Panax notoginseng

PanaxNotoginsengPhoto07

MDidea.com. (2013). Notoginseng: the Miracle Root for the Preservation of Life., the no. 1 Blood Precious Tonic and more. Retrieved from: http://mdidea.com/products/herbextract/notoginseng/data09.html

Botanical Name: Panax notoginseng
Common name: Notoginseng root; Pseudoginseng root; San qi (Chinese) (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
Family: Araliaceae (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
Parts used: root (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

Quality: Warm, sweet, bitter (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

Constituents:

  • 12% Saponins (Arasaponins A, B, C, D, E and R)
  • Genins of arasaponins: panaxadiol and panaxatriol

(Huang, 1999, p. 101)

 

Actions

  • HAEMOSTATIC (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
  • Immune stimulating (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
  • CNS depressant & stimulant (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
  • Antiplatelet (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)
  • Anti-arrhythmic (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Increases coronary flow and decreases blood pressure (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Reduces vascular resistance (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Reduces myocardial metabolic rate (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Reduces plasma cholesterol (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Accelerates blood clotting time (Huang, 1999, p. 102)

Indications

  • Hematemesis
  • Haemoptysis
  • Nosebleed
  • Heavy menstrual bleeding
  • Open sores (external)

(Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

 

Traditional used in Chinese medicine to:

  • Trasform blood stasis and stop bleeding (Holmes, n.d., p. 370)
  • Invigorate the blood, reduce swelling and relieve pain (Holmes, n.d., p. 370)
  • Arrest bleeding (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Remove blood stasis (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Relieve pain (Huang, 1999, p. 102)
  • Angina pectoris (Huang, 1999, p. 102)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Decoction 3-9g, cook for 20 mins
  • Powdered root: 1-1.5g/tds

(Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

 

Contraindication: Pregnancy (Holmes, .n.d., p. 370; Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

Combinations: For Hamorrhage: Combine with herbs that nourish Yin and clear empty heat (Holmes, n.d., p. 370)

Interactions: Caution taken when used in combination with anticoagulants and platelet aggregation inhibitors (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 600)

Codonopsis pillosa

1024px-Codonopsis_lanceolata_SZ91
Franz von Siebold, F., & Zuccarin, J. G. (1870). Flora Japonica. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Codonopsis_lanceolata#mediaviewer/File:Codonopsis_lanceolata_SZ91.png

Botanical Name: Codonopsis pillosa
Common name: Codonopsis
Family: Campanulaceae (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 710)
Parts used: Root (Bone, 2003, p. 154)

Quality: Neutral, sweet (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 710)

History/Folklore: In TCM the herb reinforces qi and invigorates functions of the spleen and lung (Bone, 2003, p. 154; Holmes, 1989, p. 282). Is seen to have similar functions to Korean ginseng, but not as strong (Bone, 2003, p. 154).

Constituents: Saponins and alkaloids (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 710)

Actions

  • Tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 154)
  • Adaptogen (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 710)
  • Immune stimulating (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 710)
  • Circulatory stimulant (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 710)

 

Indications

  • Fatigue (Bone, 2003, p. 154; Holmes, 1989, p. 282)
  • Loss of appetite (Bone, 2003, p. 154)
  • Shortness of breath (Bone, 2003, p. 154; Holmes, 1989, p. 282)
  • Palpitations (Bone, 2003, p. 154; Holmes, 1989, p. 282)
  • Coronary heart disease (Bone, 2003, p. 154)
  • Improving red blood cell production and haemoglobin concentration (Bone, 2003, p. 154)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 4.5-8.5mL/day or 30-60mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 154)
  • Root decoction: 3-15g/day cook for 20 mins (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 710)

 

Cautions

  • Pregnancy (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 711)

 

Contraindications:

  • TCM specific: damp-heap and ascent liver yang (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 711)

 

Interactions:

  • Do not combine with Veratri nigri (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 711)

