Camellia sinensis

green-tea
Cocoon Apothecary. (2014). Camellia Oil. Retrieved from: http://www.cocoonapothecary.com/pages/Camellia-Oil.html

Botanical Name: Camellia sinensis
Common name: Green Tea, Matsu-cha, Green sencha tea, Japanese tea, Chienese tea (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)
Family: Theaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)
Parts used: Leaf (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)

Quality: Cold, bitter and sweet (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 122)

History/Folklore: Green tea is the unfermented product of black tea. In Chinese medicine Green Tea has a cooling effect, where as its fermented product black tea has a warming effect (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 122)

Constituents:

  • Polyphenols (Inlc. Catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, proanthocyanidins. Notably: epigallocatechin gallate).
  • Caffeine (about 3%)
  • Small amounts of common methyl-xanthines, theobromine and theophylline
  • Tannin, oxalic acid, trace elements and vitamins.

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)

 

Actions

  • Chemoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)
  • Antiproliferative (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)
  • Antimicrobial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)
  • Antiviral (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 573)
  • Anticarcinogenic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 573)
  • Antihypertensive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 573)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 573)

 

Indications

  • Cancer prevention (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 574-755)
  • Cancer treatment (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 575)
  • Cardiovascuar protections (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 575-576)
  • Dental carriers and gingivitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 576)
  • Sunburn protection (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 576)
  • Weight loss (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 576)
  • Liver disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 576-567)
  • Colitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 577)
  • Dementia/cognitive impairment (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 577)
  • Beta-thalassaemia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 577)
  • Renal failure (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 577)
  • Urinary stones (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 577)
  • Diabetes (via reducing serum glucose/improving kidney function) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 577)
  • Genital warts (topical) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 577; Gross, 2009)
  • Seasonal allergic rhinitis (Maeda-Yamamoto, Ema, Monobe, Shibuichi, Shinoda, Yamamotto & Fujisawa, 2009)
  • Revovery from alcohol abuse (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 122)

 

Dosage & Preparation:
Genital and perianal warts: 15% strength Polyphenon E ointment applied to infected area/tds (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 578; Gross, 2009).
Tea: 3-9g/day (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 122)

 

Cautions

  • In large amounts may cause CNS stimulation due to caffeine content (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 578)
  • Excessive intake will increase adverse effects due to caffeine content, therefore the herb is not recommended for people with hypertension, arrhythmias, severe liver disease, anxiety disorder or insomnia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 578)
  • Contraindicated in cold or spleen deficiency in TCM (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 123)

 

Interactions:

  • Has shown to have antagonistic reaction with anti-coagulants (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 578)
  • Potential to reduce iron absorption due to tannin content (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 578)
  • May potentate effects of diretics due to caffeine content (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)
  • May theoretically decrease effects of CNS depressants due to caffeine content (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 578)

Olea europea

215_Olea_europaea_L
Masclef, A. (1981). Atlas des plantes de France. Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:215_Olea_europaea_L.jpg

Botanical Name: Olea europea
Common name: Olive leaf (Bone, 2003, p. 352
Family: Oleaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 710)
Parts used: Leaf (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 710)

Constituents:

  • Phenolic compounds: notably oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol
  • Rutin, Luteolin, Catechin and Apigenin
  • Nutrients: selenium, chromium, iron, zinc, vitamin C, beta-carotene.

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 710)

Actions

  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 710; Bone, 2003, p. 352)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 710)
  • Anti-thrombotic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 711)
  • Antimicrobial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 711)
  • Antiviral (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 711)
  • Anti-hypertensive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 711)
  • Bitter tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 352)

 

Indications

  • Hypertension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 713; Bone, 2003, p. 352)
  • Angina pectoris (Bone, 2003, p. 352)
  • Gout and fluid retention (Bone, 2003, p. 352)

Traditional indications include coughs, obstinate and intermittent fever, angina, stomachaches associated with acidity, mouth ulcers and snakebites (Bone, 2003, p. 352)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • 5-7.0mL liquid extract (1:2)/day
  • 25-50mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

Cautions & Contraindications: Allergy to plants of the Oleaceae family (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 715)

