping disorders (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 826)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Tincture (1:5 in 40%): 2-4mL/tds

Infusion: 1-2tsp/1 cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 559)

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

Photosensitization has been reported at high doses (rare) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 559)

 

Interactions

  • May interact with selected serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 559)
  • Evidence shows St. John’s Wort to increase activity of isozyme CYP3A4 and therefore may theoretically reduce the activity of drugs that are known substrates for this isozyme, such as:
    • Nonsedative anti-histamines
    • Oral contraceptives
    • Certain antiretroviral agents
    • Antiepileptic medications
    • Calcium-channel blockers
    • Cyclosporine
    • Some chemotherapeutic drugs
    • Macrolide antibiotics
    • Selected anti-fungals

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 559)

Avena sativa

wheat-sativum-oats

Martin, A. (1858). Wheat & Oats. Retrieved from: http://www.reusableart.com/v/food/wheat-sativum-oats.jpg.html?g2_imageViewsIndex=1

Botanical Name: Avena sativa
Common name: Oats
Family: Poaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 704)
Parts used: The whole flowering plant including straw and seed (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 704)

Constituents:

  • Beta-glucan
  • Triterpenoid saponins: incl. avenacosides A and B
  • Phenolic compounds: incl. avenanthramides A, B and C
  • Alkaloids: indol alkaloid, gramine, trigonelline, avenine
  • Sterol (avenasterol)
  • Flavonoids
  • Starch
  • Phytates
  • Protein (including gluten)
  • Coumarins
  • Nutrients: silicic acid, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, zinc
  • Vitamins: a, B-complex, C, E and K

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 704)

 

Actions:

  • Lipid lowering
  • Anti-atherogenic
  • Anti-hypertensive
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antioxidant
  • Anti-carcinogenic
  • Laxative (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 705)
  • Sedative
  • Emollient (Heinrich, Barnes, Gibbons & Williamson, 2012, p. 285)
  • Nervine tonic
  • Anti-depressant
  • Nutritive
  • Demulcent
  • Vulnerary (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 219)

 

History: Avena sativa is a widely distributes cereal crop.

 

Indications

  • Hyperlipidaemia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 705- 706)
  • Hypertension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 706)
  • Blood sugar regulation (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 706)
  • Atopic dermatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 707)
  • Ecezma, Pruritus and dry skin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 707; Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 285)

In vitro studies of avenanthramides demonstrate significant inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activity and sebseqent reduction of interlukin-8 release.

 

Hoffmann describes Avena sativa as a remedy for “feeding” the nervous system when under stress. Considered specific in nervous debility, exhaustion and general debility (1990, p. 219).

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Bath preparations for eczema or itchy or dry skin: boill 500g of shredded straw in 2L water for 0.5hour. Strain the liquid before adding to the bath (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 219; Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 285)
  • Tinctures for sedative properties (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 285)
  • Fluid extract: 3-5mL/tds (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 219).

 

Cautions & Contradictions: May cause irritation in individuals with coeliac disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 708)

 

Interactions: Theoretically may interefere with antihypertensives, lipid-lowering medications, insulin and diabetic medication (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 707).

 

Combinations: For depression may be combined with Skullcap and Lady’s Slipper (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 219).

Equisetum arvense

skrzyp-polny-184x300

Sermis liczarek Wroclaw. (2012). Skrzyp polny. Retrieved from: http://ziola.pisz.pl/tag/skrzyp-polny-ziola/

Botanical Name: Equisetum arvense

Common name: Horsetail

Family: Equisetaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)

Parts used: Dried stem (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)

 

Constituents: Alkaloids (incl. nicotine, palustrine and palustrinine); Flavanoids (incl. isoquercitrin and equicetrin); (Sterols (incl. cholesterol, isofucosterol and campesterol); Silicic acid; and Saponin “equisitonin” (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)

 

Actions:

  • Astringent
  • Vulnerary (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
  • Diuretic: Based on preliminary human trials (Natural Standard, 2014; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)

 

Indications:

Traditionally used in Europe as an oral diuretic (Natural Standard, 2014). Clinical trials are limited, indications based on traditional use include:

  • Osteoperosis

In a human trial horsetail was found to effectively raise bone density (in combination), however the trial had low validity (Natural Standard, 2014).

