Atropa belladonna

atropa_belladonna_np

Mosquin, D. (2005). Solanaceae | Atropa belladonna L. | 34604-0433-1999. Retrieved from: http://www.botanicalgarden.ubc.ca/potd/2005/10/atropa_belladonna.php

Botanical Name: Atropa belladonna
Common name: Deadly Nightshade, Belladonna
Family: Solonaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 122)
Parts used: Whole Plant (Grieve, 1971, p. 582)

Poisionous properties are associated with the green part of the plant, however the berries have shown to be toxic to children (Grieve, 1971, p. 583)

 

History/Folklore: The herb is traditionally used as a poison (Natural Standard, 2014).

The juice of the berry causes pupils to dilate, and was used traditionally to afford a striking appearance in women (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 123)

“As an antidote to Opium, Atropine may be injected subcutaneously, and it has also been used in poisoning… It has no action on the voluntary muscles, but the nerve endings in involuntary muscles are paralysed by large doses, the paralysis finally affecting the central nervous system, causing excitement and delirium.” (Grieve, n.d.)

 

Constituents: Tropane Alkaloids: incl. hyoscine (also known as scopolamine) and hyoscyamine (Natural Standard, 2014).

Atropine has a reported half-life of several hours and is rarely detectable in the plasma after 24 hours (Natural Standard, 2014).

 

Actions

  • Narcotic (Grieve, 1971, p. 583)
  • Powerful Respiratory Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 241)
  • Anticholinergic (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Indications

  • Airway obstruction (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Autonomic nervous system disturbance (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Headache (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Menopause (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Eye disease (Grieve, n.d.)
  • Antidote to opium (Grieve, n.d.)

Has been investigated for the treatment of asthma and Parkinson’s (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Used homeopathically (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Doses up to 1.5mg/day are traditionally considered safe (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Bruised, fresh leaves are used to ease pain and inflammation when applied topically (Grieve, 1971, p. 583)

 

Cautions & Contraindications

  • Symptoms of belladonna overdose include confusion, agitation, hallucination, tachycardia, dry mouth, dilated pupils and other anticholinergic effects. Consumption of the herb can result in death (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Elderly patients (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Children (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Individuals with cardiac disease, due to cardiac effects (hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmias) (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Gastrointestinal tract disease such as ulcers, esophageal reflux, hiatal hernia, obstructive gastrointestinal disease, constipation, ileus or atony, colitis, ileostomy or colostomy, as anticholinergic effects may delay gastric emptying and decrease esophageal pressure (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Neuromuscular disorders, as belladonna may cause neuromuscular blockade resulting in weakness or paralysis (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Fever (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Interactions

  • Anticholinergic agents (antihistamines, phenothiazines, and tricyclic antidepressants) as belladonna may increase the anticholinergic effects (Natural Standard, 2014)

Caulophyllum thalictroides

Blue Cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides)

FloraFinder. (n.d.). Caulophyllum thalictroides. Retrieved from: http://www.florafinder.com/Species/Caulophyllum_thalictroides.php

Botanical Name: Caulophyllum thalictroides
Common name: Blue Cohosh (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
Family: Berberidaceae (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
Parts used: Root (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
 

Constituents: Quinolizidine alkaloids (incl. sparteine, methylcytisine and anagyrine); and Saponins (incl. caulosaponin) (Bone, 2003, p. 107)

Actions

  • Spasmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Uterine and ovarian tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Emmenagogue (Bone, 2003, p. 106; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 509)
  • Oxytocic (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 516)
  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 516)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 488; Xia, Li, Liang, Yang, Lu, & Kuang, 2014)
  • Analgesic (Xia et al., 2014)


Traditional use
Native to North America, Caulophyllum thalictroides was used traditionally to induce childbirth and to ease labor pain, alleviate menstrual abnormalities (Xia et al., 2014).

Indications

  • Amenorrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Menorrhagia (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Ovarian or uterine pain or inflammation (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Uterine prolapse (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Abdominal cramping (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Rheumatic conditions (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Muscular weakness (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Nervous debility (Bone, 2003, p. 106)

Dosage & Preparation: Liquid extract (1:2): 1.5-3.0mL/day OR 10-20mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 107)

Cautions

  • Potential for tertogenic effects (Bone, 2003, p. 106; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 160)
  • Adverse side effects have been reported including hyperthermia, hypertension, tachycardia, hyperventilation, diaphoresis and weakness (Bone, 2003, pp. 106-107)

