Tribulus terrestris

demirdikeni1

Tuscu, S. (2008). Çocuk İstiyorum Tüp Bebek. Retrieved from: http://www.cocukistiyorum.com/tr/content.asp?PID=%7B1050DD8C-F0E6-4668-9FCB-32EF4A44F9FA%7D&PT=%20Yumurta%20kalitesi%20ve%20sperm%20say%FDs%FDn%FD%20art%FDran%20bitki

Botanical Name: Tribulus terrestris
Common name: Tribulus, Gokshur (Sanskrit), Gokharu (Hindi), Puncture vine (Chhatre, Nesari, Somani, Kanchan & Sathaye, 2014).
Family: Zygophyllaceae (Chhatre et al., 2014).
Parts used: Dried fruit (Chhatre et al., 2014).

Quality: In Ayurvedia medicine Tribulus is describes as madhura (sweet), gura (heavy to digest), brumhema (nourishing) and Vatanut (pacifies vata dhsa).

Constituents: Saponins (incl. furostanol, spirostanol and sarsasapogenin), flavonoids, glycosides (incl. spirostanol glycosides) and alkaloids (Chhatre et al., 2014).

 

Actions

  • Diuretic
  • Aphrodisiac
  • Antiurolithic
  • Immunomodulatory
  • Cardiotonic
  • Hepatoprotective
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Analgesic
  • Anti-spasmodic
  • Anti-cancer
  • Anti-bacterial
  • Anthelmintic

(Chhatre et al., 2014).

 

Indications

  • Coronary Artery Disease (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Infertility (men) (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Infertility (women) (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Exercise performance enhancement (Natural Standard, 2014)

In Auyrvedic medicine, the herb is indicated in the genitourinary tract to clear urinary stones, as a urinary disinfectant and for impotence (Chhatre et al., 2014)

Accoring to Chhatre, in TCM the herb is used to “restore depressed liver, treat feeling of fullness in chest, mastitis, flatulence, acute conjunctivitis, headache and vitiligo” (2014).

 

Cautions

  • Individuals with menstrual disorders as it may cause menorrhagia (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia as it may increase prostate volume (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Hypoglycemia/diabetes as it may decrease blood sugar levels (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Pregnancy due to traditional use as abortifacent (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Contraindications: Know allergy (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Interactions

  • Beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Digoxin due to evidence of positive ionotropic activity (Natural Standard, 2014)

Curcuma longa

turmeric-info0
HowStuffWorks. (2014). Tumeric. Retrieved from: http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/botany/turmeric-info.htm

Turmeric-Root-and-Powder-1024x666
Christie, D. (2014). Top 5 Benefits of Tumeric. Retrieved from: http://www.harboursidefitness.com.au/blog-post/top-5-benefits-of-turmeric/

Botanical Name: Curcuma longa
Common name: Tumeric, Indian saffron, jianghuang (Chinese), shati (Sanskrit) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900)
Family: Zingeberaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)
Parts used: root and rhizome Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)

Quality: Pungent, bitter, astringent, heating (Pole, 2006, p. 282). In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is used to dry damp and move stagnation in the blood (Pole, 2006, p. 282).

History/Folklore: Native to India and South-East Asia, Tumeric has been recorded in medical texts dating back to 600BC (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Constituents: Essential oil (sesquiterpene ketones, zingiberene, phellandrene, sabinene, cineole and borneol); Yellow pigments “diarylheptanoids” or “curcuminoids” (incl. curcumin) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901).

