Rosmarinus officinalis

Rosmarinus_officinalis_-_Köhler–s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-258

Image: Köhler, F. (1897). Rosmarinus officinalis. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosemary#mediaviewer/File:Rosmarinus_officinalis_-_K%C3%B6hler%E2%80%93s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-258.jpg

Botanical Name: Rosmarinus officinalis
Common name: Rosemary
Family: Lamiaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
Parts used: Leaf, twig (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)

Constituents:

  • Volatile oil (Borneol, camphene, camphor, cineole, limonene, linalool)
  • Flavonoids (apigenin, diosmentin, diosmin, luteolin)
  • Rosmarinic and other phenolic acid
  • Diterpenes (including carnosol, carnosolic acid and rosmariquinone)
  • Rosmaricine
  • Triterpenes (including ursolic acid and oleanolic acid)

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)

 

Actions

  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 316)
  • Antidepressant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Rubefacient (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Antimicrobial (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Hepatoprotective (Bone, 2003, p. 389; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 317)
  • Circulatory Stimulant (Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Antioxidant (Bone, 2003, p. 389; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 316)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 316)

 

Indications

  • Increased mental concentration (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 317)
  • Stomach upset accompanied by psychological tension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Enhancing detoxification phase I and II of the liver (Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Flatulent dyspepsia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Headache or depression associated with debility (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Muscular pain (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Sciatica (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Neuralgia (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Premature baldness (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Alopecia (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 317)
  • Gastric headache (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Atherosclerosis prevention (Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Impaired hepatic and biliary function (Bone, 2003, p. 389)

 

Preparation & Dosage: Liquid extract (1:2): 2.0-4.5mL/day or 15-30mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 390)

Cautions: Rosemary should not be taken with meals or iron supplements in individuals with iron deficiency due to the potential interference of iron absorption (Bone, 2003, p. 389)

Combinations

  • For alopecia: combine with thyme, lavender and cedarwood (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 317).
  • For depression: combine with Skullcap, Kola and Oats (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 229)

Ginkgo biloba

896px-Ginkgo_biloba_SZ136

Von Siebold, P. F., & Zuccarini, J. G. (1870). Flora Japonica, Sectio Prima (Tafelband). Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ginkgo_biloba_SZ136.png

Botanical Name: Ginkgo biloba
Common name: Ginko (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
Family: Ginkoaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597)
Parts used: Leaf, seed kernel (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)

Folklore: Perhaps one of the oldest living tree species, Ginko’s origin is believe to be remote mountainous valleys of Zhejiang. First introduced into Europe in 1690 by Botanist Engelbert Kaempfer, up until 350 years ago the medicinal knowledge was restricted to China (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 493). Traditional therapeutic use is not well documented (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597).

Constituents:

  • Flavonols (inlc. quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, quercetin-3-beta-D-glucoside, quercitrin and rutin and coumaric acid esters of these flavonoids)
  • Terpene lactones (“terpenoids”) including bilobalide and ginkgolides A, B, C & J.
  • Biflavonoids, ginkgolic acids, sterols, procyanidins and polysaccharides

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597)

 

Actions

  • Anti –platelet activating factor (PAF) activity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Tissue perfusion enhancer (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Circulatory stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Nootropic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Neuroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anxiolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Adaptogen (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Vasodilator (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Digestive bitter (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Uterine Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)

 

Indications

  • Restricted cerebral blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Memory and/or cognitive impairment (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Fatigue (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Stroke (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Vertigo (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Acute cochlear deafness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Tinnitus of vascular origin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Peripheral arterial disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Favorable modification or cardiovascular risk (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Early stages of Alzheimer’s-type dementia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Multi-infarct dementia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Reduced retinal blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Normal tension glaucoma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Age-related muscular degeneration (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Congestive dysmenorrhea and PMS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Hypoxia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anxiety (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Adjuvant therapy in chronic schizophrenia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Symptoms associated with Multiple Sclerosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Allergic conjunctivitis (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Asthma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Protections from radiation damage (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Idiopathic oedema (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Vitilogo (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

120-140 standardized extract/day

120-140mg dry extract (in divided doses)/day

4-8 weeks treatment for optimal results (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 554)

 

Cautions

  • Caution should be taken in individuals with coagulation disorders when used in conjunction with antiplatelet or anticoagulant medication, although clinical trials suggesting this are insufficient (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617).
  • Individuals undergoing surgery are advised to cease taking it 5-7 days prior due to potential (minor) risk of increased blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617)

 

Contraindications:

  • Known sensitivity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617)
  • If unusual bleeding or bruising occurs cease treatment immedietly (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 505)

 

Interactions: Theoretically Ginko may increase bleeding risk when taken in conjunction with Warfarin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 505)

Cinnamomus zeylanicum

cinnamon2
Heavenly Products. (2014). Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon Cinnamon- Dried Bark and Powder). Retrieved from: https://www.heavenly-products.com/cart/index.php?cPath=156_129_272

Botanical Name: Cinnamomus zeylanicum
Common name: Cinnamon
Family: Lauraceae (Natural Standard, 2014)
Parts used: Bark (Natural Standard, 2014)