Contraindications: Caulophyllum thalictroides’ traditional use to aid childbirth is controversial and has been studied for effects it may have on newborns (Xia et al., 2014). It has been associated with heart attack and strokes in newborn’s as therefore the herb is Pregnancy and lactation (Bone, 2003, p. 106; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 395)

Viburnum prunifolium

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Northern Family Farms. (2013). Flowering Shrubs. Retrieved from: http://www.northernfamilyfarms.com/detail.php?plant=313

vipr130154

Cook, W. (2013). Blackhaw (Viburnum prunifolium). Retrieved from: http://www.carolinanature.com/trees/vipr.html,/span>

Botanical Name: Viburnum prunifolium
Common name: Black Haw
Family: Caprifoliaceae (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
Parts used: Bark (Bone, 2003, p. 100)

 

Constituents: Flavonoids (incl. biflavone amentoflavone), iridoid glycosides, triterpenes and triterpenic acids and coumarins (incl. scopoletin) (Bone, 2003, p. 101)

Actions

  • Astringent (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Hypotensive (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Uterine sedative (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Bronchospasmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Antiasthmatic (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Indications

  • Dysmenorrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Threatened miscarriage (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • False labor pains (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Asthma (Bone, 2003, p. 100; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Postpartum hemorrhage (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Hypertension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • 5-4.5mL liquid extract (1:2)/day or 10-30mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 100)
  • Tincture (1:5 in 60%): 5-10mL/tds
  • Decoction: 2tsp dried herb/1 cup water/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 594).

 

Cautions: Caution to be taken in individuals with kidney stones due to oxolate content

Combinations: For threatened miscarriage: combine with False Unicorn root and Cramp Bark (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 181)

Interactions: Due to scopoletin content, caution should be taken when used in combination with anticoagulant medications (Bone, 2003, p. 100).

Viburnum opulus

viburnum-opulus-fl-rboutwell viburnum-opulus-trilobum-fr-fbramley-b

Images: New England Wild Flower Society. (2013). Virburnum opulus/Highbush-cranberry. Retrieved from: https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/viburnum/opulus/

Botanical Name: Viburnum opulus
Common name: Cramp Bark (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
Family: Caprifoliaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
Parts used: Dried Bark (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

Constituents: Hydroquinones (incl. arbutin and methylarbutin), coumarines (incl. scopoletin and scopoline) and tannins (mainly catechins) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Actions

  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593; Bone, 2013, p. 212)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Vasorelaxant (Bone, 2013, p. 226)

 

Indications

  • Relaxes muscular spasm and tension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Cramps of both voluntary and involuntary muscles (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Dysmenorrhea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Excessive menstrual blood loss (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Delayed or sparse menstruation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Irregular bleeding during miscarriage (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Protect against threatened miscarriage (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Atonic conditions of pelvic organs (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Angina (Bone, 2013, p. 228)
  • IBS (Bone, 2013, p. 201)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture: 4-8mL/tds
  • Decoction: 2tsp dried her/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Interactions: Use cautiously with immune modulators and hypertensive agents (Natural Standard, 2014)

Dioscorea villosa

Wild-Yam-Root-Picture-300x225

Prime Health Channel. (2014). Wild Yam. Retrieved from: http://www.primehealthchannel.com/wild-yam.html

Botanical Name: Dioscorea villosa
Common name: Wild Yam (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
Family: Dioscorea (Bone, 2003, p. 464)
Parts used: Root and rhizome (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1024)

History/Folklore: Once the herb was used as a source of diosgenin used to produce artifical progesterone in the manufacturing of contraceptive hormones (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1024). It is to be noted that the conversion of diogensin needed to produce progesterone cannot occur in the human body and therefore Wild Yam is not a source of progesterone (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1024).

 

Constituents: Diosgensin, dioscin, dioscorin, vitamin C, beta-carotene, Vitamins B1 and B3, iron, magnesium, potassium, selenium, zinc and polyphenols (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1024).

