Artemisia vulgaris

artemisia_vulgaris_mugwort_flowers_04-08-05-1

Aphotoflora. (2004). Aphotoflora. Retrieved from: http://www.aphotoflora.com/d_artemisia_vulgaris_mugwort.html

Botanical Name: Artemisia vulgaris
Common name: Mugwort, Motherwort, Cronewort (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
Family: Asteraceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)
Parts used: Leaf and root (Hoffmann, 2013, p. 531)

Folklore: The name “Motherwort” is derived from western folklore as a herb for the womb (Holms, 1989, p. 317)

Constituents: Volatile oil (linalool, 1,8-cineole, β-thujone, borneol, α- and β- pinene); sesquiterpene lactones (incl. vulgarin); flavonoids; coumarin derivatives and triterpenes (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531).

Actions

  • Bitter tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)
  • Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)
  • Nervine tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)

 

TCM actions:

  • Warms channels
  • Stops bleeding
  • Dispels cold
  • Relieves pain’
  • Drains dampness
  • Warms the uterus
  • Alleviates itching

(Hempen, 2009, p. 586)

 

Indications Traditional

  • Mugwort root is a traditional European treatment for epilepsy (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Traditionally used in Moxibustion in the treatment of damp-cold and pain due to cold (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

TCM indications

  • Amenorrhea (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • Dysmenorrhea (Hempen, 2009, p. 587; Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • PMS with dry skin, swollen breasts, confusion and loss of self esteem (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • Estrogen or progesterone deficiency (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • Failure to progress during labor (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • Restless foetus (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)
  • Infertility (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Anorexia (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Gastric and biliary dyspepsia (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Liver congestion (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Jaundice (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Edema (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Aches, pains, fever and chills (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Boils, ulcers, sores (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Urinary and intestinal infections (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Intestinal parasites (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Eczema or itching (internal or external) (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)
  • Cough, wheezing phlegm (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

 

Dosage & Preparation: 3-9g/day (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

 

Cautions

  • Avoid during pregnancy and lactation due to effect on uterus and “drying” quality (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Long term use/excessive dose may cause toxicity due to thujone content (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Yin deficentcy heat (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

 

Interactions: For heavy menstrual bleeding, restless foetus or premature labor: combine with Angelicae sinensis (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

Viburnum prunifolium

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Northern Family Farms. (2013). Flowering Shrubs. Retrieved from: http://www.northernfamilyfarms.com/detail.php?plant=313

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Cook, W. (2013). Blackhaw (Viburnum prunifolium). Retrieved from: http://www.carolinanature.com/trees/vipr.html,/span>

Botanical Name: Viburnum prunifolium
Common name: Black Haw
Family: Caprifoliaceae (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
Parts used: Bark (Bone, 2003, p. 100)

 

Constituents: Flavonoids (incl. biflavone amentoflavone), iridoid glycosides, triterpenes and triterpenic acids and coumarins (incl. scopoletin) (Bone, 2003, p. 101)

Actions

  • Astringent (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Hypotensive (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Uterine sedative (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Bronchospasmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Antiasthmatic (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Indications

  • Dysmenorrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Threatened miscarriage (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • False labor pains (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Asthma (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Postpartum hemorrhage (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Hypertension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • 5-4.5mL liquid extract (1:2)/day or 10-30mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Tincture (1:5 in 60%): 5-10mL/tds
  • Decoction: 2tsp dried herb/1 cup water/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 594).

 

Cautions: Caution to be taken in individuals with kidney stones due to oxolate content

Combinations: For threatened miscarriage: combine with False Unicorn root and Cramp Bark (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 181)

Interactions: Due to scopoletin content, caution should be taken when used in combination with anticoagulant medications (Bone, 2003, p. 100).

Ginkgo biloba

896px-Ginkgo_biloba_SZ136

Von Siebold, P. F., & Zuccarini, J. G. (1870). Flora Japonica, Sectio Prima (Tafelband). Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ginkgo_biloba_SZ136.png

Botanical Name: Ginkgo biloba
Common name: Ginko (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
Family: Ginkoaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597)
Parts used: Leaf, seed kernel (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)

Folklore: Perhaps one of the oldest living tree species, Ginko’s origin is believe to be remote mountainous valleys of Zhejiang. First introduced into Europe in 1690 by Botanist Engelbert Kaempfer, up until 350 years ago the medicinal knowledge was restricted to China (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 493). Traditional therapeutic use is not well documented (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597).