Yellow pigment curcumin has been shown to influence transcription factors, cytokines, growth factors, kinases and other enzymes (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 902-903; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Anti-platelet (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 903; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 904; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Hepatoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 904-905)
  • Nephroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 904-905)
  • Neuroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 905)
  • Cardioprotective and vasoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 905)
  • Hypolipidaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 905-906)
  • Antibacterial (Pole, 2006, p. 282; Zorotchian Moghadamtousi, Abdul Kadir, Hassandarvish, Tajik, Abubakar & Zandi, 2014, p. 2)
  • Antimicrobial (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 906-907)
  • Antiparasitic (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 907)
  • Antiviral (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, pp. 2-3)
  • Antiparasitic (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 2)
  • Antitumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 908)
  • Anti-depressant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 909)
  • Radioprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Antiallergic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Emmenagogue (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Blood tonic (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Carminative (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Alterative (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Vulunary (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Anti-carcinogenic (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • TCM specific: blood and qi tonifier with analgesic properties (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Indications

  • Cancer prevention (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 907)
  • Cystic fibrosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 909)
  • HIV/AIDS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
    • One human trial exhibited an increase in CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte counts (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
    • Another human trial showed relief of HIV-associated chronic diarrhoea (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Eye disorders (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 911)
  • Genetic diseases (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 911)
  • Alzehimer’s disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 916)
  • Skin conditions (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 916)
  • Candida (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 7)
  • Helicobacter pylori (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 8)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:1): 5-14mL/day
  • 4g powdered tumeric mixed with water/1-2 day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)

Cautions

  • Doses > 15g/day should not be administered long term or in conjunction with anti-platelet or anti-coagulant medication (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Individuals complaining of hair loss (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Women trying to conceive (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Pregnancy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 918)

Contraindications

  • Biliary tract obstruction (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is contraindicated in high vāta and pitta (Pole, 2006, p. 283).
  • Acute jaundice and hepatitis (Pole, 2006, p. 283).

Combinations

  • For liver congestion: combine with kutki, bhumiamalaki and pippali (Pole, 2006, p. 283)
  • Small amounts of long/black pepper enhances anti-inflammatory activity of turmeric (Pole, 2006, p. 283)
  • For congestion of the lower abdomen and menstrual imbalance: combine with guggulu, mustaka and purnarnava (Pole, 2006, p. 283)

Interactions: Turmeric may potentiate effects of anti-platelet or anticoagulant medications (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 918).

Boswellia serrata

boswellia%20

The Chopra Centre. (2014). Boswellia. Retrieved from: http://www.chopra.com/community/online-library/ayurvedic-herbs-foods/boswellia

Botanical Name: Boswellia serrata
Common name: Boswellia, Indian Frankincence, Sallaki (Sanskrit), Salai guggal (Hindi) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441)
Family: Burseraceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 442)
Parts used: Resin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 442)

Quality: Bitter, pungent, astringent and sweet (Pole, 2006, p. 179). The herb is considered heating for its blood circulating properties and cooling due to its anti-inflammatory action (Pole, 2006, p. 179).

History/Folklore: Boswellia serrata from the genus Boswillia and is comprised of a range of small shrubs and trees native to North Africa and Asia. The many speices exude fragrant resins known as frankincense or oleo-gum. Boswellia serrata is related to B. carterii or “biblical frankincense”, and has a long history of therapeutic use notably in Auyrvedic medicine (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441).

The herb has a long-term connection with the spiritual realm and religious ceremony, and is also used for psychiatric conditions (Pole, 2006, p. 179). It is seen to have a specific effect on ājñā cakra (the spiritual centre, which is connected to the pituitary and hypothalamus (Pole, 2006, p. 179).

Constituents: penacyclic triterpene acids (mainly β-boswellic acid and acetyl-boswellic acids); tetracyclic triterpene acids; essential oil; terpenols; monosaccharides; uronic acids; sterols aand phlobaphenes (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 442)

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 441, 442)
  • Anti-allergic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 443)
  • Anti-cancer (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 443)
  • Analgesic (Pole, 2006, p. 179)
  • Anti-rheumatic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441; Pole, 2006, p. 179)
  • Emmenagogue (Pole, 2006, p. 179)
  • Antispasmodic (Pole, 2006, p. 179)

The herb has being studied in the treatment of Alzheimer’s and other inflammatory brain conditions due to its ability to cross the blood brain barrier (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441).