Tussilago farfara

1320px-Tussilago_farfara_whole

Botanical Name: Tussilago farfara
Common name: Coltsfoot (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)
Family: Asteraceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)
Parts used: Dried flower, leaf (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)

 

Constituents

  • Flavonoids: rutin, hyperoside, isoquercetin
  • Mucilage
  • Inulin
  • Pyrrolizidine alkaloids: including senkirkine and tussilagine
  • Tannins

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anticatarrhal
  • Antispasmodic
  • Antitussive
  • Expectorant
  • Demulcent
  • Diuretic
  • Immunostimulant

(Heinrich et al., 2010, p. 235; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)

 

Indications

  • Irritating or spasmodic coughs
  • Whooping cough
  • Bronchitis
  • Laryngitis
  • Asthma

(Heinrich et al., 2010, p. 235; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Fresh boiled leaves can be applied to boils, abscesses and suppurating ulcers
  • Tincture: (1:5 in 40%) 2-4mL/tds
  • Infusion: 1-2tsp dried herb/1 cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)

 

Cautions & Contradictions

  • The pyrrolizidine alkaloids have shown hepatotoxic activity in rats, fed daily in high doses, however appear not to cause damage in human chromosomes in vitro (Heinrich et al., 2010, p. 235).
  • Not recommended for long periods of time (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590).

 

Combinations

For coughs, Coltsfoot is often combines with White Horehound and Mullein (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 192)

 

REFERENCE
Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Heinrich, M., Barnes, J., Gibbons, S., & Williamson, E. (2012). Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Image: Lenes, K. (2007). File:Tussilago farfara whole.png. Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tussilago_farfara_whole.png

Albizia lebbeck

normal_00523-Albizia-lebbeck

Botanical Name: Albizia lebbeck
Common name: Albizia, Pit shirish shirisha (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 190)
Family: Fabaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 190)
Parts used: Leaves and stem bark(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 190)

 

Constituents

Chemical components are poorly understood, however reported to contain:

  • Albiziasaponins A, B and C
  • Epicatechin
  • Procyanidins
  • Stigmastadine

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 190)

 

Actions

  • Mast cell stabilisation (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 190)
  • Alters neurotransmitter activity (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 190)
  • Anticonvulsant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 190)
  • Memory enhancement (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 190)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 191)
  • Antifungal (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 191)
  • Antispasmodic (smooth muscle) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 191)
  • Immunostimulant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 191)

 

Indiactions

Succus from leaves is traditionally used to treat night blindness and the bark and seeds to treat diarrhoea, dysentery and haemorrhoids (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 191).In ayurvedic medicine the herb is used to treat bronchitis, asthma, allergy and inflammation (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 191).

 

Albizia has not being significantly investigated for medicinal use, indications are based on in vitro and in vivo evidence and historical and thereapeutic use:

  • Potentially useful for amnesia due to memory enhancing action (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 190).
  • Allergic rhinitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 191)
  • Athsma (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 191)
  • Potentially useful for allergic conditions due to mast cell stabilising action (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 190)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Liquid extract: (1:2) 3.5-8.5mL/day

Dried herb: 3-6g/day

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 191)

 

Cautions & Contradicitions

Animal studies have shown albizia to significantly reduce male fertility (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 190).

 

REFERENCE
Braun, L., & Cohen, M. (2010). Herbs & Natural Supplements: An Evidence based Guide (3rd ed.). Chatswood NSW: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Images: USDA, NRCS. (2009). Flora of USA and Canada. Retrieved from: http://luirig.altervista.org/schedenam/fnam.php?taxon=Albizia+lebbeck

Astragalus membranaceus

astragalus%20membranaceus

Botanical Name: Astragalus membranaceus
Common name: Astragalus, Membranous milk-vetch root (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 381)
Family: Leguminosae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 382)
Parts used: Root (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 532)

 

Constituents

  • Triterpenoid saponins
  • Isoflavonoids (incl. formononetin)
  • Polysaccharides
  • Phytosterols
  • Flavonoids
  • Essential oi
  • Amino acids: Gamma-aminobutyric acid and Canavanine