Constituents:

  • Flavonols (inlc. quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, quercetin-3-beta-D-glucoside, quercitrin and rutin and coumaric acid esters of these flavonoids)
  • Terpene lactones (“terpenoids”) including bilobalide and ginkgolides A, B, C & J.
  • Biflavonoids, ginkgolic acids, sterols, procyanidins and polysaccharides

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597)

 

Actions

  • Anti –platelet activating factor (PAF) activity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Tissue perfusion enhancer (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Circulatory stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Nootropic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Neuroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anxiolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Adaptogen (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Vasodilator (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Digestive bitter (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Uterine Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)

 

Indications

  • Restricted cerebral blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Memory and/or cognitive impairment (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Fatigue (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Stroke (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Vertigo (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Acute cochlear deafness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Tinnitus of vascular origin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Peripheral arterial disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Favorable modification or cardiovascular risk (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Early stages of Alzheimer’s-type dementia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Multi-infarct dementia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Reduced retinal blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Normal tension glaucoma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Age-related muscular degeneration (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Congestive dysmenorrhea and PMS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Hypoxia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anxiety (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Adjuvant therapy in chronic schizophrenia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Symptoms associated with Multiple Sclerosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Allergic conjunctivitis (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Asthma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Protections from radiation damage (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Idiopathic oedema (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Vitilogo (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

120-140 standardized extract/day

120-140mg dry extract (in divided doses)/day

4-8 weeks treatment for optimal results (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 554)

 

Cautions

  • Caution should be taken in individuals with coagulation disorders when used in conjunction with antiplatelet or anticoagulant medication, although clinical trials suggesting this are insufficient (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617).
  • Individuals undergoing surgery are advised to cease taking it 5-7 days prior due to potential (minor) risk of increased blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617)

 

Contraindications:

  • Known sensitivity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617)
  • If unusual bleeding or bruising occurs cease treatment immedietly (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 505)

 

Interactions: Theoretically Ginko may increase bleeding risk when taken in conjunction with Warfarin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 505)

Panax notoginseng

PanaxNotoginsengPhoto07

MDidea.com. (2013). Notoginseng: the Miracle Root for the Preservation of Life., the no. 1 Blood Precious Tonic and more. Retrieved from: http://mdidea.com/products/herbextract/notoginseng/data09.html

Botanical Name: Panax notoginseng
Common name: Notoginseng root; Pseudoginseng root; San qi (Chinese) (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
Family: Araliaceae (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
Parts used: root (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

Quality: Warm, sweet, bitter (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

Constituents:

  • 12% Saponins (Arasaponins A, B, C, D, E and R)
  • Genins of arasaponins: panaxadiol and panaxatriol

(Huang, 1999, p. 101)

 

Actions

  • HAEMOSTATIC (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
  • Immune stimulating (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
  • CNS depressant & stimulant (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
  • Antiplatelet (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
  • Anti-arrhythmic (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Increases coronary flow and decreases blood pressure (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Reduces vascular resistance (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Reduces myocardial metabolic rate (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Reduces plasma cholesterol (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Accelerates blood clotting time (Huang, 1999, p. 102)

Indications

  • Hematemesis
  • Haemoptysis
  • Nosebleed
  • Heavy menstrual bleeding
  • Open sores (external)

(Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

 

Traditional used in Chinese medicine to:

  • Trasform blood stasis and stop bleeding (Holmes, n.d., p. 370)
  • Invigorate the blood, reduce swelling and relieve pain (Holmes, n.d., p. 370)
  • Arrest bleeding (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Remove blood stasis (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Relieve pain (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Angina pectoris (Huang, 1999, p. 102)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Decoction 3-9g, cook for 20 mins
  • Powdered root: 1-1.5g/tds

(Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

 

Contraindication: Pregnancy (Holmes, .n.d., p. 370; Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

Combinations: For Hamorrhage: Combine with herbs that nourish Yin and clear empty heat (Holmes, n.d., p. 370)

Interactions: Caution taken when used in combination with anticoagulants and platelet aggregation inhibitors (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

Coleus forskohlii

Coleus

Wall, M. (2014). Coleus. Retrieved from: http://www.truestarhealth.com/Notes/2071003.html

Botanical Name: Coleus forskohlii
Common name: Coleus (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
Family: Labiatae (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
Parts used: Root (Bone, 2003, p. 156)

Constituents: Forskolin (Bone, 2003, p. 156)