Ayurveda specific: Destroys toxins, reduces kapha and vāta, rejuvenating, useful in gynecology, rediracts vāta flow downwards, clearns adhesions from the body (Pole, 2006, p. 179).

 

Indications

  • Asthma (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 441, 446)
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441)
    • Ulcerative colitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 446)
    • Crohn’s Disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 446)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441)
  • Osteoarthritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 441, 444-446)
  • Oedema in correlation with brain tumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Resin decoction: 3-9g/day (Pole, 2006, p. 180)
  • Tincture (1:5 in 90%): 2-10mL/day

 

Cautions & Contraindications

  • Pregnancy (Pole, 2006, p. 180)
  • Weakened digestion (Pole, 2006, p. 180)

 

Combinations

  • For inflammation and arthritic conditions: combine with guggulu, myrrh and tumeric (Pole, 2006, p. 180)
  • For male sexual debility: combine with gokshura, ashwagandha and bala (Pole, 2006, p. 180)

 

Interactions: Moderate to potent inhibitors of applied CYP enzymes (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 447)

Vitis vinifera

nebbiolo

Giovanni, D. (2013). Barbaresco DOCG. Retrieved from: http://demarie.com/our-wines/barbaresco-docg/?lang=en

Botanical Name: Vitis vinifera
Common name: Grape, Grapeseed extract (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 565)
Family: Vitaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 565)
Parts used: seeds, grape skins (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 565)

Constituents: Proanthocyanidins and stilbenes (incl. resveratrol and viniferins) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 565)

Actions

  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 233)
  • Anti-carcinogenic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566)
  • Anti-tumor (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566)
  • Cardioprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 567)
  • Vasoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 233)

 

Indications

  • Chronic venus insufficiency (Natural Standard, 2014; Kiesewetter, Koscielny, Kalus, Vix, Peil, Petrini, Van Toor, & de Mey, 2000)
  • Fluid retentions/peripheral venous insufficiency/capillary resistance (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 567)
  • OEdema (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Diabetic retinopathy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Diabetic nephropahy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Eye strain (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Hyperlidaemia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Atherosclerosis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Dermal wound healing (topical) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Chloasma/Melasma (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Pancreatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Sun burn (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Protection against chemical toxicity (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569; Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Dosage & Preparation: Fluid extract (1:1): 20-40mL/week (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)

Cautions & Contraindications: Adverse effects are uncommon (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)

Interactions:

  • Theoretically additive effect when combined with anti-platelet medication (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)
  • Theoretical increased risk of bleeding when used in conjunction with anticoagulant drugs (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)
  • Tannins may decrease iron absorption, best to take at least 2 hrs apart (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)

Camellia sinensis

green-tea
Cocoon Apothecary. (2014). Camellia Oil. Retrieved from: http://www.cocoonapothecary.com/pages/Camellia-Oil.html

Botanical Name: Camellia sinensis
Common name: Green Tea, Matsu-cha, Green sencha tea, Japanese tea, Chienese tea (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)
Family: Theaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)
Parts used: Leaf (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)

Quality: Cold, bitter and sweet (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 122)

History/Folklore: Green tea is the unfermented product of black tea. In Chinese medicine Green Tea has a cooling effect, where as its fermented product black tea has a warming effect (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 122)

Constituents:

  • Polyphenols (Inlc. Catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, proanthocyanidins. Notably: epigallocatechin gallate).
  • Caffeine (about 3%)
  • Small amounts of common methyl-xanthines, theobromine and theophylline
  • Tannin, oxalic acid, trace elements and vitamins.

