Curcuma longa

turmeric-info0
HowStuffWorks. (2014). Tumeric. Retrieved from: http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/botany/turmeric-info.htm

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Christie, D. (2014). Top 5 Benefits of Tumeric. Retrieved from: http://www.harboursidefitness.com.au/blog-post/top-5-benefits-of-turmeric/

Botanical Name: Curcuma longa
Common name: Tumeric, Indian saffron, jianghuang (Chinese), shati (Sanskrit) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900)
Family: Zingeberaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)
Parts used: root and rhizome Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)

Quality: Pungent, bitter, astringent, heating (Pole, 2006, p. 282). In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is used to dry damp and move stagnation in the blood (Pole, 2006, p. 282).

History/Folklore: Native to India and South-East Asia, Tumeric has been recorded in medical texts dating back to 600BC (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Constituents: Essential oil (sesquiterpene ketones, zingiberene, phellandrene, sabinene, cineole and borneol); Yellow pigments “diarylheptanoids” or “curcuminoids” (incl. curcumin) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901).

Yellow pigment curcumin has been shown to influence transcription factors, cytokines, growth factors, kinases and other enzymes (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 902-903; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Anti-platelet (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 903; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 904; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Hepatoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 904-905)
  • Nephroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 904-905)
  • Neuroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 905)
  • Cardioprotective and vasoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 905)
  • Hypolipidaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 905-906)
  • Antibacterial (Pole, 2006, p. 282; Zorotchian Moghadamtousi, Abdul Kadir, Hassandarvish, Tajik, Abubakar & Zandi, 2014, p. 2)
  • Antimicrobial (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 906-907)
  • Antiparasitic (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 907)
  • Antiviral (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, pp. 2-3)
  • Antiparasitic (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 2)
  • Antitumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 908)
  • Anti-depressant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 909)
  • Radioprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Antiallergic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Emmenagogue (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Blood tonic (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Carminative (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Alterative (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Vulunary (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Anti-carcinogenic (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • TCM specific: blood and qi tonifier with analgesic properties (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Indications

  • Cancer prevention (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 907)
  • Cystic fibrosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 909)
  • HIV/AIDS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
    • One human trial exhibited an increase in CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte counts (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
    • Another human trial showed relief of HIV-associated chronic diarrhoea (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Eye disorders (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 911)
  • Genetic diseases (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 911)
  • Alzehimer’s disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 916)
  • Skin conditions (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 916)
  • Candida (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 7)
  • Helicobacter pylori (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 8)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:1): 5-14mL/day
  • 4g powdered tumeric mixed with water/1-2 day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)

Cautions

  • Doses > 15g/day should not be administered long term or in conjunction with anti-platelet or anti-coagulant medication (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Individuals complaining of hair loss (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Women trying to conceive (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Pregnancy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 918)

Contraindications

  • Biliary tract obstruction (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is contraindicated in high vāta and pitta (Pole, 2006, p. 283).
  • Acute jaundice and hepatitis (Pole, 2006, p. 283).

Combinations

  • For liver congestion: combine with kutki, bhumiamalaki and pippali (Pole, 2006, p. 283)
  • Small amounts of long/black pepper enhances anti-inflammatory activity of turmeric (Pole, 2006, p. 283)
  • For congestion of the lower abdomen and menstrual imbalance: combine with guggulu, mustaka and purnarnava (Pole, 2006, p. 283)

Interactions: Turmeric may potentiate effects of anti-platelet or anticoagulant medications (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 918).

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Boswellia serrata

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The Chopra Centre. (2014). Boswellia. Retrieved from: http://www.chopra.com/community/online-library/ayurvedic-herbs-foods/boswellia

Botanical Name: Boswellia serrata
Common name: Boswellia, Indian Frankincence, Sallaki (Sanskrit), Salai guggal (Hindi) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441)
Family: Burseraceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 442)
Parts used: Resin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 442)

Quality: Bitter, pungent, astringent and sweet (Pole, 2006, p. 179). The herb is considered heating for its blood circulating properties and cooling due to its anti-inflammatory action (Pole, 2006, p. 179).