Actions

  • Hypotensive (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Antiplatelet (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Broncho-spasmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Cardiotonic (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Digestive stimulant (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Aromatic digestive (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Galactagogue (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Indications

  • Congestive heart disease (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Asthma (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Glaucoma (topical) (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Hypertension (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Ischemic heart disease (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Thrombosis (relating to platelet activity) (Bone, 2003, p. 156)
  • Depression & Schizophrenia (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Erectile dysfunction (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Preparation & Dosage

3-6mL liquid extract (1:1)/day

40-90mL liquid extract (1:1)/week

4-6 drops liquid extract (1:1) prepared in water/saline for an eye bath (allow alcohol to evaporate before administered)

(Bone, 2003, p. 156)

 

Cautions: Peptic ulcer (Bone, 2003, p. 156)

 

Contraindications: Contraindicated in hypotension (Bone, 2003, p. 156)

Zingiber officinalis

1
Harvest Newsletter. (2011). Grow Local Ginger. Retrieved from: http://archive.constantcontact.com/fs033/1106770492400/archive/1107516061313.html

Botanical Name: Zingiber officinalis
Common name: Ginger
Family: Zinziberaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
Parts used: rhizome (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)

History/Folklore: Medicinal use of ginger is recorded in early Sanskrit and Chinese texts as well as in Ancient Greek, Roman and Arabic medical literature (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578).

Constituents: Essential oil (incl. zingiberene, sesquiphellandrene and β-bisabolene); gingerols and shogoals (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)

Actions

  • Carminative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Antiemetic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Peripheral circulatory stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Anti-platelet (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 578, 582)
  • Diaphoretic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578: Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Digestive stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Anti-ulcer (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 581)
  • Anti-microbial (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 583)
  • Antiparasitic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 583)
  • Anti-tumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Rubefacient (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Cholagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)

 

Indications

  • Motion sickness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Morning sickness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Post-operative and drug induced nausea (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 578-579)
  • Osteoarthritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 570)
  • Gastroparesis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • Chilbains (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Stimulate appetite (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Chemotherapy-induce nausea (Ryan, Heckler, Roscoe, Dakhil, Kirshner, Flynn, Hickok & Morrow, 2011)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Fresh rhizome: 500-1000mg/tds
  • Dried rhizome: 500mg/2-4 times a day
  • Liquid extract (1:2): 0.7-3mL/day
  • Tincture (1:5): 1.7-7.5ml/day (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)

 

Cautions

  • May enhance bioavailability of other medications (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • May cause heart burn (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • May have a blood thinning effect (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Some sources say it is unsuitable for morning sickness and results are conflicting (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Treatment during pregnancy should not exceed a daily dose of 2g of dried ginger (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)
  • Inhibits thromboxane synthase and acts as a prostaglandin agonist (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)

 

Contraindications:

  • Gallstones (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)

Interactions:

  • Increases bioavilability of other drugs by increasing absorption from GI tract and/or protecting the drug from metabolized by the liver’s first phase (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591).
  • In Individuals already taking blood thinning medication, daily dose of ginger should not exceed 4g (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)
  • May increase bleeding when combined with other anti-coagulants (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)

Capsicum minimum

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Watson, K. (2013). Chili Pepper Botanical Printable. Retrieved from: http://thegraphicsfairy.com/chili-pepper-botanical-printable/

Botanical Name: Capsicum minimum
Common name: Cayenne (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
Family: Solonaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
Parts used: Fruit (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)

Constituents: Capsaicinoids (incl. capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin); carotenoids (incl. capsanthin, capsorubin and carotene; and Steroidal saponins (“capsicidins”) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)

Actions

  • Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 247)
  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Anti-catarrhal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Sialalgogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Rubefacient (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Antimicrobial (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Antiseptic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 247)
  • Local anesthetic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)

As a local anaesthetic, Cayenne only blocks impulses to nerve C fibers (strictly related to pain) therefore it does not interfe with temperature, touch and pressure (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536).

Cayenne blocks transmission of pain and itching by nerve fibers in skin and topically relieves pain by depleting local supplies of substance P (neurotransmitter) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536).

 

Indications

  • Flatulent dyspepsia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Colic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Insufficient peripheral circulation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Debility (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Lumbago and rheumatic pains (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Laryngitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Painful skin disorders, such as: psoriasis, pruritus or shingles (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Arthritis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Cluster headache (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Phantom limb pains (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Vasomotor rhinitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • GI infections (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 202)

In TCM the herb is used as an anticonvulsant and is indicated in epilepsy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 25%): 0.25-1mL/tds
  • Infusion: 0.5-1tsp/1 cup water. Infuse for 10mins. Drink when needed.