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)

 

Actions

  • Chemoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)
  • Antiproliferative (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)
  • Antimicrobial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)
  • Antiviral (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 573)
  • Anticarcinogenic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 573)
  • Antihypertensive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 573)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 573)

 

Indications

  • Cancer prevention (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 574-755)
  • Cancer treatment (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 575)
  • Cardiovascuar protections (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 575-576)
  • Dental carriers and gingivitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 576)
  • Sunburn protection (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 576)
  • Weight loss (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 576)
  • Liver disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 576-567)
  • Colitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 577)
  • Dementia/cognitive impairment (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 577)
  • Beta-thalassaemia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 577)
  • Renal failure (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 577)
  • Urinary stones (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 577)
  • Diabetes (via reducing serum glucose/improving kidney function) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 577)
  • Genital warts (topical) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 577; Gross, 2009)
  • Seasonal allergic rhinitis (Maeda-Yamamoto, Ema, Monobe, Shibuichi, Shinoda, Yamamotto & Fujisawa, 2009)
  • Revovery from alcohol abuse (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 122)

 

Dosage & Preparation:
Genital and perianal warts: 15% strength Polyphenon E ointment applied to infected area/tds (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 578; Gross, 2009).
Tea: 3-9g/day (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 122)

 

Cautions

  • In large amounts may cause CNS stimulation due to caffeine content (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 578)
  • Excessive intake will increase adverse effects due to caffeine content, therefore the herb is not recommended for people with hypertension, arrhythmias, severe liver disease, anxiety disorder or insomnia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 578)
  • Contraindicated in cold or spleen deficiency in TCM (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 123)

 

Interactions:

  • Has shown to have antagonistic reaction with anti-coagulants (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 578)
  • Potential to reduce iron absorption due to tannin content (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 578)
  • May potentate effects of diretics due to caffeine content (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)
  • May theoretically decrease effects of CNS depressants due to caffeine content (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 578)

Glycyrrhiza glabra

3eb270
Mharr. (2008). PlantFiles: Picture #7 of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Retrieved from: http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/showimage/186125/

Botanical Name: Glycyrrhiza glabra
Common name: Licorice, licorice root, yashimadhu (Sanskrit), ganco (Chinese), Kanzo (Japanese) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
Family: Leguminosae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650)
Parts used: Root and stolen (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650)

History/Folklore: Use of licorice root dates back to 2500BC, found referenced on Assyrian clay and Egyptian papyri. The herb is also used extensively in both Auyrvedia and Traditional Chinese Medicine (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650).

Constituents: Triterpenoid saponins (notably: glycyrrhizin); Glycyrrhetic acid; flavonoids (incl. liquiritigenin glycosides); chalchones (incl. isoliquiritin); isoflavonoids (incl. glabridin, glabrone and formononetin); sterols; coumrains; fatty acids; phenolics; and arabinogalactans (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 721)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-allergic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651)
  • Anti-ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651)
  • Anti-viral (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Antibacterial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652)
  • Expectorant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-tussive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 653)
  • Antidepressant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 653)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 653-654; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-platelet (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Immunomodulatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Adrenal tonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Demulcent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Mild laxative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)

 

Indications

  • Peptic ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Gastritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Dyspepsia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Dermatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Allergies (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Viral Infections (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Respiratory tract infection (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Chronic stress (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Polycystic ovary disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 730)
  • Complications of diabeties (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Menopause (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 655-656)
  • Weight loss (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Addison’s disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 730)
  • Hypercholesterolaemia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Depression (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Urinary tract inflammation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Adrenal insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Viral Hepatitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 731)
  • HIV/AIDS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 731)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Decoction: 3-12g/day
  • Liquid extract (1:1): 2-6mL/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)

 

Cautions

  • Adverse reactions have been recorded at doses > 100-400mg/day (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • High doses over a long period of time may lead to increased blood pressure, therefore caution should be taken in individuals with hypertension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 656-658)
  • Caution to be taken in men with a history of impotence, infertility or decreased libido due to potential ability to reduce testosterone (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 658)

 

Contraindications

  • Pregnancy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 567; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Cholestatic liver disease and cirrhosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Hypokalaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Severe kidney insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)