  • Nephrolithiasis (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Urinary tract infection (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Wound healing (topical) (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Hoffmann states the herb’s use in continence and bedwetting in children due to the herbs toning and astringent actions (2003, p. 547).
  • Inflammation and benign enlargement of prostate gland (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
  • Chilblains (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)

The German commission E has approved horsetail for:

  • Edema (post-traumatic and static edema)
  • Urinary gravel
  • Wound healing (topical)
  • Irrigation therapy for bacterial and inflammatory disease of lower urinary tract

(Natural Standard, 2014)

 

The herbs diuretic action is supported by preliminary human trials (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Tincture: (1:5 in 25%) 2-4mL/tds
  • Infusion: 2tsp dried herb/1 cup water/tds
  • Bath for rheumatic pain: Infuse 100g in hot water for 1 hour before adding to the bath.

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

  • The Natural Standard state there is a theoretical rick of thiamine deficiency, hypokalemia and nicotine toxicity and therefore should be avoided in individuals with chronic alcoholism, renal insufficiency and cardiac arrhythmias (2014).
  • Potentially unsafe in children (Natural Standard, 2014)

Verbascum thapsus

HBC-AS09-mullein2-DC

Botanical Name: Verbascum thapsus
Common name: Mullein (Hoffmann, 2013, p. 592)
Family: Scrophulariaceae (Hoffmann, 2013, p. 592)
Parts used: Dried leaf, flower (Hoffmann, 2013, p. 592)

 

Constituents

  • Flavonoids
  • Mucilage
  • Saponins
  • Tannins
  • Volatile oil

(Hoffmann, 2013, p. 592)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antispasmodic
  • Demulcent
  • Expectorant
  • Vulnerary

(Hoffmann, 2013, p. 592)

 

Indications

  • Specific for bronchitis characterised by “hard cough” with soreness (Hoffmann, 2013, p. 592)
  • Inflammation of the trachea (Hoffmann, 2013, p. 592)
  • Pain associated with ear aches (external) (Hoffmann, 2013, p. 592; Scully, Ulbricht & Weissner, 2013)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Tincture: (1:5 in 40%) 2.5-5mL/tds

Infusion: 2tsp dried leaf/1 cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2013, p. 592)

 

Cautions & Contradictions

No side effect have been reported (Hoffmann, 2013, p. 592)

 

Combinations

Bronchitis: Combines well with White Horehound, Coltsfoot and Lobelia (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 217)

 

REFERENCE
Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Scully, L., Ulbricht, C., & Weissner, W. (2013). Mullein (Verbascum thapsus). Natural Standard Professional Monograph. Retrieved from: http://www.naturalstandard.com/databases/herbssupplements/mullein.asp?

Image: Cavagnaro, D. (2009). Herb to Know: Mullein (Verbascum thapsus). Retrieved from: http://www.motherearthliving.com/plant-profile/herb-to-know-mullein-verbascum-thapsus.aspx#axzz2z83NDBPI

Marrubium vulgare

Marrubium_vulgare_-_Köhler–s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-224

Image I

Marrubium-vulgare-porte

Image II

Botanical Name: Marrubium vulgare
Common name: White Horehound (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
Family: Lamiaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
Parts used: Dried leaf, flowering top (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)

 

Constituents

  • Diterpene lactones: marrubiin, premarrubiin
  • Ditepene alcohols: marruciol. Marrubenol, sclareole, peregrinin, dihydroperegrinin
  • Volatile oil: containing a-pinene, sabinene, limonene, camphene, r-cymol, a-terpinolene
  • Flavonoids: apigenin, luteolin, quercetin
  • Alkaloids

Miscellaneous choline, alkanes, phytosterols and tannins

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)

 

Actions

  • Expectorant
  • Antispasmodic
  • Bitter
  • Vulnerary
  • Emmenagogue

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 565)

 

History

Marrubium vulgare has being used as an expectorant since Ancient Eqypt. According to sources, Egyptian priests referred to the plant as “Seed of Horus”, “Bull’s Blood” or “Eye of the Bull”. In Ancient Greece the herb was used to treat dog bites which may be from where the common name “Horehound” is derived (Natural Standard, 2013).

 

Indications

  • Bronchitis: Relaxes smooth muscle of the bronchus & stimulates mucus production (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 565)
  • Whooping cough (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Asthma (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Stimulates flow and secretion of bile from gallbladder via bitter principal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Jaundice (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Promotes wound healing (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Amenorrhoea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Syrup
  • Tincture: (1:5 in 40$) 1-2mL/tds
  • Infusion: 0.5-1 tsp/1 cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 546)

 

Cautions & Contradictions

  • No side effects reported (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 546)
  • Contraindicated in pregnancy due to emmenagogue action (Natural Standard, 2013).

