Caulophyllum thalictroides

Blue Cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides)

FloraFinder. (n.d.). Caulophyllum thalictroides. Retrieved from: http://www.florafinder.com/Species/Caulophyllum_thalictroides.php

Botanical Name: Caulophyllum thalictroides
Common name: Blue Cohosh (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
Family: Berberidaceae (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
Parts used: Root (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
 

Constituents: Quinolizidine alkaloids (incl. sparteine, methylcytisine and anagyrine); and Saponins (incl. caulosaponin) (Bone, 2003, p. 107)

Actions

  • Spasmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Uterine and ovarian tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Emmenagogue (Bone, 2003, p. 106; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 509)
  • Oxytocic (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 516)
  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 516)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 488; Xia, Li, Liang, Yang, Lu, & Kuang, 2014)
  • Analgesic (Xia et al., 2014)


Traditional use
Native to North America, Caulophyllum thalictroides was used traditionally to induce childbirth and to ease labor pain, alleviate menstrual abnormalities (Xia et al., 2014).

Indications

  • Amenorrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Menorrhagia (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Ovarian or uterine pain or inflammation (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Uterine prolapse (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Abdominal cramping (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Rheumatic conditions (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Muscular weakness (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Nervous debility (Bone, 2003, p. 106)

Dosage & Preparation: Liquid extract (1:2): 1.5-3.0mL/day OR 10-20mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 107)

Cautions

  • Potential for tertogenic effects (Bone, 2003, p. 106; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 160)
  • Adverse side effects have been reported including hyperthermia, hypertension, tachycardia, hyperventilation, diaphoresis and weakness (Bone, 2003, pp. 106-107)

Contraindications: Caulophyllum thalictroides’ traditional use to aid childbirth is controversial and has been studied for effects it may have on newborns (Xia et al., 2014). It has been associated with heart attack and strokes in newborn’s as therefore the herb is Pregnancy and lactation (Bone, 2003, p. 106; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 395)

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Corydalis ambigua

pain2-1

Dharmananda, S. (n.d.). SIMPLE TRADITIONAL FORMULAS FOR PAIN. Retrieved from: http://www.itmonline.org/arts/pain.htm

Botanical Name: Corydalis ambigua, Corydalis spp., Corydalis yanhusuo, C. amurensis
Common name: Yan hu su (Chinese) (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
Family: Fumariaceae (Natural Standard, 2014).
Parts used: rhizome (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Qualities: Warm, pungent and bitter

Constituents: Alkaloids (incl. corydalin, corybulbin, apomorphic and berberine alkaloids) (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Actions

  • Analgesic (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Hypnotic (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Sedative (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532; Natural Standard 2014)
  • Anti-ulcerative (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Anti-parasitic (Natural Standard, 2014)

TCM specific: moves blood, relieves pain, breaks up blood stasis and moves and regulates qi (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Indications

  • Moves blood and relieves pain in dysmenorrheal (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Chest pain (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Epigastric and abdominal pain (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Pain following blunt trauma (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Hernia-like pain (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Angina pectoris (Natural Standard, 2014)

Dosage & Preparation: 3-15g/day (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Caution: Has shown to have inhibitory effect in K(ATP) channels (Natural Standard, 2014)

Contraindications:

  • Pregnancy (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • As a hypnotic and sedative, the herb is contraindicated in depression (Bone, 2013, p. 275).

 

Combinations: For dysmenorrhea and pain in limbs combine with Cortex cinnamomi (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

 

Interactions: May interact with sedatives, hypnotics, anti-arrythmias and analgesics (Natural Standard, 2014)

Tribulus terrestris

demirdikeni1

Tuscu, S. (2008). Çocuk İstiyorum Tüp Bebek. Retrieved from: http://www.cocukistiyorum.com/tr/content.asp?PID=%7B1050DD8C-F0E6-4668-9FCB-32EF4A44F9FA%7D&PT=%20Yumurta%20kalitesi%20ve%20sperm%20say%FDs%FDn%FD%20art%FDran%20bitki

Botanical Name: Tribulus terrestris
Common name: Tribulus, Gokshur (Sanskrit), Gokharu (Hindi), Puncture vine (Chhatre, Nesari, Somani, Kanchan & Sathaye, 2014).
Family: Zygophyllaceae (Chhatre et al., 2014).
Parts used: Dried fruit (Chhatre et al., 2014).

Quality: In Ayurvedia medicine Tribulus is describes as madhura (sweet), gura (heavy to digest), brumhema (nourishing) and Vatanut (pacifies vata dhsa).

Constituents: Saponins (incl. furostanol, spirostanol and sarsasapogenin), flavonoids, glycosides (incl. spirostanol glycosides) and alkaloids (Chhatre et al., 2014).