History/Folklore: Boswellia serrata from the genus Boswillia and is comprised of a range of small shrubs and trees native to North Africa and Asia. The many speices exude fragrant resins known as frankincense or oleo-gum. Boswellia serrata is related to B. carterii or “biblical frankincense”, and has a long history of therapeutic use notably in Auyrvedic medicine (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441).

The herb has a long-term connection with the spiritual realm and religious ceremony, and is also used for psychiatric conditions (Pole, 2006, p. 179). It is seen to have a specific effect on ājñā cakra (the spiritual centre, which is connected to the pituitary and hypothalamus (Pole, 2006, p. 179).

Constituents: penacyclic triterpene acids (mainly β-boswellic acid and acetyl-boswellic acids); tetracyclic triterpene acids; essential oil; terpenols; monosaccharides; uronic acids; sterols aand phlobaphenes (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 442)

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 441, 442)
  • Anti-allergic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 443)
  • Anti-cancer (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 443)
  • Analgesic (Pole, 2006, p. 179)
  • Anti-rheumatic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441; Pole, 2006, p. 179)
  • Emmenagogue (Pole, 2006, p. 179)
  • Antispasmodic (Pole, 2006, p. 179)

The herb has being studied in the treatment of Alzheimer’s and other inflammatory brain conditions due to its ability to cross the blood brain barrier (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441).

Ayurveda specific: Destroys toxins, reduces kapha and vāta, rejuvenating, useful in gynecology, rediracts vāta flow downwards, clearns adhesions from the body (Pole, 2006, p. 179).

 

Indications

  • Asthma (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 441, 446)
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441)
    • Ulcerative colitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 446)
    • Crohn’s Disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 446)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441)
  • Osteoarthritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 441, 444-446)
  • Oedema in correlation with brain tumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Resin decoction: 3-9g/day (Pole, 2006, p. 180)
  • Tincture (1:5 in 90%): 2-10mL/day

 

Cautions & Contraindications

  • Pregnancy (Pole, 2006, p. 180)
  • Weakened digestion (Pole, 2006, p. 180)

 

Combinations

  • For inflammation and arthritic conditions: combine with guggulu, myrrh and tumeric (Pole, 2006, p. 180)
  • For male sexual debility: combine with gokshura, ashwagandha and bala (Pole, 2006, p. 180)

 

Interactions: Moderate to potent inhibitors of applied CYP enzymes (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 447)

Glycyrrhiza glabra

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Mharr. (2008). PlantFiles: Picture #7 of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Retrieved from: http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/showimage/186125/

Botanical Name: Glycyrrhiza glabra
Common name: Licorice, licorice root, yashimadhu (Sanskrit), ganco (Chinese), Kanzo (Japanese) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
Family: Leguminosae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650)
Parts used: Root and stolen (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650)

History/Folklore: Use of licorice root dates back to 2500BC, found referenced on Assyrian clay and Egyptian papyri. The herb is also used extensively in both Auyrvedia and Traditional Chinese Medicine (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650).

Constituents: Triterpenoid saponins (notably: glycyrrhizin); Glycyrrhetic acid; flavonoids (incl. liquiritigenin glycosides); chalchones (incl. isoliquiritin); isoflavonoids (incl. glabridin, glabrone and formononetin); sterols; coumrains; fatty acids; phenolics; and arabinogalactans (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 721)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-allergic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651)
  • Anti-ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651)
  • Anti-viral (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Antibacterial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652)
  • Expectorant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-tussive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 653)
  • Antidepressant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 653)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 653-654; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-platelet (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Immunomodulatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Adrenal tonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Demulcent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Mild laxative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)

 

Indications

  • Peptic ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Gastritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Dyspepsia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Dermatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Allergies (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Viral Infections (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Respiratory tract infection (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Chronic stress (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Polycystic ovary disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 730)
  • Complications of diabeties (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Menopause (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 655-656)
  • Weight loss (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Addison’s disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 730)
  • Hypercholesterolaemia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Depression (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Urinary tract inflammation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Adrenal insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Viral Hepatitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 731)
  • HIV/AIDS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 731)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Decoction: 3-12g/day
  • Liquid extract (1:1): 2-6mL/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)