 

REFERENCE
Hoffmann, D. (2003).. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Natural Standard. (2013). White horehound (Marrubium vulgare Labiatae). Natural Standard Professional Monograph. Retrieved from: http://www.naturalstandard.com/databases/herbssupplements/whitehorehound.asp?

Image: Franz Eugen Köhler, (1897). Köhler’s Medizinal-Pflanzen. Retrieved from: http://pharm1.pharmazie.uni-greifswald.de/allgemei/koehler/koeh-eng.htm

Image 2: Intersemillas. (n.d.). Intersemillas. Retrieved from: http://www.intersemillas.es/catalogo_detalle_especie.php?tipo=11&id=23

Echinacea angustifolia/E. purpurea

echinacea-2

Image I

2166

Image II

Botanical Name: Echinacea angustifolia/E. purpurea
Common name: Echinacea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 544)
Family: Asteracea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 544)
Parts used:
Echinacea angustifolia: Root and rhizome
E. purpurea: Whole plant
(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 524)

 

Constituents

ROOT:

  • Alklamides: Mostly isobutylamides which are responcible for tingling in the mouth
    Caffeic acid esters:

    • Echinacoside (E. angustifolia)
    • Chicoric acid (E. purpurea
    • Cynarin (E. angustifolia)
  • Essential oil

ARIEAL PARTS

  • Alklamides
  • Caffeic acid esters
    • Echinacoside (NOT present in E. purpurea)
    • Chicoric acid (E. purpurea)
    • Verbascoside (E. angustifolia)
    • Caftaric acid (E. purpurea)
    • Chlorogenic and isochlorogenic acids (E. angustifolia)
  • Falvenoids

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 526)

 

Actions

  • Immuneomodulatory
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Vulnerary
  • Lymphatic adaptogen

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 525).

 

History/Traditional Use

The origins of Echinacea used as a medicinal herb was from Native North Americans and then adopted by the Eclectics (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 524). The Native Americans and Eclectics only used and aquousethanolic extract of Echinacea angustifolia root high in alkylamides (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 524). After oral ingestion the alkylamides impart a persistant tingling sensation in the mouth subsequently stimulating the flow of saliva (Bone & Mills, 2003, p. 524).

E. purpurea is the most cultivated and widely used. This speicies is easier to grow and is the most popular form in Germnay, with the whole plant used medicinally (Bone & Mills, 2003, p. 524). Different variations exhibit variations in their phytochemical content yet are typically discussed under the genetic “echinacea” name as if their actions were consistent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 524).

Both Echinacea angustifolia and E. purpurea are the two most used species in the western world (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 524).

Traditional use includes:

  • Bacterial, viral and protozoal infections
  • Infections of the digestive, respiratory and urinary tracts
  • Mild septicaemia
  • States of weakened, suppressed or imbalanced immunity (including allergies and autoimmunity)
  • Inflammatory and purulent conditions (acne, abscesses, furunculous)
  • Used topically for wound healing, inflamed skin conditions and bacterial infections

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 525).

 

Indications

  • Upper respiratory tract infections (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 525).
  • Prophylaxis of upper respiratory tract infections (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 525).
  • Assists in recovery from Chemotherapy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 524).
  • As an immune enhancing herb, Echinacea acts predominantly on innate immunity and therefore may modulate immune function in allergy and autoimmunity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 524).

 

Preparation & Dosage

E. augustofolia (root):

  • 1-3g/day dried root
  • Liquid extract: (1:2) 2-6mL/day
  • Tincture: (1:5) 5-15mL/day

 

E. purpurea:

  • 1.5-4.5g/day dried root
  • Liquid extract: (1:2) 3-9mL/day dried root
  • Tincture: (1:5) 7.5-22.5mL/day dried root

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 525)

 

Cautions & Contradictions

None known (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 536-537)

 

REFERENCE
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Image I: Avesbiopharma. (2013). Echinacea: Immunostimulante naturale. Retrieved from: www.avesbiopharma.com/echinacea-immunostimolante-naturale/

Image II: Kings Seeds. (2014). ‘Echinacea purpurea-Premadonna Deep Rose Pink’. Retrieved from: http://www.kingsseedsdirect.com/echinacea-purpurea-primadonna-deep-rose-pink/p1096