Lycopus virginicus

LYCOPUS_VIRGINICUS

Singh, M. (2006). LYCOPUS VIRGINICUSBugle-weed. Retrieved from: http://www.homeopathyandmore.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=770

Botanical Name: Lycopus virginicus
Common name: Bugleweed (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
Family: Lamiaceae (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
Parts used: Ariel Parts (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)

Constituents:

  • Phenolic acid derivatives: caffeic, rosmaninic , chlorogenic and ellagic acid
  • Pimaric acid
  • Methyl ester

(Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)

 

Actions

  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • Peripheral vasoconstrictor (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • Antitussive (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563)
  • TSH antagonist (Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • Mild sedative (Bone, 2010, p. 113)

 

Indications

  • Specific for overactive thyroid, notably symptoms such as:
    • Shortness of breath
    • Palpitations
    • Shaking (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 563; Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • Graves disease (Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • Heart palpitations of nervous origin (Hoffmann, 2010, pp. 563-564)
  • Irritating coughs (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 564)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

2-6mL liquid extract (1:2)/day

15-40mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

(Bone, 2010, p. 113)

Cautions:

  • Blocks conversion of thyroxin to T3 in the liver and therefore may interfere with thyroid hormones (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 564)
  • High doses and extended therapy are not recommended (Bone, 2010, p. 113)

 

Contradictions

  • Hypothyroidism (Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • Pregnancy and lactation (Bone, 2010, p. 113)

 

Interactions

  • Preparations containing thyroid hormone (Bone, 2010, p. 113)
  • May interfere with thyroid diagnostic procedures involving radioactive isotopes (Bone, 2010, p. 113)
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Glycyrrhiza glabra

3eb270
Mharr. (2008). PlantFiles: Picture #7 of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Retrieved from: http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/showimage/186125/

Botanical Name: Glycyrrhiza glabra
Common name: Licorice, licorice root, yashimadhu (Sanskrit), ganco (Chinese), Kanzo (Japanese) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
Family: Leguminosae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650)
Parts used: Root and stolen (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650)

History/Folklore: Use of licorice root dates back to 2500BC, found referenced on Assyrian clay and Egyptian papyri. The herb is also used extensively in both Auyrvedia and Traditional Chinese Medicine (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650).

Constituents: Triterpenoid saponins (notably: glycyrrhizin); Glycyrrhetic acid; flavonoids (incl. liquiritigenin glycosides); chalchones (incl. isoliquiritin); isoflavonoids (incl. glabridin, glabrone and formononetin); sterols; coumrains; fatty acids; phenolics; and arabinogalactans (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 721)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-allergic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651)
  • Anti-ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651)
  • Anti-viral (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Antibacterial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652)
  • Expectorant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-tussive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 653)
  • Antidepressant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 653)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 653-654; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-platelet (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Immunomodulatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Adrenal tonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Demulcent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Mild laxative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)

 

Indications

  • Peptic ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Gastritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Dyspepsia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Dermatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Allergies (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Viral Infections (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Respiratory tract infection (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Chronic stress (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Polycystic ovary disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 730)
  • Complications of diabeties (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Menopause (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 655-656)
  • Weight loss (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Addison’s disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 730)
  • Hypercholesterolaemia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Depression (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Urinary tract inflammation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Adrenal insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Viral Hepatitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 731)
  • HIV/AIDS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 731)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Decoction: 3-12g/day
  • Liquid extract (1:1): 2-6mL/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)

 

Cautions

  • Adverse reactions have been recorded at doses > 100-400mg/day (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • High doses over a long period of time may lead to increased blood pressure, therefore caution should be taken in individuals with hypertension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 656-658)
  • Caution to be taken in men with a history of impotence, infertility or decreased libido due to potential ability to reduce testosterone (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 658)

 

Contraindications

  • Pregnancy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 567; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Cholestatic liver disease and cirrhosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Hypokalaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Severe kidney insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)

 

Interactions:

  • Anti-hypertensives (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 657)
  • Digoxin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 657)
  • May potentate effects of diuretics and laxatives (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 734)

Inula helenium

Inula_helenium_ENBLA03

Botanical Name: Inula helenium
Common name: Elecampane (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560
Family: Asteraceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)
Parts used: Rhizome (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)

 

Constituents

  • Sesquiterpene lactones: incl. lactone (“helenalin”) and isoalantolacetone
  • Polysaccharides (mainly inulin)
  • Sterols
  • Resin (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)
  • Volatile oil
  • Bitter principal (Weiss, 2001, p. 205)

 

Actions

  • Expectorant
  • Antitussive
  • Diaphoretic
  • Hepatic
  • Antimicrobial
  • Bitter

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)

 

Mucliage has relaxing effect while essential oils bring about stimulation, allowing the herb to both sooth the irritation and promote expectoration (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560).