 

Actions

  • Diuretic
  • Aphrodisiac
  • Antiurolithic
  • Immunomodulatory
  • Cardiotonic
  • Hepatoprotective
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Analgesic
  • Anti-spasmodic
  • Anti-cancer
  • Anti-bacterial
  • Anthelmintic

(Chhatre et al., 2014).

 

Indications

  • Coronary Artery Disease (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Infertility (men) (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Infertility (women) (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Exercise performance enhancement (Natural Standard, 2014)

In Auyrvedic medicine, the herb is indicated in the genitourinary tract to clear urinary stones, as a urinary disinfectant and for impotence (Chhatre et al., 2014)

Accoring to Chhatre, in TCM the herb is used to “restore depressed liver, treat feeling of fullness in chest, mastitis, flatulence, acute conjunctivitis, headache and vitiligo” (2014).

 

Cautions

  • Individuals with menstrual disorders as it may cause menorrhagia (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia as it may increase prostate volume (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Hypoglycemia/diabetes as it may decrease blood sugar levels (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Pregnancy due to traditional use as abortifacent (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Contraindications: Know allergy (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Interactions

  • Beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Digoxin due to evidence of positive ionotropic activity (Natural Standard, 2014)

Harpagophytum procumbens

harpagofito

HIPERnatural.COM. (2014). HARPAGOFITO. Retrieved from: http://www.hipernatural.com/es/pltharpagofito.html

Botanical Name: Harpagophytum procumbens
Common name: Devil’s Claw (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
Family: Pedaliaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 510)
Parts used: Rhizome (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557), secondary root tuber (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)

History/Folklore: Native to Kalahari region of South Africa (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509). In South African traditional medicine, the herb is used in pregnancy to relieve pain and as a postpartum (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514).

Constituents: Iridoid glycosides (incl. harpagide, harpagoside and procumbide); flavonoids (kaempferol and luteolin glycosides); phenolic acids (cholorogenic and cinnamic acid); quinone (harpagoquinone; triterpenes; oleanolic and ursolic acids derivatives; esters and sugars (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Anodyne (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Hepatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Analgesic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Bitter (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Anti-arrhythmia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)

Indications

  • Arthritis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Endometriosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Muscle pain (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Fever (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Allergic reactions (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Wound, ulcers, boils (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 40%): 1-2mL/tds
  • Decoction: 0.5 tsp/cup water/tds
  • 5g/day (for loss of appetite 1.5g/day)

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)

 

Cautions

  • Oesophageal reflux and states of hyperacidity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)
  • Pregnancy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)

 

Contraindications: Gastric or duodenal ulcers (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)

Interactions:

  • Moderate inhibitory effect towards cytochrome P450 enzyme: CYP 2C8, CYP 2C9, CYP 2C19 and CYP 3A4 (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)
  • May potentiate effects of Warfarin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)
  • May theoretically interact with anti-arrhythmic drugs (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)

Boswellia serrata

boswellia%20

The Chopra Centre. (2014). Boswellia. Retrieved from: http://www.chopra.com/community/online-library/ayurvedic-herbs-foods/boswellia

Botanical Name: Boswellia serrata
Common name: Boswellia, Indian Frankincence, Sallaki (Sanskrit), Salai guggal (Hindi) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441)
Family: Burseraceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 442)
Parts used: Resin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 442)

Quality: Bitter, pungent, astringent and sweet (Pole, 2006, p. 179). The herb is considered heating for its blood circulating properties and cooling due to its anti-inflammatory action (Pole, 2006, p. 179).

History/Folklore: Boswellia serrata from the genus Boswillia and is comprised of a range of small shrubs and trees native to North Africa and Asia. The many speices exude fragrant resins known as frankincense or oleo-gum. Boswellia serrata is related to B. carterii or “biblical frankincense”, and has a long history of therapeutic use notably in Auyrvedic medicine (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441).

The herb has a long-term connection with the spiritual realm and religious ceremony, and is also used for psychiatric conditions (Pole, 2006, p. 179). It is seen to have a specific effect on ājñā cakra (the spiritual centre, which is connected to the pituitary and hypothalamus (Pole, 2006, p. 179).

Constituents: penacyclic triterpene acids (mainly β-boswellic acid and acetyl-boswellic acids); tetracyclic triterpene acids; essential oil; terpenols; monosaccharides; uronic acids; sterols aand phlobaphenes (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 442)

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 441, 442)
  • Anti-allergic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 443)
  • Anti-cancer (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 443)
  • Analgesic (Pole, 2006, p. 179)
  • Anti-rheumatic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441; Pole, 2006, p. 179)
  • Emmenagogue (Pole, 2006, p. 179)
  • Antispasmodic (Pole, 2006, p. 179)

The herb has being studied in the treatment of Alzheimer’s and other inflammatory brain conditions due to its ability to cross the blood brain barrier (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441).

