Cinnamomus zeylanicum

cinnamon2
Heavenly Products. (2014). Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon Cinnamon- Dried Bark and Powder). Retrieved from: https://www.heavenly-products.com/cart/index.php?cPath=156_129_272

Botanical Name: Cinnamomus zeylanicum
Common name: Cinnamon
Family: Lauraceae (Natural Standard, 2014)
Parts used: Bark (Natural Standard, 2014)

Constituents: Essential oil, cinnamic aldehyde (Bone, 2003, p. 149)

Actions

  • Antioxidant (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Analgesic (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Circulatory Stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 147)
  • Aromatic digestive (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 192)
  • Warming expectorant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 240)
  • Carminative (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • Astringent (Bone, 2003, p. 149)

Indications

  • Loss of appetite (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • Dyspeptic complaints (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • Common cold and influenza (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • Uterine haemorrhage (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • Metabolic Syndrome (Ziegenfuss, Hofheins, Mendel, Landis & Anderson, 2006)
  • Oral Candidiasis (Quale, Landman, Zaman, Bumey & Sathe, 1996)
  • Allergic rhinitis (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Wound healing (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Increase in sperm quality (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Acute infections (promotes immune activities) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 150)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 3-6mL/day or 20-40mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • One study showed that 500 mg/day of cinnamon (Cinnulin PF®) for 12-weeks lead to significant improvements in symptoms of metabolic syndrome such as fasting blood sugar, systolic blood pressure, and body composition (Ziegenfuss et al., 2006).

 

Cautions

  • May cause contact sensitivity due to cinnamic aldehyde (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 104; Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • As a aromatic and expectorant cinnamon may cause or irritate GI reflux (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 196, 240)
  • Pregnancy (Bone, 2003, p. 149)

 

Combination:

  • In TCM the herb is a component of Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang combination (Natural Standard, 2014)
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Glycyrrhiza glabra

3eb270
Mharr. (2008). PlantFiles: Picture #7 of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Retrieved from: http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/showimage/186125/

Botanical Name: Glycyrrhiza glabra
Common name: Licorice, licorice root, yashimadhu (Sanskrit), ganco (Chinese), Kanzo (Japanese) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
Family: Leguminosae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650)
Parts used: Root and stolen (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650)

History/Folklore: Use of licorice root dates back to 2500BC, found referenced on Assyrian clay and Egyptian papyri. The herb is also used extensively in both Auyrvedia and Traditional Chinese Medicine (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650).

Constituents: Triterpenoid saponins (notably: glycyrrhizin); Glycyrrhetic acid; flavonoids (incl. liquiritigenin glycosides); chalchones (incl. isoliquiritin); isoflavonoids (incl. glabridin, glabrone and formononetin); sterols; coumrains; fatty acids; phenolics; and arabinogalactans (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 721)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-allergic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651)
  • Anti-ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651)
  • Anti-viral (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Antibacterial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652)
  • Expectorant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-tussive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 653)
  • Antidepressant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 653)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 653-654; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-platelet (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Immunomodulatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Adrenal tonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Demulcent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Mild laxative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)

 

Indications

  • Peptic ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Gastritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Dyspepsia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Dermatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Allergies (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Viral Infections (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Respiratory tract infection (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Chronic stress (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Polycystic ovary disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 730)
  • Complications of diabeties (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Menopause (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 655-656)
  • Weight loss (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Addison’s disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 730)
  • Hypercholesterolaemia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Depression (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Urinary tract inflammation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Adrenal insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Viral Hepatitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 731)
  • HIV/AIDS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 731)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Decoction: 3-12g/day
  • Liquid extract (1:1): 2-6mL/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)

 

Cautions

  • Adverse reactions have been recorded at doses > 100-400mg/day (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • High doses over a long period of time may lead to increased blood pressure, therefore caution should be taken in individuals with hypertension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 656-658)
  • Caution to be taken in men with a history of impotence, infertility or decreased libido due to potential ability to reduce testosterone (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 658)

 

Contraindications

  • Pregnancy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 567; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Cholestatic liver disease and cirrhosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Hypokalaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Severe kidney insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)

 

Interactions:

  • Anti-hypertensives (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 657)
  • Digoxin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 657)
  • May potentate effects of diuretics and laxatives (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 734)

Viola odorata

224_Viola_odorata

Image I

Viola-odorata

Image II

Botanical Name: Viola odorata
Common name: Sweet Violet (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 594)
Family: Violaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 594)
Parts used: Leaf, Flower, Root (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 594; Weiss, 2001, p. 202).