Constituents: Essential oil, cinnamic aldehyde (Bone, 2003, p. 149)

Actions

  • Antioxidant (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Analgesic (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Circulatory Stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 147)
  • Aromatic digestive (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 192)
  • Warming expectorant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 240)
  • Carminative (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • Astringent (Bone, 2003, p. 149)

Indications

  • Loss of appetite (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • Dyspeptic complaints (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • Common cold and influenza (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • Uterine haemorrhage (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • Metabolic Syndrome (Ziegenfuss, Hofheins, Mendel, Landis & Anderson, 2006)
  • Oral Candidiasis (Quale, Landman, Zaman, Bumey & Sathe, 1996)
  • Allergic rhinitis (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Wound healing (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Increase in sperm quality (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Acute infections (promotes immune activities) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 150)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 3-6mL/day or 20-40mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • One study showed that 500 mg/day of cinnamon (Cinnulin PF®) for 12-weeks lead to significant improvements in symptoms of metabolic syndrome such as fasting blood sugar, systolic blood pressure, and body composition (Ziegenfuss et al., 2006).

 

Cautions

  • May cause contact sensitivity due to cinnamic aldehyde (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 104; Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • As a aromatic and expectorant cinnamon may cause or irritate GI reflux (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 196, 240)
  • Pregnancy (Bone, 2003, p. 149)

 

Combination:

  • In TCM the herb is a component of Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang combination (Natural Standard, 2014)

Zingiber officinalis

1
Harvest Newsletter. (2011). Grow Local Ginger. Retrieved from: http://archive.constantcontact.com/fs033/1106770492400/archive/1107516061313.html

Botanical Name: Zingiber officinalis
Common name: Ginger
Family: Zinziberaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
Parts used: rhizome (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)

History/Folklore: Medicinal use of ginger is recorded in early Sanskrit and Chinese texts as well as in Ancient Greek, Roman and Arabic medical literature (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578).

Constituents: Essential oil (incl. zingiberene, sesquiphellandrene and β-bisabolene); gingerols and shogoals (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)

Actions

  • Carminative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Antiemetic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Peripheral circulatory stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Anti-platelet (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 578, 582)
  • Diaphoretic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578: Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Digestive stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Anti-ulcer (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 581)
  • Anti-microbial (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 583)
  • Antiparasitic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 583)
  • Anti-tumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Rubefacient (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Cholagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)

 

Indications

  • Motion sickness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Morning sickness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Post-operative and drug induced nausea (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 578-579)
  • Osteoarthritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 570)
  • Gastroparesis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • Chilbains (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Stimulate appetite (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Chemotherapy-induce nausea (Ryan, Heckler, Roscoe, Dakhil, Kirshner, Flynn, Hickok & Morrow, 2011)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Fresh rhizome: 500-1000mg/tds
  • Dried rhizome: 500mg/2-4 times a day
  • Liquid extract (1:2): 0.7-3mL/day
  • Tincture (1:5): 1.7-7.5ml/day (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)

 

Cautions

  • May enhance bioavailability of other medications (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • May cause heart burn (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • May have a blood thinning effect (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Some sources say it is unsuitable for morning sickness and results are conflicting (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Treatment during pregnancy should not exceed a daily dose of 2g of dried ginger (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)
  • Inhibits thromboxane synthase and acts as a prostaglandin agonist (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)

 

Contraindications:

  • Gallstones (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)

Interactions:

  • Increases bioavilability of other drugs by increasing absorption from GI tract and/or protecting the drug from metabolized by the liver’s first phase (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591).
  • In Individuals already taking blood thinning medication, daily dose of ginger should not exceed 4g (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)
  • May increase bleeding when combined with other anti-coagulants (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)

Zanthoxylum clava-herculus /Z.americana

Zanthoxylum_americanum
Barra, A. (1999). Prickly Ash Zanthoxylum spp.. Retrieved from: http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail403.php

Botanical Name: Zanthoxylum clava-herculus /Z.americana
Common name: Prickley Ash
Family: Rutaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
Parts used: Bark, Berry (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)

Constituents: Alkaloids; coumarins; resin; tannins; and volatile oil (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)

Actions

  • Circulatory Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 233)
  • Tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Alterative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Diaphoretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596; Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Hepatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Sialogogue (Bone, 2003, p. 379; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 104)

 

Indications

  • Rheumatism (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596; Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Chronic skin disorders (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Poor circulation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596; Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Leg cramps (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Varicose veins (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596; Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Varicose ulcers (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Gastric distension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Loss of sensitivity in injured nerves (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Haemorrhoids (Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Raynaud’s Syndrome (Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Hypotension (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 233)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 60%): 2-4mL/tds
  • Infusion: 102tsp/1 cup water/tds

 

Cautions

  • Causes a tingling sensation in oral cavity when taken in liquid form, which may give patients a chocking or panicked reaction (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 104)

 

Contraindications

  • Contraindicated in hypertension (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 233)
  • Individuals on anticoagulant therapy (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)