It is shown to be both strengthening and cleansing to pulmonary mucus membranes (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)

 

Indications

  • Irritating bronchial coughs
  • In conditions with copious catarrh
  • Bronchitis
  • Emphysema
  • Asthma and bronchial asthma
  • Tuberculosis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)
  • Particularly useful in bronchial conditions when appetite is reduced, as the bitter principal will help to stimulate appetite (Weiss, 2001, p. 205)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Tincture: (1:5 in 40%) 1-2mL/tds

Infusion: 1tsp shredded root/1cup water. Drink hot as possible

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)

 

Contradictions: Known allergy to members of Asteraecae family (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 560)

 

Combinations: For respiratory problems, Elecampane combines well with White Horehound, Coltsfoot, Pleurisy Root and Yarrow (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 198)

REFERENCE
Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Weiss, R. (2001). Weiss’s Herbal Medicine (classic edition). New York: Thieme.

Image: Blasutto, E., (2007). Giardino Botanico delle Alpi Orientali. Retrieved from: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Inula_helenium_ENBLA03.jpeg

Tussilago farfara

1320px-Tussilago_farfara_whole

Botanical Name: Tussilago farfara
Common name: Coltsfoot (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)
Family: Asteraceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)
Parts used: Dried flower, leaf (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)

 

Constituents

  • Flavonoids: rutin, hyperoside, isoquercetin
  • Mucilage
  • Inulin
  • Pyrrolizidine alkaloids: including senkirkine and tussilagine
  • Tannins

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anticatarrhal
  • Antispasmodic
  • Antitussive
  • Expectorant
  • Demulcent
  • Diuretic
  • Immunostimulant

(Heinrich et al., 2010, p. 235; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)

 

Indications

  • Irritating or spasmodic coughs
  • Whooping cough
  • Bronchitis
  • Laryngitis
  • Asthma

(Heinrich et al., 2010, p. 235; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Fresh boiled leaves can be applied to boils, abscesses and suppurating ulcers
  • Tincture: (1:5 in 40%) 2-4mL/tds
  • Infusion: 1-2tsp dried herb/1 cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590)

 

Cautions & Contradictions

  • The pyrrolizidine alkaloids have shown hepatotoxic activity in rats, fed daily in high doses, however appear not to cause damage in human chromosomes in vitro (Heinrich et al., 2010, p. 235).
  • Not recommended for long periods of time (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 590).

 

Combinations

For coughs, Coltsfoot is often combines with White Horehound and Mullein (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 192)

 

REFERENCE
Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Heinrich, M., Barnes, J., Gibbons, S., & Williamson, E. (2012). Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Image: Lenes, K. (2007). File:Tussilago farfara whole.png. Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tussilago_farfara_whole.png

Drosera rotundifolia/D. longifolia

1600px-Drosera_rotundifolia_-_Drents-Friese_Wold_1

Botanical Name: Drosera rotundifolia/D. longifolia
Common name: Sundew (Hoffmann, 2013, p. 543)
Family: Droseraceae (Hoffmann, 2013, p. 543)
Parts used: Whole plant (Hoffmann, 2013, p. 543)

 

Constituents

  • Naphthoquinones: including plumbagin
  • Flavonoids: Kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin and hyperoside
  • Carotenoids
  • Plant acids
  • Resin
  • Tannins
  • Ascorbic acids

(Hoffmann, 2013, p. 543)

 

Actions

  • Antispasmodic
  • Antitussive
  • Expectorant

(Hoffmann, 2013, p. 543)

 

Indications

  • Bronchitis
  • Whooping cough
  • Infections of the respiratory tract
  • Plumbagin has shown to be active against Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and Pneumoncoccus bacteria
  • Athsma: has a relaxing effect over involuntary muscles of respiratory tract.
  • Stomach ulcers

(Hoffmann, 2013, p. 543)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Tincture: (1:5 in 60%) 1-2mL/tds

Infusion: 1tsp dried her/1 cup water/tds

Commission E recommends 3g herb/day

 

Cautions & Contradictions

No side effects recorded (Hoffmann, 2013, p. 542)

 

Combinations

In the treatment of asthma, Sundew may be combined with Grindelia and Pill-bearing Spurge (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 235).