 

Constituents

  • Phenolic glycosides: including glaultherin and salicylic acid methy ester.
  • Saponins: Myrosin and violin
  • Flavenoids: Rutin, violarutin
  • Odoratine
  • Mucilage

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 594)

 

Actions

  • Expectorant (Weiss, 2001, p. 202)
  • Alterative
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 594)

 

Indications

  • Bronchitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 594; Weiss, 2001, p. 202)
  • Upper respiratory catarrh (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 594)
  • Skin conditions (in combinations) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 594)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Tincture: (1:5 in 40%) 1-2mL/tds
  • Infusion: 1tsp/1cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 594)

 

Cautions & Contradictions

None reported (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 594)

 

REFERENCE
Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Weiss, R. (2001). Weiss’s Herbal Medicine (classic edition). New York: Thieme.

Image I: Lindmen, C. (1926). Bilder ur Nordens Flora. Retrieved from: http://caliban.mpipz.mpg.de/lindman/index.html

Image II: Gibbons, B. (2013). Sweet Violet (Viola odorata) – A Sweet Herb Indeed. Retrieved from: http://www.thehomeherbalist.com/sweet-violet-viola-odorata-a-sweet-herb-indeed/

Thymus vulgaris

thyme-live

Botanical Name: Thymus vulgaris
Common name: Thyme (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 885)
Family: Lamiaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 886)
Parts used: Leaf and Flowers (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 885)

Constituents

  • Essential oil (antimicrobial and antioxidant)
  • Phenols: thymol and/or carvacrol
  • Carnosol, rosmanols, galdosol, carnosic acid (strong antioxidants)
  • Flavonoids
  • Acetophenone glycosides
  • Salicylates
  • Polysaccharide with anti-complementory properties

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 886)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antibacterial
  • Antimicrobial
  • Antioxidant
  • Antiparasitic
  • Antiseptic
  • Antiviral
  • Expectorant
  • Rubefacient
  • Spasmolytic

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 885)

 

History

Traditionally considered a major antispasmodic cough remedy, thyme also has a long history of culinary use and as a flavouring agent in teas and liquors. Tea was administered for colic, dyspepsia and to control fever in common cold. Thyme oil was used in rheumatism and neuralgic pain.

Eclectic physicians considered thyme to be an emmenagogue and tonic and indicated the tea in disorders such as hysteria, dysmennorhea and convalescence (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 885).

 

Indications

Indications supported by clinical trials include:

  • Productive cough
  • Acute bronchitis (in combination)

Traditional indications include:

  • Bronchitis
  • Whooping cough
  • Asthma
  • Catarrh and inflammations of upper respiratory tract
  • Dyspepsia
  • Colic
  • Flatulence
  • Diarrhoea (notably in children)
  • Tonsilitis (topical)

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 885)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Infusion: 3-12g/day

Liquid extract (1:2): 2-6mL/day

Tablet or Capsule: 2-6mL or equivilant/day

Tincture (1:5): 6-18mL/day

Gargle or mouthwash

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 886)

 

Cautions

  • Allergic reactions are possible, notably from tropical use (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 886)
  • Large doses are not recommended in pregnancy, however the herb is compatible with lactation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 891)

 

Contradictions

None known (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 891)

 

Combinations

Asthma: combines with Lobelia and Ephedra

Whooping cough: combine with Wild Cherry and Sundew

 

REFERENCE
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Image: Herbosophy. (2014). THYME (THYMUS VULGARIS). Retrieved from: http://www.herbosophy.com.au/thyme-thymus-vulgaris/

Inula helenium

Inula_helenium_ENBLA03

Botanical Name: Inula helenium
Common name: Elecampane (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560
Family: Asteraceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)
Parts used: Rhizome (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)

 

Constituents

  • Sesquiterpene lactones: incl. lactone (“helenalin”) and isoalantolacetone
  • Polysaccharides (mainly inulin)
  • Sterols
  • Resin (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)
  • Volatile oil
  • Bitter principal (Weiss, 2001, p. 205)

 

Actions

  • Expectorant
  • Antitussive
  • Diaphoretic
  • Hepatic
  • Antimicrobial
  • Bitter

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)

 

Mucliage has relaxing effect while essential oils bring about stimulation, allowing the herb to both sooth the irritation and promote expectoration (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560).

It is shown to be both strengthening and cleansing to pulmonary mucus membranes (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)

 

Indications

  • Irritating bronchial coughs
  • In conditions with copious catarrh
  • Bronchitis
  • Emphysema
  • Asthma and bronchial asthma
  • Tuberculosis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)
  • Particularly useful in bronchial conditions when appetite is reduced, as the bitter principal will help to stimulate appetite (Weiss, 2001, p. 205)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Tincture: (1:5 in 40%) 1-2mL/tds

Infusion: 1tsp shredded root/1cup water. Drink hot as possible

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)

 

Contradictions: Known allergy to members of Asteraecae family (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)

 

Combinations: For respiratory problems, Elecampane combines well with White Horehound, Coltsfoot, Pleurisy Root and Yarrow (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 198)

REFERENCE
Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Weiss, R. (2001). Weiss’s Herbal Medicine (classic edition). New York: Thieme.