Interactions: May have additive effects when used in conjunction with Hypoglycaemic and hypotensive agents (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 715)

Glycyrrhiza glabra

3eb270
Mharr. (2008). PlantFiles: Picture #7 of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Retrieved from: http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/showimage/186125/

Botanical Name: Glycyrrhiza glabra
Common name: Licorice, licorice root, yashimadhu (Sanskrit), ganco (Chinese), Kanzo (Japanese) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
Family: Leguminosae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650)
Parts used: Root and stolen (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650)

History/Folklore: Use of licorice root dates back to 2500BC, found referenced on Assyrian clay and Egyptian papyri. The herb is also used extensively in both Auyrvedia and Traditional Chinese Medicine (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650).

Constituents: Triterpenoid saponins (notably: glycyrrhizin); Glycyrrhetic acid; flavonoids (incl. liquiritigenin glycosides); chalchones (incl. isoliquiritin); isoflavonoids (incl. glabridin, glabrone and formononetin); sterols; coumrains; fatty acids; phenolics; and arabinogalactans (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 721)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-allergic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651)
  • Anti-ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651)
  • Anti-viral (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Antibacterial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652)
  • Expectorant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-tussive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 653)
  • Antidepressant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 653)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 653-654; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-platelet (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Immunomodulatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Adrenal tonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Demulcent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Mild laxative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)

 

Indications

  • Peptic ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Gastritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Dyspepsia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Dermatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Allergies (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Viral Infections (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Respiratory tract infection (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Chronic stress (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Polycystic ovary disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 730)
  • Complications of diabeties (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Menopause (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 655-656)
  • Weight loss (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Addison’s disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 730)
  • Hypercholesterolaemia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Depression (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Urinary tract inflammation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Adrenal insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Viral Hepatitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 731)
  • HIV/AIDS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 731)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Decoction: 3-12g/day
  • Liquid extract (1:1): 2-6mL/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)

 

Cautions

  • Adverse reactions have been recorded at doses > 100-400mg/day (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • High doses over a long period of time may lead to increased blood pressure, therefore caution should be taken in individuals with hypertension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 656-658)
  • Caution to be taken in men with a history of impotence, infertility or decreased libido due to potential ability to reduce testosterone (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 658)

 

Contraindications

  • Pregnancy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 567; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Cholestatic liver disease and cirrhosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Hypokalaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Severe kidney insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)

 

Interactions:

  • Anti-hypertensives (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 657)
  • Digoxin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 657)
  • May potentate effects of diuretics and laxatives (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 734)

Scutellaria lateriflora

baical_skullcap

Miro, K. (2013). Baical skullcap. Retrieved from: http://www.wellbeing.com.au/article/features/food/Baical-skullcap_1200

Botanical Name: Scutellaria lateriflora
Common name: Baical skullcap, Skullcap, Chinese Skullcap, Huang qin (Chinese) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
Family: Lamiaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)
Parts used: Aerial parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)

Constituents: Flavonoids (incl. baicalein, baicalin, scutellarein and wogonin); iridoids (incl. catalpol); volatile oil; and tannins (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)

 

Quality: In Traditional Chinese Medicine, Scutellaria lateriflora is used to clear heat and dry dampness (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218).

 

Actions

  • Nervine tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)
  • Anxiolytic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)
  • Antibacterial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
  • Antiviral (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
  • Diuretic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)

 

Indications

Traditionally used to control and treat petit mal seizures (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582). Hoffmann suggests that Skullcap may be used to treat any condition associated with “exhausted and depressive states”, by acting on the cerebro-spinal nervous system (2003, p.582).

 

Other indications include:

  • Premenstrual tension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)
  • Nervous exhaustion
  • Post-febrile nervous weakness
  • Chorea
  • Hysteria
  • Agitation
  • Epileptiform convulsions
  • Insomnia
  • Restless sleep

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

Dried herb: 6-15g/day

Liquid extract: (1:2) 30-60mL/week or 4.5-8.5mL/day

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

  • Contraindicated in interferon therapy.
  • In Chinese medicine, Baical Skullcap is contraindicated in “cold” conditions.