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 382)

 

Actions

  • Immune-enhancing
  • Tonic
  • Adaptogenic
  • Cardiotonic
  • Diuretic
  • Hypotensive
  • Antioxidant

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 381)

  • Immunomodulator

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 532)

 

History/Traditional Use

Herb used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, classified as a herb that tonifies the Qi (energy) and blood (nutrition) and is administered in postpartum fever and severe blood loss. It also tonifies the spleen and raises the Yang Qi of both the spleen and stomach. Its qualities are sweet and warm (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 381).

 

Indications (contemporary)

  • Impaired immunity (notably when associated with leucopenia)
  • used in combination with cancer treatment,
  • viral infections,
  • common cold,
  • cervical erosion associated with herpres
  • Simplex virus infection
  • Viral myocarditis
  • Allergic rhinitis
  • Fatigue
  • Heart conditions (used in combination with other treatment)

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 381)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Decoction: 10-30g dried root/day

Liquid extract (1:2): 4-8mL/day

Tablets & Capsules: 4-8mL or equivilant/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 381).

 

Cautions & Contradictions

  • Not for acute conditions (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 389)
  • Not to be administered with immunosuppressant drugs (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 389)
  • Not to be given to transplant recipients (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 389)

 

REFERENCE
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Image: Kazmi, G. (2012). What Skin Wants?. Retrieved from: http://whatskinwants.blogspot.com.au/2012/12/how-to-boost-your-immune-system-herb.html

Uncaria tomentose

koeh-275

Botanical Name: Uncaria tomentose
Common name: Cat’s claw
Family: Rubiaceae
Parts used: Inner bark,

 

Constituents

  • Alkaloids of tetracyclic oxindoles: Mitraphylline, Rhynchophylline & Isorhynchophylline
  • Quinovic acid glycosides
  • Ursolic acid,
  • Oleanolic acid
  • Beta-sitosterol,
  • Stigmasterol,
  • Campesterol
  • Rotundifoline
  • Isorotundifolune
  • Guinovic acid glycosides
  • Flavonoids
  • Coumarins
  • Tannins

(Catapang et al., 2013)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Catapang, Giese, Iovin, Isaac, Rusie, Grimes Serrano, Tanguay-Colucci, Ulbricht, Weissner, Welch, Windsor, Woods & Wortley, 2013)
  • Immunostimulant (Catapang et al., 2013).

 

History/Traditional Use

Uncaria tomentose is a woody vine native to the Amazon and other tropical areas of South and Central America. It is believed that Peruvian Ashàninka Preists considered Uncaria tomentose to have great powers and life giving properties (Catapang et al., 2013).

Used for over 2000 years by indigenous peoples of South and Central America, the herb is traditionally used as a contraceptive, anti-inflammatory, immunostimmulant, cancer remedy and anti-viral. Eventually imported to Europe, in the 1990s Uncaria tomentose became a complementory treatment for cancer and AIDS (Catapang et al., 2013).

 

Indications (contemporary)

  • Allergies (Catapang et al., 2013)
  • Arthritis (Catapang et al., 2013)
  • Blood circulation (Catapang et al., 2013)
  • Hypertension (Catapang et al., 2013)
  • Periodontal disease (Catapang et al., 2013)
  • Cancer: Human and animal studies show Uncaria tomentose to play a role in prevention of non-melanoma skin cancers (Filip, Clinchici, Daicoriciu, Adriana, Postescu, Perde-Schrepler & Olteanu, 2009, Abstract; (Catapang et al., 2013)
  • Repetative Strain Injury/Carpal Tunnel (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 310-311)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Capsule: 500-600mg/day
  • Infusion: 1-25g root bark/250mL of water, boiled for 5-10 minutes, cooled and strained. One cup/tds
  • Tincture: 1-2mL, 2-3 times daily or 20-40 drops up to five times daily
  • Decoction: 1tbsp pulverized root/1 quart water. 45 minutes, taken before breakfast.