Image: Blasutto, E., (2007). Giardino Botanico delle Alpi Orientali. Retrieved from: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Inula_helenium_ENBLA03.jpeg

Tussilago farfara

1320px-Tussilago_farfara_whole

Botanical Name: Tussilago farfara
Common name: Coltsfoot (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)
Family: Asteraceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)
Parts used: Dried flower, leaf (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)

 

Constituents

  • Flavonoids: rutin, hyperoside, isoquercetin
  • Mucilage
  • Inulin
  • Pyrrolizidine alkaloids: including senkirkine and tussilagine
  • Tannins

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anticatarrhal
  • Antispasmodic
  • Antitussive
  • Expectorant
  • Demulcent
  • Diuretic
  • Immunostimulant

(Heinrich et al., 2010, p. 235; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)

 

Indications

  • Irritating or spasmodic coughs
  • Whooping cough
  • Bronchitis
  • Laryngitis
  • Asthma

(Heinrich et al., 2010, p. 235; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Fresh boiled leaves can be applied to boils, abscesses and suppurating ulcers
  • Tincture: (1:5 in 40%) 2-4mL/tds
  • Infusion: 1-2tsp dried herb/1 cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)

 

Cautions & Contradictions

  • The pyrrolizidine alkaloids have shown hepatotoxic activity in rats, fed daily in high doses, however appear not to cause damage in human chromosomes in vitro (Heinrich et al., 2010, p. 235).
  • Not recommended for long periods of time (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590).

 

Combinations

For coughs, Coltsfoot is often combines with White Horehound and Mullein (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 192)

 

REFERENCE
Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Heinrich, M., Barnes, J., Gibbons, S., & Williamson, E. (2012). Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Image: Lenes, K. (2007). File:Tussilago farfara whole.png. Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tussilago_farfara_whole.png

Tylophora indica

tylo_jul07

Botanical Name: Tylophora indica
Other names: Tylophora, Tylophora asthmatica, Anta-mul (Hindi) (Gasparyan, McGarry, Basch, Sollars & Ulbricht, 2013)
Family: Asclepiadacea (Sabitha Rani, Patnaik, Sulakshanaand, & Saidulu, 2012, p. 20)
Parts used: Leaf and root(Sabintha Rani et al., 2012, p. 20; Gasparyan et al., 2013)

 

Constituents

  • Alkaloids: Tylophorine, Tylophorinine, Tylophorinidine, Septicine, Isotylocrebrine and Tylophoricine
  • Sterols
  • Wax
  • Resin
  • Tannins

(Sabitha Rani et al., 2012, p. 20)

 

Actions

  • Anti-asthmatic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 255)
  • Stimulates adrenal cortex
    • Increases plasma steroid levels
    • Increases antagonising steroid-induced suppression of adrenal activity

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 255)

  • Anti-inflammatory (Gasparyan et al., 2013)
  • Antispasmodic (Gasparyan et al., 2013)
  • Diaphoretic (Gasparyan et al., 2013)
  • Dysentry (Gasparyan et al., 2013)
  • Expectorant (Gasparyan et al., 2013)

 

Indications

Potent anti-asthmatic herb that depresses cell-mediated immunity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 255)

 

Preparation & Dosage

400-500mg/day for 6 days has being used to treat asthma (Sabitha Rani et al., 2012, p. 20)

 

Cautions & Contradictions

  • Individuals with organ transplant
  • Diabetics
  • Individuals with Cardiovascular disorders
  • There is insufficient evidence to recommend in pregnancy and lactation

(Gasparyan et al., 2013)

 

REFERENCE
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Gasparyan, A., McGarry, M., Basch, E., Sollars, D., & Ulbricht, C. (2013). Tylophora (Tylophora indica). Natural Standard Professional Monograph. Retrieved from: http://www.naturalstandard.com/databases/herbssupplements/tylophora.asp?

Sabitha Rani, A., Patnaik, S., Sulakshanaand, G., & Saidulu, B. (2012). REVIEW OF TYLOPHORA INDICA- AN ANTIASTHMATIC PLANT. FS journal of Reseach and Applied Sciences, 1(3), 20-21. Retrieved from: http://www.google.com.au/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&ved=0CFAQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.researchgate.net%2Fprofile%2FSudeshna_Patnaik%2Fpublication%2F230608358_REVIEW_OF_TYLOPHORA_INDICA-AN_ANTIASTHMATIC_PLANT%2Ffile%2F79e41502127dba85ae.pdf&ei=4M1MU_vBJomMkwWXyIDYDg&usg=AFQjCNE9BRT_nk9OOxe7k91LmHsz2XcOsA&sig2=uNdlBDcVTzQVQq3Sc25rEg&bvm=bv.64764171,d.dGI

Image: The Blog Mill. (2007). evolution… forever. Retrieved from: http://www.weatheredwind.org/notes/index.php?s=weatheredwind&paged=24