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Combinations: According to Hoffmann, Scutellaria lateriflora combines well with Valerian (1990, p. 233)

 

Baical Skullcap is an ingredient in popular Chinese/Japanese formulation “Minor Bupleurum Combination* (Xiao Chai Hu Tang in Chinese). This combination is most often used in the treatment of liver disease and bronchial asthma (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224).

 

* Bupleureum falcatum, Scutellaria baicalensis, Pinellia ternata, Panax ginseng, Zizyphus jujuba, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Zingiber officinalis

Melissa officinalis

Melissa-Officinalis

Phytome. (n.d.). Melissa officinalis. Retrieved from: http://phytoguide.com/2010/11/homey-bee-herb/melissa-officinalis/

Botanical Name: Melissa officinalis
Common name: Lemon balm
Family: Lameaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 567)
Parts used: Aerial Parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 567)

Constituents: Volatile oil: neral and geranial; Caryophyllene oxide; Terpenes; Low concentration of flavonoids (incl. luteolin-7-glucoside and rhamazin); Polyphenolics (incl. protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid and tannins); and Triterpenic acids (incl. ursolic and pomolic acids) (Hoffmann, 2003, 567)

 

Actions

  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 567)
  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 567)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 567; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 646)
  • Antidepressant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 567)
  • Diaphorietic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 567)
  • Antimicrobial (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 567)
  • Hepatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 567)
  • Anxiolytic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 646)
  • Sedative (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 646)
  • Antiviral (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 646)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 646)
  • Analgesic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 646)

 

Indications

  • Anxiety

A small double blind Randomised control trial (RCT) found Melissa to reduce stress. In combination Melissa has been studies for it’s effects on acute anxiety, while there shows potential for further research, results are inconclusive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 647)

  • Herpes Simplex Virus

Clinical human trials demonstrated that topical application of Melissa officinalis has show effective in the treatment of symptoms associated with the herpes simplex virus (Gaby, 2006, p. 99).

  • Dementia

In one clinical trial Melissa topical application and aromatherapy was found to reduce symptoms associated with dementia in the elderly, notably aggregation (Ballard, O’Brian, Reichelt & Perry, 2002, Abstract).

  • Alzheimer’s disease

A radomised, double-blind control trial, found Melissa officinalis to reduce associated symptoms in individuals with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease, notably reducing agitation and improving cognition (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 647)

  • Insomnia
  • Gastro intestinal complains of nervous origin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 647)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Fresh herb: 1.5-4.5g/tds
  • Infusion: 1.5-4.5g/150mL hot water
  • Fluid extract (1:1): 6-12mL/day
  • Ointment: 700mg of ointment to be applied four times a day for herpes simplex infection (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 648).

 

Cautions & Contradictions: Contraindicated in Hypothyroidism (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 648)

 

Combinations:

  • For digestive complaints combine with Hops, Chamomile or Medowsweat.
  • For stress combine with Lavender and Lime Blossom (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 177)

Hypericum perforatum

Hypericum_perforatum_i01-1

Florafinder.com. (2012). 7/3/2012 · Yellow Trail from Pearl Hill State Park to Willard Brook State Park, Ashby, MA. Retrieved from: http://www.florafinder.com/Species/Hypericum_perforatum.php

St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum)

Thomé, O. W. (1885). Hypericum perforatum. Retrieved from: www.biolib.de.

Botanical Name: Hypericum perforatum
Common name: St. John’s Wort, Hypericum (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 826)
Family: Clusiaceae (Guttiferae) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 827)
Parts used: Dried Aerial Parts (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 827)

Constituents: Naphthodianthrones (incl. hypericin and pseudohypericin); Flavanoids (incl. biapigenin, quercetrin and rutin); Xanthones; Phenolics (incl. hyperforin and adhyperforin); Procyanidins; and Essential oil (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 827)

 

Actions:

  • Nervine
  • Anti-depressant
  • Vulnerary
  • Antiseptic
  • Antiviral (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 826)
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Astringent
  • Antimicrobial (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 559)

 

Folklore: An ancient remedy used to treat ulcers, burns, wounds, abdominal pains and bacterial disease, Hypericum perforatum has recently gained attention for the treatment of depression in clinical trials. The generic name Hypericum is derived from Greek and translates to “to overcome an apparition” (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 826).