 

Cautions: The specific action Cayenne has on vansiloid receptors may creates an illusion of pain and burning, however tissue damage is not concurrent in these sensations and no harm results (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 43, 104)

 

Combinations

  • Combines with Myrrh in a gargle for laryngitis or as an antiseptic wash (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536).
  • High doses may cause tachecardia and hypertension in certain individuals (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • May aggravate gastrointestinal reflux (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Caution to be taken in individuals with bleeding disorders (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Interactions

  • May react with anticoagulant and anti-platelet medication (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • May inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes (Natural Standard, 2014)

Panax ginseng

panax_ginseng

Johal, R. (2012). Ginseng and Ginkgo Biloba Complex shows promise for mental tasks. Retrieved from: http://www.predatornutrition.com/blog/2012/03/08/ginseng-and-ginkgo-biloba-complex-shows-promise-for-mental-tasks/

Botanical Name: Panax ginseng
Common name: Korean Ginseng, Panax, Ren Shen (Mandarine), Ninjin (Japanese) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
Family: Araliaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)
Parts used: Root (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)

Folklore and traditional use: In Chinese, Gin referres to “man” and seng to “essence” (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 199). The name panax is said to be derived from the Greek word pancea meaning “cure all” (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628). It is considered to be the most potent Qi tonic in Chinese Medicine (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 199), and is indicated in collapsed Qi conditions (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628). It is proposed to:

  • Generates fluids
  • Tonify lungs and stomach
  • Strengthens the spleen
  • Calms the spirit manifestation of heart Qi.

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)

 

Traditional TCM indications include:

  • Shallow or labored breathing
  • Lethargy
  • Chest and abdominal distention
  • Palpitations with anxiety
  • Insomnia
  • Restlessness

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)

In Western herbal medicine the herb is traditionally used as a mild stomachic, tonic, and a stimulant for anorexia and nervous related digestive complaints (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628).

Having wide range pharmacological properties, ginseng appears to have whole body effects as well as having a profound influence on the metabolism of an individual cell (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628). There is no equivalent concept or treatment in contemporary biomedicine (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628). Recent western studies fail to establish the efficiency of ginseng root extract to support traditional indications (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 199).

 

Constituents: Ginsenosides (a complex mixture of triterpene dammarane and oleanane saponins); Polysaccarhides; Essential oil; Diacetylenes; Peptides; Trilinolein; and Arginine (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 629)

 

Actions

  • Adaptogen (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628: Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)
  • Tonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)
  • Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)
  • Immunomodulator (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 200)
  • Cardiotonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Hypoglycemic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 200)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 200)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 200)
  • Anti-oxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 203)
  • Anxiolytic (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 203)

 

Indications

Clinical

  • Improve cerebro-vascular deficit (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Improve cognitive performance (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Congestive heart failure (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Cancer prevention (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Depressed bone marrow associated with radiation therapy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Erectile dysfunction (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 204)
  • Male fertility problems (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Type 2 diabeties (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Acne (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 204)
  • Hair growth (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 203)
  • Anemia (By promoting haemopoiesis) (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 203)

Generally Panax increases vitatily and the body’s ability to withstand stress. It does this by:

  • Acting on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal cortex,
  • Restoring and strengthening the body’s immune system
  • Promotes longevity, growth and metabolism of normal body cells (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)

 

Traditional

  • Heart failure (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Dyspepsia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Asthma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Organ prolapse (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Spontaneous sweating (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Palpitations (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Neuralgia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Neurosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Anxiety (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Long term debility (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Menopausal symptoms (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 204)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Decoction: 0.5tsp powdered root/1 cup water. Bring to boil, simmer for 10 mins/tds
  • Tincture: (1:5 in 60%) 1-2mL (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)

 

Cautions

  • Avoid concurrent stimulents such as caffine and amphetamines (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)
  • Acute infections (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Ginseng abuse syndrome has been reported in individuals, with effects including hypertension, nervousness, insomnia, morning diarrhoea and skin reactions (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 206)
  • Pregnancy (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 207)

 

Contradictions:

  • Acute asthma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)
  • Fever (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 206)
  • Excessive menstruation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)
  • Nose bleeds (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)

Interactions

  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitor “phenolzine” (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)
  • Warfarin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)