 

Interactions:

  • Anti-hypertensives (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 657)
  • Digoxin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 657)
  • May potentate effects of diuretics and laxatives (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 734)

Rhodiola rosea

ss-rhodiola2-300x300-1

Serenity Station. Rhodiola for Relaxation. (2013). Retrieved from: http://www.serenity-station.com/rhodiola-relaxation/

Botanical Name: Rhodiola rosea
Common name: Rhodiola, Golden root, Rose root, Arctic root (Huang, Perry, Ernst, 2011, p. 235)
Family: Crassulaceae (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
Parts used: Root (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 794)

History/Folklore: Found in high altitudes of Arctic regions, and throughout Europe and Asia (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235). The herb is used widely throughout Russia and Scandinavia (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235).

Constituents: Salidroside and aglycones; rhodiolo A, rosiridol and sachalinol; Rosavins; gossypectin-7-acid, rhodioflavonoside, gallic acid, trans-p-hydroycinnamic acid and p-tyrosol; cinnamic acid; hydroquinone (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 795)

Actions

  • Adaptogen (Hoffmann, 2003, p.484; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 795)
  • Tonic (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Antidepressant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 796)
  • Immunomodulatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 796)
  • Antibacterial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 796)
  • Cardioprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 796)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 797)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 797)
  • Cytoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 797)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 797)

Acts as an adaptogen by modulating the stress response (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 795). Some ways it achieves this is by:

  • Increasing the bio-electrical activity of the brain (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Inhibiting enzymes that degrade neurotransmitters such as dopamine, adrenaline, seratonin and achetlycholine (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Preventing a rise in mediators for the stress response (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)

 

Indications

  • Stress induced depression (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 798)
  • General Anxiety Disorder (GAD) (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 798)
  • Fatigue (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 798)
  • Anaemia (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Impotence (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Infections (incl. cold and flu) (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Cancer (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Nervous System disorders (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Headache (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Improves memory and attention span (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Increases physical endurance (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 798)
  • Resistance to altitude sickness (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Diabetes (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 799)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

Fluid extract (1:2): 20-49mL/week (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 799)

Cautions: No major risks are associated with Rhodiola (Huang et al., 2011, p. 242)

 

Contraindications: Contraindicated in bipolar disorder (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 799)

 

Interactions: Emit caution when used in conjunction with Adriamycin, Cyclophosphamide and antidepressants based on theoretical evidence (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 799)

Avena sativa

wheat-sativum-oats

Martin, A. (1858). Wheat & Oats. Retrieved from: http://www.reusableart.com/v/food/wheat-sativum-oats.jpg.html?g2_imageViewsIndex=1

Botanical Name: Avena sativa
Common name: Oats
Family: Poaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 704)
Parts used: The whole flowering plant including straw and seed (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 704)

Constituents:

  • Beta-glucan
  • Triterpenoid saponins: incl. avenacosides A and B
  • Phenolic compounds: incl. avenanthramides A, B and C
  • Alkaloids: indol alkaloid, gramine, trigonelline, avenine
  • Sterol (avenasterol)
  • Flavonoids
  • Starch
  • Phytates
  • Protein (including gluten)
  • Coumarins
  • Nutrients: silicic acid, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, zinc
  • Vitamins: a, B-complex, C, E and K

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 704)

 

Actions:

  • Lipid lowering
  • Anti-atherogenic
  • Anti-hypertensive
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antioxidant
  • Anti-carcinogenic
  • Laxative (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 705)
  • Sedative
  • Emollient (Heinrich, Barnes, Gibbons & Williamson, 2012, p. 285)
  • Nervine tonic
  • Anti-depressant
  • Nutritive
  • Demulcent
  • Vulnerary (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 219)

 

History: Avena sativa is a widely distributes cereal crop.