While not a weed in its native Europe, Asia and North Africa, the plant has become a weed in most temperate regions of the world (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 826).

 

Indications

Traditional

  • Nervous afflictions: excitability, menopausal neurosis and hysteria
  • Disorders of the spine
  • Spinal injury
  • Neuralgia
  • Sciatica
  • Muscular rheumatism
  • Urinary problems
  • Diarrhoea
  • Dysentery
  • Parasitic infestation
  • Jaundice
  • Haemorrhages
  • Menorrhagia
  • Bed wetting
  • Topically used to treat ulcers, swellings, bruises

 

Indications supported by clinical trials

  • Mild-moderate depression (high level evidence)
  • Anxiety
  • Orofacial and genital herpes
  • Premature ejaculation
  • Psychological symptoms of menopause
  • Premenstrual syndrome
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • Social phobia
  • Psycological symptoms associated with IBS
  • Aerobic endurance in athletes
  • Wound healing and scar healing (topical)
  • Mild- moderate dermatitis (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 826)

 

Has shown potential in:

  • Treatment and prevention of enveloped viruses (e.g. cold sores, genital herpes, chicken pox, shingles, glandular fever, cytomeglalovirus infection, viral herpes).
  • Sleeping disorders (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 826)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Tincture (1:5 in 40%): 2-4mL/tds

Infusion: 1-2tsp/1 cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 559)

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

Photosensitization has been reported at high doses (rare) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 559)

 

Interactions

  • May interact with selected serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 559)
  • Evidence shows St. John’s Wort to increase activity of isozyme CYP3A4 and therefore may theoretically reduce the activity of drugs that are known substrates for this isozyme, such as:
    • Nonsedative anti-histamines
    • Oral contraceptives
    • Certain antiretroviral agents
    • Antiepileptic medications
    • Calcium-channel blockers
    • Cyclosporine
    • Some chemotherapeutic drugs
    • Macrolide antibiotics
    • Selected anti-fungals

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 559)

Scutellaria baicalensis

Øëåìíèê áàéêàëüñêèé – Scutellariae baicalensis

Image I

post-19386-1182271924

Image II

Botanical Name: Scutellaria baicalensis
Common name: Baical Skullcap, Chinese skullcap, huang quin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
Family: Lamiaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
Parts used: Root (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)

Constituents

Flavenoids and their glycosides

  • Baicalin and its aglycone: Baicalein
  • Wogonin
  • Resin
  • Tannins
  • Melatonin

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)

 

Baicalin is porely absorbed through the gut, however becomes hydrolysed to its alglycone baicalein by intestinal bacteria (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218).

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 219)
  • Antifibrotic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 219)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Anti-allergic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Hypotensive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Anti-platelet (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Antixiolytic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Antimicrobial, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 221-222)
  • Anti-ulcerogenic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Antidiabetic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Anti-emetic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 223)

 

History & Traditional Use

Traditionally used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to clear heat and dry dampness. (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218).

 

Indications

  • Respiratory infections (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Bone marrow stimulation during chemotherapy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Epilepsy (in combination) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Chronic active hepatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Liver fibrosis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Chronic inflammation
    • Asthma
    • Arthritis
    • Allergies (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Hepatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Common cold (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Nausea and vomiting (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Mild hyper-tension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Dried herb: 6-15g/day
  • Liquid extract: (1:2) 4.5-8.5mL/day in divided doses

 

Cautions: Safety in pregnancy has not being defined by clinical trials. The herb is used in TCM for “restless foetus” (threatened abortion) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Contradictions

  • Contradicted during interferon therapy
  • Contradicted in “cold” conditions in TCM

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Combinations

Scutellaria baicalensis is an ingredient in popular Chinese/Japanese formulation Minor Burpleureum Combination (Xiao Chai Hu Tang in Chinese and Sho-saiko-to in Japanese). This combination contains:

  • Bulpleurum falcatum
  • Scutellaria baicalensis
  • Pinellia ternata
  • Panax ginseng
  • Zizyphus jujuba
  • Glycyrrhiza uralensis
  • Zingiber officinale

This treatment has been used for 3000 years in the treatment of pyretic disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224).