 

REFERENCE
Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Image: DymphiH. (2008). Drosera rotundifolia – Drents-Friese Wold 1. Retrieved from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/88526197@N00/2643297494/

Prunus serotina

Prunus_serotina_in_fruit_web_resized

Botanical Name: Prunus serotina
Common name: Wild Cherry
Family: Rosaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 575)
Parts used: Dried bark (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 575)

Constituents

  • Cyanogenetic glycoside (“prunasin”)
  • Benzaldehyde
  • Eudesmic acid
  • p-coumaric acid
  • Scopoletin
  • Tannins

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 575)

 

Actions

  • Antispasmodic
  • Antitussive
  • Astringent
  • Bitter
  • Expectorant
  • Nervine

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 575)

 

Indications

  • Irritating coughs (bronchitis and whooping cough)
  • Asthma (in combination)
  • Improve sluggish digestion
  • Eye inflammation (topical)

Often used in combination as it will ease a cough, but not necessarily heal an infection (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 575)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Tincture: (1:5 in 40%) 1-2mL/tds

Decoction: 1 tsp dried bark/1 cup water/tds

Eye wash

(Hoffmann, 2003, pp. 575-576)

 

Cautions

Large doses are considered toxic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 576)

 

REFERENCE
Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Image: Spruill, J. (2009). North Carolina Native Plant Society. Retrieved from: http://www.ncwildflower.org/index.php/plants/details/prunus-serotina/

Stellaria media

common

Image I

th_Chickweed_01

Image II

Botanical Name: Stellaria media
Common name: Chickweed (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 585), star chickweed, starweed, satinflower, starwort, stellaria, winterweed (Heinrich, Barnes, Gibbons & Williamson, 2012, p. 310).
Family: Caryophyllaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 585)
Parts used: Aerial parts: leaves, stems and flowers (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 310)

Constituents

  • Saponin glycosides
  • Coumarines & Hydroxycoumarines
  • Flavonoids
  • Carboxylic acids
  • Triterpenoids
  • Vitamin C

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 585)

 

Actions

INTERNAL USE

  • Antitussive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 310)
  • Expectorant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 310)
  • Demulcent (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 310; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 585)
  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 585)

EXTERNAL USE

  • Vulnerary (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 585)
  • Emollient (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 585)
  • Cooling demulcent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 585)
  • Mild laxative (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 311)
  • Mild diuretic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 311)

 

Indications

  • Reduces itching and irritation (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 585)
  • Eczema, psoriasis, rashes, burns (topical) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 311; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 585)
  • Rheumatism (internal) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 585)
  • Bronchial phlegm and bronchitis (internal) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 311)

 

Preparation

  • Tincture
  • Ingredient in ointment or cream

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 311)

  • Poultice
  • Infusion
  • Succus
  • Added to bath water

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 585)

 

Dosage

  • Infusion: 1-5g tsp dried herb/tds
  • Tincture: (1:5) 2-10mL/tds

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 311)

 

Cautions

  • Pregnancy: likely safe when consumed in dietary amounts (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 311)
  • Skin allergic reactions can occur with topical use (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 311)

 

Contradictions

No side effects or drug interactions have been reported (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 585)

 

Combinations

Combines with Marshmallow in preparation of an ointment (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 191)

 

REFERENCE
Heinrich, M., Barnes, J., Gibbons, S., & Williamson, E. (2012). Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Image II: Geissal, H. (2004). Problem Weeds in Cereals. Retrieved from: http://www.crsbooks.net/agscience/weeds.html

Image II: Baumann, L. (2011). Plant of The Month. Retrieved from: http://www.smmtc.org/plantofthemonth/plant_of_the_month_201102_Chickweed.php