 

Indications

  • Hyperlipidaemia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 705- 706)
  • Hypertension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 706)
  • Blood sugar regulation (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 706)
  • Atopic dermatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 707)
  • Ecezma, Pruritus and dry skin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 707; Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 285)

In vitro studies of avenanthramides demonstrate significant inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activity and sebseqent reduction of interlukin-8 release.

 

Hoffmann describes Avena sativa as a remedy for “feeding” the nervous system when under stress. Considered specific in nervous debility, exhaustion and general debility (1990, p. 219).

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Bath preparations for eczema or itchy or dry skin: boill 500g of shredded straw in 2L water for 0.5hour. Strain the liquid before adding to the bath (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 219; Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 285)
  • Tinctures for sedative properties (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 285)
  • Fluid extract: 3-5mL/tds (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 219).

 

Cautions & Contradictions: May cause irritation in individuals with coeliac disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 708)

 

Interactions: Theoretically may interefere with antihypertensives, lipid-lowering medications, insulin and diabetic medication (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 707).

 

Combinations: For depression may be combined with Skullcap and Lady’s Slipper (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 219).

Scutellaria baicalensis

Øëåìíèê áàéêàëüñêèé – Scutellariae baicalensis

Image I

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Image II

Botanical Name: Scutellaria baicalensis
Common name: Baical Skullcap, Chinese skullcap, huang quin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
Family: Lamiaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
Parts used: Root (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)

Constituents

Flavenoids and their glycosides

  • Baicalin and its aglycone: Baicalein
  • Wogonin
  • Resin
  • Tannins
  • Melatonin

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)

 

Baicalin is porely absorbed through the gut, however becomes hydrolysed to its alglycone baicalein by intestinal bacteria (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218).

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 219)
  • Antifibrotic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 219)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Anti-allergic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Hypotensive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Anti-platelet (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Antixiolytic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Antimicrobial, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 221-222)
  • Anti-ulcerogenic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Antidiabetic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Anti-emetic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 223)

 

History & Traditional Use

Traditionally used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to clear heat and dry dampness. (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218).

 

Indications

  • Respiratory infections (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Bone marrow stimulation during chemotherapy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Epilepsy (in combination) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Chronic active hepatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Liver fibrosis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Chronic inflammation
    • Asthma
    • Arthritis
    • Allergies (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Hepatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Common cold (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Nausea and vomiting (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Mild hyper-tension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Dried herb: 6-15g/day
  • Liquid extract: (1:2) 4.5-8.5mL/day in divided doses

 

Cautions: Safety in pregnancy has not being defined by clinical trials. The herb is used in TCM for “restless foetus” (threatened abortion) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Contradictions

  • Contradicted during interferon therapy
  • Contradicted in “cold” conditions in TCM

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Combinations

Scutellaria baicalensis is an ingredient in popular Chinese/Japanese formulation Minor Burpleureum Combination (Xiao Chai Hu Tang in Chinese and Sho-saiko-to in Japanese). This combination contains:

  • Bulpleurum falcatum
  • Scutellaria baicalensis
  • Pinellia ternata
  • Panax ginseng
  • Zizyphus jujuba
  • Glycyrrhiza uralensis
  • Zingiber officinale

This treatment has been used for 3000 years in the treatment of pyretic disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224).

 

REFERENCE
Braun, L., & Cohen, M. (2010). Herbs & Natural Supplements: An Evidence based Guide (3rd ed.). Chatswood NSW: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Image: Beauty & Health Philosophy. (2008-2014). Beauty & Health Philosophy. Retrieved from: http://nsp-zdorovje.narod.ru/fito/wlemnik-scutellaria.html

Image II: Molbiol.ur. (2001-2014). Шлемник байкальский (Scutellaria baicalensis, Labiatae/Lamiaceae). Retrieved from: http://molbiol.ru/forums/lofiversion/index.php/t173641.html