 

REFERENCE
Braun, L., & Cohen, M. (2010). Herbs & Natural Supplements: An Evidence based Guide (3rd ed.). Chatswood NSW: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Image: Beauty & Health Philosophy. (2008-2014). Beauty & Health Philosophy. Retrieved from: http://nsp-zdorovje.narod.ru/fito/wlemnik-scutellaria.html

Image II: Molbiol.ur. (2001-2014). Шлемник байкальский (Scutellaria baicalensis, Labiatae/Lamiaceae). Retrieved from: http://molbiol.ru/forums/lofiversion/index.php/t173641.html

Thymus vulgaris

thyme-live

Botanical Name: Thymus vulgaris
Common name: Thyme (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 885)
Family: Lamiaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 886)
Parts used: Leaf and Flowers (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 885)

Constituents

  • Essential oil (antimicrobial and antioxidant)
  • Phenols: thymol and/or carvacrol
  • Carnosol, rosmanols, galdosol, carnosic acid (strong antioxidants)
  • Flavonoids
  • Acetophenone glycosides
  • Salicylates
  • Polysaccharide with anti-complementory properties

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 886)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antibacterial
  • Antimicrobial
  • Antioxidant
  • Antiparasitic
  • Antiseptic
  • Antiviral
  • Expectorant
  • Rubefacient
  • Spasmolytic

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 885)

 

History

Traditionally considered a major antispasmodic cough remedy, thyme also has a long history of culinary use and as a flavouring agent in teas and liquors. Tea was administered for colic, dyspepsia and to control fever in common cold. Thyme oil was used in rheumatism and neuralgic pain.

Eclectic physicians considered thyme to be an emmenagogue and tonic and indicated the tea in disorders such as hysteria, dysmennorhea and convalescence (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 885).

 

Indications

Indications supported by clinical trials include:

  • Productive cough
  • Acute bronchitis (in combination)

Traditional indications include:

  • Bronchitis
  • Whooping cough
  • Asthma
  • Catarrh and inflammations of upper respiratory tract
  • Dyspepsia
  • Colic
  • Flatulence
  • Diarrhoea (notably in children)
  • Tonsilitis (topical)

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 885)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Infusion: 3-12g/day

Liquid extract (1:2): 2-6mL/day

Tablet or Capsule: 2-6mL or equivilant/day

Tincture (1:5): 6-18mL/day

Gargle or mouthwash

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 886)

 

Cautions

  • Allergic reactions are possible, notably from tropical use (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 886)
  • Large doses are not recommended in pregnancy, however the herb is compatible with lactation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 891)

 

Contradictions

None known (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 891)

 

Combinations

Asthma: combines with Lobelia and Ephedra

Whooping cough: combine with Wild Cherry and Sundew

 

REFERENCE
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Image: Herbosophy. (2014). THYME (THYMUS VULGARIS). Retrieved from: http://www.herbosophy.com.au/thyme-thymus-vulgaris/

Thuja occidentalis

thuja-occidentalis

Botanical Name: Thuja occidentalis
Common name: Thuja, Arborvitae, White cedar, Western Hemlock (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
Family: Cupressaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
Parts used: Young twigs (Hoffmann, 2990, p. 237)

 

Constituents

  • Volatile oil (thujane)
  • Flavenoid glycoside
  • Mucilage
  • Tannin

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)

 

Actions

  • Antiviral (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 169)
  • Expectorant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Stimulant (smooth muscle) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Alterative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Antifungal (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)

 

Indications

  • Bronchial catarrh (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Provides systemic stimulation in “heart weakness” (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • May help with delayed menstruation as it has a specific reflex action on the uterus (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Ordinary incontinence due to loss of muscle tone (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588).
  • Psoriasis and rheumatism (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Abnormal growths of the skin & mucus membranes (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)

o   Warts (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)

o   Ulcers (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)

o   Bed sores (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)

  • Ringworm (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Thrush (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Conditions of the blood (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Cancer: claimed to demonstrate abortive influence over incipient cancer and retard process (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Infusion: 1 tsp/1 cup water/tds

Tincture: (1:5 in 60%) 1-2mL tds

 

Cautions

  • Should be avoided when cough is due to over stimulation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Produces a sensation of tingling when applied in external preparations to open wounds, therefore it is usually best to dilute with water or prepare as an ointment (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Due to active constituent Thujone, large doses may be toxic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588).