 

Advised to be used up to 4 weeks (Catapang et al., 2013).

 

Cautions

  • May be nephrotoxic and should be avoided in individuals with renal dysfunction (Catapang et al., 2013).

 

Contradictions:

  • Contraindicated in pregnancy due to traditional contraceptive and abortifacient potential (Catapang et al., 2013).
  • Contraindicated in autoimmune disease due to immunostimulanting action (Catapang et al., 2013).

 

REFERENCE
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Catapang, M., Giese, N., Iovin, R., Isaac, R., Rusie, E., Grimes Serrano, J., Tanguay-Colucci, S., Ulbricht, C., Weissner, W., Welch, S., Windsor, R., Woods, J., & Wortley, J. (2013). Cat’s claw (Uncaria tomentosa, Uncaria guianensis). Natural Standard Professional Monograph. Retrieved from: http://www.naturalstandard.com/databases/herbssupplements/catsclaw.asp?

Filip, A., Clinchici, S., Daicoriciu, D., Adriana, M., Postescu, I., Perde-Schrepler, M., & Olteanu, D. (2009). Photochemoprevention of cutaneous neoplasia through natural products. Experimental Oncology, 31(1), 9-15. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19300410?dopt=Abstract

Image I: Brasch, G. (n.d.).Heilpraktiker. Retrieved from: http://www.hpbrasch.de/2014/02/pflanzen-krebs-therapie/

Andrographis paniculata

fleurandrographis2

Botanical Name: Andrographis paniculata

Common name: Chiretta, King of Bitters, Kalmegh (Bengali, Hindi), Kirata (Sanskrit), chuan xin lian (Chinese) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360).

Family: Acanthaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 361)

Parts used: Whole herb (including root) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360)

 

Constituents

  • Diterpenoid lactones (“andrographolides”): Algycones and Glucosides
  • Diterpene dimmers
  • Flavonoids
  • Xanathones (root)

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360)

 

Actions

  • Bitter tonic
  • Choleretic
  • Immunostimulant
  • Hepatoprotective
  • Antipyretic
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antiplatelet
  • Antioxidant

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360).

 

History

Used medicinally in Ayurvedic medicine, Chinese medicine and throughout South-East Asia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360).

 

In Chinese medicine the herb is considered bitter and cold (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360).

 

Traditional thereaputic use includes

  • Loss of appetite
  • Atonic dyspepsia
  • Flatulence
  • Diarrhoea
  • Dysentery
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Bowel complaints in children
  • Sluggish liver
  • Diabetes
  • General debility
  • Convalescence after fevers
  • Respiratory and skin infections

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360)

 

Indications (contemporary)

  • Bacterial and viral infections
    • Common cold
    • Acute sinusitis
    • Pharyngotonsillitis
    • Enteric evidence
  • Prevention of urinary tract infections
  • Prophylaxis of common cold
  • Familial Mediterranean fever
  • Ulcerative colitis

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360).

 

Preparation

  • Decoction (dried or fresh herb)
  • Infusion
  • Fluid extract
  • Tablet or capsule
  • Succus (leaf juice)

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360)

 

Dosage

Preventative dose (adult): 2-3g or equivalent per day

During infection: 6g/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360)

 

Cautions

High doses may cause gastric discomfort, loss of appetite and vomiting (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 370)

 

Contradictions:

  • Pregnancy, notably early pregnancy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 369)
  • States of hyperacidity (i.e. duodenal ulcers or gastrointestinal reflux) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 369).

 

Combinations

As Andrographis is considered “cold”, is it traditionally combined with warming herbs such as ginger, Astragalus and tulsi (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 361).

 

REFERENCE
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Image: Imbert, P. (2011). Andrographis, Between tradition and modernity. Retrieved from: http://www.entretiens-internationaux.mc/andrographis-between-tradition-and-modernity-61.html