Vitis vinifera

nebbiolo

Giovanni, D. (2013). Barbaresco DOCG. Retrieved from: http://demarie.com/our-wines/barbaresco-docg/?lang=en

Botanical Name: Vitis vinifera
Common name: Grape, Grapeseed extract (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 565)
Family: Vitaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 565)
Parts used: seeds, grape skins (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 565)

Constituents: Proanthocyanidins and stilbenes (incl. resveratrol and viniferins) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 565)

Actions

  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 233)
  • Anti-carcinogenic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566)
  • Anti-tumor (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566)
  • Cardioprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 567)
  • Vasoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 233)

 

Indications

  • Chronic venus insufficiency (Natural Standard, 2014; Kiesewetter, Koscielny, Kalus, Vix, Peil, Petrini, Van Toor, & de Mey, 2000)
  • Fluid retentions/peripheral venous insufficiency/capillary resistance (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 567)
  • OEdema (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Diabetic retinopathy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Diabetic nephropahy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Eye strain (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Hyperlidaemia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Atherosclerosis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Dermal wound healing (topical) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Chloasma/Melasma (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Pancreatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Sun burn (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Protection against chemical toxicity (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569; Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Dosage & Preparation: Fluid extract (1:1): 20-40mL/week (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)

Cautions & Contraindications: Adverse effects are uncommon (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)

Interactions:

  • Theoretically additive effect when combined with anti-platelet medication (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)
  • Theoretical increased risk of bleeding when used in conjunction with anticoagulant drugs (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)
  • Tannins may decrease iron absorption, best to take at least 2 hrs apart (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)

Vaccinium myrtillus

203_Vaccinum_myrtillus_L

Masclef, A. (1891). 203 Vaccinum myrtillus L. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccinium_myrtillus#mediaviewer/File:203_Vaccinum_myrtillus_L.jpg

Botanical Name: Vaccinium myrtillus
Common name: Bilberry, Blueberry, Huckleberry (Heinrich, Barnes, Gibbons & Williamson, 2012, p. 221)
Family: Ericaceae (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
Parts used: Fruit (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 221)

History/Folklore: Bilberry fruit is a well-known food. In World War II Bilberry wine and jam was consumed by RAF pilots to improve night vision (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 419). Although the herb was traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, modern research revolves around the cardiovascular system (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222). Other traditional indications include scurvy, urinary complaints, and to “dry up” breast milk” (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 419).

Constituents: anthocyanosides (notably: galactosides and glucosides of cyaniding); delphidin; malvidin; vitamin C; and volatile flavour components (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 221).

Actions

  • Vasoprotective (Bone, 2003, p. 93; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 419)
  • Antioxidant (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone, 2003, p. 93; Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Anti-platelet (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Anti-atherosclerotic (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Spasmolytic (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Anti-ulcer (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Astringent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 419).

 

Indications

  • Vision disorders (Bone, 2003, p. 93; Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 222)
  • Simple glaucoma (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Venus insufficiency (notably of lower limbs) (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Peripheral vascular disorders (Bone, 2003, p. 93; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 419)
  • Diabetic retinopathy (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Chronic primary dysmenorrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Raynaud’s syndrome (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Venous disorders during pregnancy (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Hemorrhoids (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Decreased capillary resistance (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Nonspecific acute diarrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 93)
  • Mild inflammation of mouth and throat (topical) (Bone, 2003, p. 93)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:1): 3-6mL/day or 20-40mL/week
  • Tablet: tablets providing 20-120mg of anthocyanins/day

Cautions: Doses exceeding 100mg/day of anthocyanins should be used cautiously in patients with haemorrhagic disorders (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 424).

Interactions: Possible interactions with warfarin and anti-platelet drugs when administered in high doses (Bone, 2003, p. 93)