 

Contradictions:

Contraindicated in pregnancy due to stimulating effect on the uterus (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)

 

Combinations

Combined with Senega, Grindelia or Lobelia in pulmonary conditions (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 237).

 

REFERENCE
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Image I: Chauhan, Y. (2012). Thuja Occidentalis – Homeopathic Remedy. Retrieved from: http://drypchauhan.wordpress.com/2012/11/29/thuja-occidentalis-homeopathic-remedy/

Artemisia annua

Artemisia annua

Image I

image 2

Image II

Botanical Name: Artemisia annua
Common name: Annual Wormwood (Mueller, Runyambo, Wagner, Borrmann, Dietz & Heide, 1984, Abstract). Sweet Annie, Sweet Wormwood, Chinese Wormwood, Ging Hoa (Chinese) (Giese, Costa, Goodfriend, Hegarty, Tanguay-Colucci, Ulbricht & Weissner, 2013).
Family: Asteraceae (Giese et al., 2013)
Parts used: Aerial parts

 

Constituents

  • Artemisinin
  • Deoxyartemisinin
  • Artemisinic acid
  • Arteannuin-B
  • Stigmasterol
  • Friedelin
  • Friedelan-3 beta-ol
  • Artemetin
  • Guercetagetin 6,7,3′,4′-tetramethyl ether

(Giese et al., 2013)

 

Actions

  • Antipyretic
  • Antineoplastic
  • Antiviral
  • Antimalarial
  • Immunosepressive

(Giese et al., 2013)

  • Anticancer (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 459; Giese et al., 2013)

 

Indications

  • Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat fevers (Giese et al., 2013)
  • Active constituent artemisinin has shown to be beneficial in the treatment of Malaria (Mueller et al., 1984, Abstract; Giese et al., 2013; Hoffmann et al., 2003, p. 459)
  • Preliminary evidence has shown antineoplastic and antiviral activity (Giese et al., 2013).
  • Active constituent has been studies to be effective against a wide varieties of cancers, notably leukemia and colon cancer. Intermediate activity was shown against melanoma, breast, ovarian, prostate, CNS and renal cancer (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 459).

 

Preparation & Dosage

No standardisation (Giese et al., 2013)

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

  • Pregnancy
  • Individuals recovering from surgery
  • May have immunosepressive activity
  • Use catiously in individuals with compromised cardiac or neural function as related species have exhibited cardiotoxic and neuro toxic activity

(Giese et al., 2013)

 

REFERENCE
Mueller, M., Runyambo, N., Wagner, I., Borrmann, S., Dietz, K., & Heide, L. (1984)Randomized controlled trial of a traditional preparation of Artemisia annua L. (Annual Wormwood) in the treatment of malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg., 98(5), 318-21. Retrieved from:http://www.naturalstandard.com/news/news200405052.asp

Giese, N., Costa, D., Goodfriend, J., Hegarty, J., Tanguay-Colucci, S., Ulbricht, C., & Weissner, W. (2013). Sweet annie (Artemisia annua). Natural Standard Professional Monograph. http://www.naturalstandard.com.ezproxy.think.edu.au/databases/herbssupplements/sweetannie.asp?#

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Image I: Retrieved from: http://hollirichey.com/tag/artemisia-annua/

Image II: Yashiya, A. (n.d.). Ahaya Yasiya-Dietary Law Recipes!. Retrieved from: http://ahayahyashiyadietrylawsrecipes.wordpress.com/2014/03/14/sweet-wormwood-or-artemisia-annua-herb-kills-98-of-the-cancer-cells/