 

Actions

  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543; Bone, 2003, p. 464)
  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Hepatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Cholagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1024)
  • Diaphoretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)

 

Indications

  • Intestinal colic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Bilous colic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Diverticulitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Dysmenorrhea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Neuralgic dysmenorrheal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Ovarian neuralgia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Ovarian and uterus pain (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Acute phase of rheumatoid arthritis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543; Bone, 2003, p. 464)
  • Pains of pregnancy and associated nausea and vomiting (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Alleviation of menopausal symptoms (Bone, 2003, p. 464)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Decoction of dried root (2-3g/tds)
  • 1:5 Tincture (2-10mL/tds) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1025)
  • 3-6mL liquid extract (1:2)/day or 20-40mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 464)

 

Cautions: Due to saponin content, may cause irritation of gastric mucosa (Bone, 2003, p. 464)

 

Combinations:

  • For intestinal colic: combines with Acorus calamus, Matricaria chamomilla and Zinziber officinale.
  • For rheumatoid arthritis: combines with Actaea racemosa (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 241)

Tribulus terrestris

demirdikeni1

Tuscu, S. (2008). Çocuk İstiyorum Tüp Bebek. Retrieved from: http://www.cocukistiyorum.com/tr/content.asp?PID=%7B1050DD8C-F0E6-4668-9FCB-32EF4A44F9FA%7D&PT=%20Yumurta%20kalitesi%20ve%20sperm%20say%FDs%FDn%FD%20art%FDran%20bitki

Botanical Name: Tribulus terrestris
Common name: Tribulus, Gokshur (Sanskrit), Gokharu (Hindi), Puncture vine (Chhatre, Nesari, Somani, Kanchan & Sathaye, 2014).
Family: Zygophyllaceae (Chhatre et al., 2014).
Parts used: Dried fruit (Chhatre et al., 2014).

Quality: In Ayurvedia medicine Tribulus is describes as madhura (sweet), gura (heavy to digest), brumhema (nourishing) and Vatanut (pacifies vata dhsa).

Constituents: Saponins (incl. furostanol, spirostanol and sarsasapogenin), flavonoids, glycosides (incl. spirostanol glycosides) and alkaloids (Chhatre et al., 2014).

 

Actions

  • Diuretic
  • Aphrodisiac
  • Antiurolithic
  • Immunomodulatory
  • Cardiotonic
  • Hepatoprotective
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Analgesic
  • Anti-spasmodic
  • Anti-cancer
  • Anti-bacterial
  • Anthelmintic

(Chhatre et al., 2014).

 

Indications

  • Coronary Artery Disease (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Infertility (men) (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Infertility (women) (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Exercise performance enhancement (Natural Standard, 2014)

In Auyrvedic medicine, the herb is indicated in the genitourinary tract to clear urinary stones, as a urinary disinfectant and for impotence (Chhatre et al., 2014)

Accoring to Chhatre, in TCM the herb is used to “restore depressed liver, treat feeling of fullness in chest, mastitis, flatulence, acute conjunctivitis, headache and vitiligo” (2014).

 

Cautions

  • Individuals with menstrual disorders as it may cause menorrhagia (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia as it may increase prostate volume (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Hypoglycemia/diabetes as it may decrease blood sugar levels (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Pregnancy due to traditional use as abortifacent (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Contraindications: Know allergy (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Interactions

  • Beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Digoxin due to evidence of positive ionotropic activity (Natural Standard, 2014)

Serenoa repens

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Gottleib, R. (2006). Saw Palmetto. Retrieved from: http://www.artmajeur.com/en/artist/raphaelg/collection/architectural-and-biological-illustrations/1086633/artwork/saw-palmetto/1212021

Botanical Name: Serenoa repens
Common name: Saw Palmetto
Family: Arecaceae (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)
Parts used: Fruit (berry) (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)

 

History/Folklore: Traditionally associated with treatment of the prostate gland (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804). Other traditional use includes conditions of the respiratory tract, notably when accompanied by catarrh (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804). The Eclectics administered the herb for upper and lower respiratory complaints; atrophy of reproductive organs; and benign prostatic hypertrophy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804).

 

Constituents:

  • Essential oil
  • Fixed oil (caproic, lauric and palmitic acid)
  • Sterols
  • Polysaccharides

(Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)

 

Actions

  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)
  • Urinary antiseptic (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)
  • Endocrine agent (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804; Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Male tonic (Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Antiandrogenic (Bone, 2010, p. 400; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804)

 

Indications

  • Symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)

Appears to inhinit dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (potentially responsible for multiplication of prostate cells) by blocking activity of enzyme 5-α-reductase (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)

  • Difficulties with urination (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)
  • Inflammation of genitourinary tract (Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Cystitis (Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Atrophy of sexual tissues (Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Sex hormone deficiency (Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Noninfectious prostatitis (Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Odema (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804)
  • Male pattern baldness (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804)

 

Preparation: Dried berry decoction, tablets, capsules or liquid extract (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804)

 

Dosage:

  • 0-4.5mL liquid extract (1:2)/day
  • 15-15mL liquid extract (1:2)/week (Bone, 2010, p. 400)

 

Cautions and Contraindications: None known (Bone, 2010, p. 400)