Ayurveda specific: Destroys toxins, reduces kapha and vāta, rejuvenating, useful in gynecology, rediracts vāta flow downwards, clearns adhesions from the body (Pole, 2006, p. 179).

 

Indications

  • Asthma (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 441, 446)
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441)
    • Ulcerative colitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 446)
    • Crohn’s Disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 446)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441)
  • Osteoarthritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 441, 444-446)
  • Oedema in correlation with brain tumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Resin decoction: 3-9g/day (Pole, 2006, p. 180)
  • Tincture (1:5 in 90%): 2-10mL/day

 

Cautions & Contraindications

  • Pregnancy (Pole, 2006, p. 180)
  • Weakened digestion (Pole, 2006, p. 180)

 

Combinations

  • For inflammation and arthritic conditions: combine with guggulu, myrrh and tumeric (Pole, 2006, p. 180)
  • For male sexual debility: combine with gokshura, ashwagandha and bala (Pole, 2006, p. 180)

 

Interactions: Moderate to potent inhibitors of applied CYP enzymes (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 447)

Salix alba

Salix alba

Plantelemedicinale. (2014). Salcie – tratamente naturiste salcie. Retrieved from: http://plantelemedicinale.info/p-s/salcie-tratamente-naturiste-salcie/

Botanical Name: Salix alba
Common name: White willow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935)
Family: Salicaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)
Parts used: Bark (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)

History/Folklore: Generally considered to be the natural form and original source of aspirin (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579).

Constituents: Phenolic glycosides (incl. salicin and salicylic acid); tannins; catechin; p-coumaric acid and flavanoids (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)

Actions

  • Analgesic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579; Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 935, 937)
  • Tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)
  • Antipyretic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Antirheumatic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935)

 

Indications

  • Lower back pain (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Temporary relief of acute or chronic musculoskeletal pain (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935)
  • Rheumatism (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)
  • Gout (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)
  • Fevers (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935)
  • Headache (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935; Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 25%): 3-6mL/tds
  • Decoction: 1-2tsp dried bark/1 cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)           

 

Cautions

  • Willow bark cannot be substituted for asprin in the prevention of stoke or myocardial infarction (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)
  • Use cautiously in inflammation or ulceration of the gastro-intestinal tract (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)
  • Iron deficiency anemia due to tannin content (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)
  • Severe constipation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)

 

Contraindications

  • Sensitivity or allergy to salicylates (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)
  • In individuals with glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)
  • Children with chickenpox or other viral infections due to association between salicylates and Rene’s Syndrome (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Pregnancy and lactation (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Congestive heart failure (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Individuals with elevated serum calcium due to presence of cadmium (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Interactions:

  • May potentiate effects of anti-platelet medication (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)
  • Warfarin and other anti-coagulant medication (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)

Cinnamomus zeylanicum

cinnamon2
Heavenly Products. (2014). Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon Cinnamon- Dried Bark and Powder). Retrieved from: https://www.heavenly-products.com/cart/index.php?cPath=156_129_272

Botanical Name: Cinnamomus zeylanicum
Common name: Cinnamon
Family: Lauraceae (Natural Standard, 2014)
Parts used: Bark (Natural Standard, 2014)

Constituents: Essential oil, cinnamic aldehyde (Bone, 2003, p. 149)

Actions

  • Antioxidant (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Analgesic (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Circulatory Stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 147)
  • Aromatic digestive (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 192)
  • Warming expectorant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 240)
  • Carminative (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • Astringent (Bone, 2003, p. 149)

Indications

  • Loss of appetite (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • Dyspeptic complaints (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • Common cold and influenza (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • Uterine haemorrhage (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • Metabolic Syndrome (Ziegenfuss, Hofheins, Mendel, Landis & Anderson, 2006)
  • Oral Candidiasis (Quale, Landman, Zaman, Bumey & Sathe, 1996)
  • Allergic rhinitis (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Wound healing (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Increase in sperm quality (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Acute infections (promotes immune activities) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 150)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 3-6mL/day or 20-40mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • One study showed that 500 mg/day of cinnamon (Cinnulin PF®) for 12-weeks lead to significant improvements in symptoms of metabolic syndrome such as fasting blood sugar, systolic blood pressure, and body composition (Ziegenfuss et al., 2006).

 

Cautions

  • May cause contact sensitivity due to cinnamic aldehyde (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 104; Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • As a aromatic and expectorant cinnamon may cause or irritate GI reflux (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 196, 240)
  • Pregnancy (Bone, 2003, p. 149)

 

Combination:

  • In TCM the herb is a component of Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang combination (Natural Standard, 2014)