Euphorbia hirta

euphorbiahirta copy

Botanical Name: Euphorbia hirta
Common name: Dudeli (Hindi), Asthma herb (English) (Kumar et al., 2010)
Family: Euphorbiaceae (Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1).
Parts used: Leaf, stem (Kumar et al., 2010)

Constituents

  • Alkanes
  • Triterpenes
  • Phytosterols
  • Tannins
  • Polyphenols
  • Falonoids

(Kumar et al., 2010)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Ahmad, Khan, Bani, Kaul, Sultan, Ali, Satti, Bakheet, Attia, Zoheir & Abd-Allah, 2013, Abstract; Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1; Kumar et al., 2010)
  • Antibacterial, antifungal (Kumar et al., 2010; Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1)
  • Anticancer (Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1; Kumar et al., 2010)
  • Antithelmintic (Kumar et al., 2010; Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1)
  • Antioxidant (Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1)
  • Antipyretic (Ahmad et al., 2013, Abstract; Kumar et al., 2010)
  • Antispasmodic (Kumar et al., 2010)
  • Anxiolytic (Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1; Kumar et al., 2010)
  • Diuretic (Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1)
  • Hypotensive (Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1; Kumar et al., 2010)
  • Immunosepressor (Ahmad et al., 2013, Abstract)

 

History and Traditional Use

There are over 1600 species in the Euphorbia genus, which is characterised by the excretion of a white milky latex which is often toxic (Kumar et al., 2010). Euphorbia hirta is a common weed used in Auyrvedic medicine, traditional medicine in Africa, Australia and Malaysia (Ahmad, et al., 2013, Abstract; Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1; Kumar et al., 2010).

In Ayurvedic medicin Euphorbia hirta is used to treat female disorders, respiratory ailments, worm infestations in children, jaundice, gonorrhoea, digestive problems and tumours Kumar et al., 2010

In traditional Malay medicine Euphorbia hirta is used for gastrointestinal disorders and in the respiratory system (Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1).

 

Indications

Respiratory

  • Asthma
  • Bronchitis
  • Hay fever

Gastrointestinal

  • Diarrhoea
  • Dysentery and
  • Parasites

Urinary

  • Has a sedative effect of urinary tract

 

Preparation

Dried Herb Decoction: often used for skin disease

Fresh Herb Decoction: Used as a gargle for thrush

A leaf poultice is used to treat swelling and boils

(Kumar et al., 2010).

 

Cautions & Contradictions

Has shown to lower sperm count in studies and therefore may reduce fertility (Kumar et al., 2010).

 

REFERENCE
Ahmad, S. F., Khan, B., Bani, S., Kaul, A., Sultan, P., Ali, S. A., Satti, N. K., Bakheet, S. A., Attia, S. M., Zoheir, K. M., & Abd-Allah, A. R. (2013). Immunosuppressive effects of Euphorbia hirta in experimental animals.Inflammopharmacology, 21(2), 161-8. DOI: 10.1007/s10787-012-0144-6

Ahmad, S. F., Attia, S. M., Bakheet, S. A., Ashour, A. E., Zoheir, K. M., & Abd-Allah, A. R. (2014). Anti-inflammatory effect of Euphorbia hirta in an adjuvant-induced arthritic murine model. Inflammopharmacology, 43(3), 197-211. DOI: 10.3109/08820139.2013.857350

Kumar, S., Malhotra, R., & Kumar, D. (2010). Euphorbia hirta: Its chemistry, traditional and medicinal uses, and pharmacological activities. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 4(7), 58-61. doi:  10.4103/0973-7847.65327

Perumal, S., & Mahmud, R. (2013). Chemical analysis, inhibition of biofilm formation and biofilm eradication potential of Euphorbia hirta L. against clinical isolates and standard strains. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 13: 346 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-346

Image: Pati, K. (2010). ASTHMA WEED, Euphorbia hirta. Retrieved from: http://kumarpati.wordpress.com/2010/08/04/asthma-weed-euphorbia-hirta/