 

Cautions

  • Adverse reactions have been recorded at doses > 100-400mg/day (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • High doses over a long period of time may lead to increased blood pressure, therefore caution should be taken in individuals with hypertension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 656-658)
  • Caution to be taken in men with a history of impotence, infertility or decreased libido due to potential ability to reduce testosterone (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 658)

 

Contraindications

  • Pregnancy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 567; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Cholestatic liver disease and cirrhosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Hypokalaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Severe kidney insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)

 

Interactions:

  • Anti-hypertensives (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 657)
  • Digoxin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 657)
  • May potentate effects of diuretics and laxatives (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 734)

Scutellaria baicalensis

Øëåìíèê áàéêàëüñêèé – Scutellariae baicalensis

Image I

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Image II

Botanical Name: Scutellaria baicalensis
Common name: Baical Skullcap, Chinese skullcap, huang quin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
Family: Lamiaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
Parts used: Root (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)

Constituents

Flavenoids and their glycosides

  • Baicalin and its aglycone: Baicalein
  • Wogonin
  • Resin
  • Tannins
  • Melatonin

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)

 

Baicalin is porely absorbed through the gut, however becomes hydrolysed to its alglycone baicalein by intestinal bacteria (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218).

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 219)
  • Antifibrotic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 219)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Anti-allergic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Hypotensive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Anti-platelet (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Antixiolytic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Antimicrobial, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 221-222)
  • Anti-ulcerogenic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Antidiabetic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Anti-emetic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 223)

 

History & Traditional Use

Traditionally used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to clear heat and dry dampness. (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218).

 

Indications

  • Respiratory infections (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Bone marrow stimulation during chemotherapy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Epilepsy (in combination) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Chronic active hepatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Liver fibrosis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Chronic inflammation
    • Asthma
    • Arthritis
    • Allergies (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Hepatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Common cold (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Nausea and vomiting (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Mild hyper-tension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Dried herb: 6-15g/day
  • Liquid extract: (1:2) 4.5-8.5mL/day in divided doses

 

Cautions: Safety in pregnancy has not being defined by clinical trials. The herb is used in TCM for “restless foetus” (threatened abortion) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Contradictions

  • Contradicted during interferon therapy
  • Contradicted in “cold” conditions in TCM

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Combinations

Scutellaria baicalensis is an ingredient in popular Chinese/Japanese formulation Minor Burpleureum Combination (Xiao Chai Hu Tang in Chinese and Sho-saiko-to in Japanese). This combination contains:

  • Bulpleurum falcatum
  • Scutellaria baicalensis
  • Pinellia ternata
  • Panax ginseng
  • Zizyphus jujuba
  • Glycyrrhiza uralensis
  • Zingiber officinale

This treatment has been used for 3000 years in the treatment of pyretic disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224).

 

REFERENCE
Braun, L., & Cohen, M. (2010). Herbs & Natural Supplements: An Evidence based Guide (3rd ed.). Chatswood NSW: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Image: Beauty & Health Philosophy. (2008-2014). Beauty & Health Philosophy. Retrieved from: http://nsp-zdorovje.narod.ru/fito/wlemnik-scutellaria.html

Image II: Molbiol.ur. (2001-2014). Шлемник байкальский (Scutellaria baicalensis, Labiatae/Lamiaceae). Retrieved from: http://molbiol.ru/forums/lofiversion/index.php/t173641.html

Ephedra sinica

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Botanical Name: Ephedra sinica
Common name: Ephedra, Ma Huang (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 546)
Family: Ephedreaceae (Heinrich, Barnes, Gibbons & Williamson, 2012, p. 227)
Parts used: Stems (Heinrich et al., 2012, pp. 227-228)

 

Constituents

  • Alkaloids
    • Main: ephedrine
    • Pseudoephredrine
    • Norephedrine
    • Norpseudoephedrine
    • Ephedroxane
    • N-methylephedrine
    • Maokonine
    • Transtorine
    • Ephedradines
  • Catechin derivatives
  • Diterpenes

(Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 228)

 

Actions

  • Anti-allergic (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 228)
    • Induces immunoglobin A
    • Blocks complement activation in both classical and alternative pathways
  • Anti-inflammatory (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 228)
  • Bronchodilator (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 228)
  • Central Nervous System (CNS) and cardiac stimulant (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 228)

 

History & Traditional Use

Ephedra sinica is an ancient Chinese medicine (used for at least 5000 years), which is the original source of ephedrine, the decongestant and bronchodilator. Active constituent ephedrine was widely used in pharmaceuticals, however pseudoephedrine is more commonly used today as it has fewer central nervous system stimulating effects. (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 227).

Ephedrine was the first ephedra alkaloid to find wide use in Western Medicine, hailed as a “cure for asthma” due to it’s bronchodilating action. Traditionally it is used to treat asthma and nasal congestion and is administered in the form of nasal drops (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 546).

 

Indications

  • Asthma
  • Hay fever
  • Enuresis
  • Allergies
  • Narcolepsy

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 546)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Thereapeutic doses are calculated to deliver 30mg of the ephedrine alkaloids (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 228)

  • Tincture: (1:4 in 45%) 1-4mL/tds
  • Decoction: 1-2tsp/1 cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 548)

 

Cautions

  • The herb has been abused to stimulate weight loss and for erogenic aid in athletic performance (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 228)
  • May exacerbate hepatitis (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 228)
  • Herb should be avoided in individuals with hypertension, thyrotoxcis, narrow-angle glaucoma and urinary retention(Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 228)

 

Contradictions

Combined with cardiac glycosides or halothane, ephedra can produce cardiac arrhythmias (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)

 

REFERENCE
Heinrich, M., Barnes, J., Gibbons, S., & Williamson, E. (2012). Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Image: Altnature. (2007). Herbie’s Herbs. Retrieved from: http://www.herbies-herbs.com/pages/herbuses-2.html

Urtica dioica/Urens folia

nettle

Image I

Stinging Nettle- home

Image II

Botanical Name: Urtica dioica/Urens folia
Common name: Nettle (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 760)
Family: Urticaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 761)
Parts used: Leaf and root (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 761)

Constituents

LEAF

  • Flavonol glycosides
  • Sterols
  • Scoplentin
  • Chlorophyll
  • Carotenoids (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 761)
  • Histamine (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 218).

ROOT

  • Sterols and steryl glycosides
  • Ligans
  • Phenylpropanes
  • Coumarin scopoletin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 761)

 

Actions

LEAF

  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 760)
  • Antirheumatic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 760)
  • Anti-allergic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 760)
  • Depurative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 760)
  • Styptic (haemostatic) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 760)
  • Counter-irritant (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 760)
  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 218).
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 218).
  • Tonic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 218).

ROOT

  • Antiprostatic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 761, 762)

 

Indications (traditional)

  • Diarrhoea
  • Dysentery
  • Internal bleeding
  • Chronic diseases of the colon
  • Chronic skin diseases

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 760)

 

Indications

LEAF

  • Allergic rhinitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 760)
  • Osteoarthritis (internal and external) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 760)

ROOT

  • Symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 760)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 3-6mL/day (herb) 4-9mL/day (root)
  • Tincture (1:5): 7-14mL/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 760)

  • Infusion (leaf): 1-3tsp/1 cup water/tds (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 218)

Not thought to possess risk in pregnancy, is compatible with breastfeeding (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 768)

 

Cautions & Contradictions

Nettle stings are due to the presence of histamine and serotonin induced by nettle hair, however no reaction is expected from ingesting the extracted leaf. Unprocessed dried leaves may cause allergic reaction with topical application (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 768).

 

Interactions

Combines well with Figwort and Burdock in the treatment of eczema (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 218).

 

REFERENCE
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Image I: Galens Garden. (2014). Nettles-Urtica dioica. Retrieved from: http://www.herbs-and-homoeopathy.co.uk/nettles-urtica-dioica/

Image II: Homolka, K. (2011). Urtica dioica (Stinging Nettles). Retrieved from: http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/2011/homolka_kail/