Curcuma longa

turmeric-info0
HowStuffWorks. (2014). Tumeric. Retrieved from: http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/botany/turmeric-info.htm

Turmeric-Root-and-Powder-1024x666
Christie, D. (2014). Top 5 Benefits of Tumeric. Retrieved from: http://www.harboursidefitness.com.au/blog-post/top-5-benefits-of-turmeric/

Botanical Name: Curcuma longa
Common name: Tumeric, Indian saffron, jianghuang (Chinese), shati (Sanskrit) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900)
Family: Zingeberaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)
Parts used: root and rhizome Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)

Quality: Pungent, bitter, astringent, heating (Pole, 2006, p. 282). In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is used to dry damp and move stagnation in the blood (Pole, 2006, p. 282).

History/Folklore: Native to India and South-East Asia, Tumeric has been recorded in medical texts dating back to 600BC (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Constituents: Essential oil (sesquiterpene ketones, zingiberene, phellandrene, sabinene, cineole and borneol); Yellow pigments “diarylheptanoids” or “curcuminoids” (incl. curcumin) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901).

Yellow pigment curcumin has been shown to influence transcription factors, cytokines, growth factors, kinases and other enzymes (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 902-903; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Anti-platelet (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 903; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 904; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Hepatoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 904-905)
  • Nephroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 904-905)
  • Neuroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 905)
  • Cardioprotective and vasoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 905)
  • Hypolipidaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 905-906)
  • Antibacterial (Pole, 2006, p. 282; Zorotchian Moghadamtousi, Abdul Kadir, Hassandarvish, Tajik, Abubakar & Zandi, 2014, p. 2)
  • Antimicrobial (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 906-907)
  • Antiparasitic (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 907)
  • Antiviral (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, pp. 2-3)
  • Antiparasitic (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 2)
  • Antitumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 908)
  • Anti-depressant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 909)
  • Radioprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Antiallergic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Emmenagogue (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Blood tonic (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Carminative (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Alterative (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Vulunary (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Anti-carcinogenic (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • TCM specific: blood and qi tonifier with analgesic properties (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Indications

  • Cancer prevention (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 907)
  • Cystic fibrosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 909)
  • HIV/AIDS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
    • One human trial exhibited an increase in CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte counts (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
    • Another human trial showed relief of HIV-associated chronic diarrhoea (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Eye disorders (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 911)
  • Genetic diseases (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 911)
  • Alzehimer’s disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 916)
  • Skin conditions (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 916)
  • Candida (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 7)
  • Helicobacter pylori (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 8)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:1): 5-14mL/day
  • 4g powdered tumeric mixed with water/1-2 day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)

Cautions

  • Doses > 15g/day should not be administered long term or in conjunction with anti-platelet or anti-coagulant medication (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Individuals complaining of hair loss (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Women trying to conceive (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Pregnancy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 918)

Contraindications

  • Biliary tract obstruction (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is contraindicated in high vāta and pitta (Pole, 2006, p. 283).
  • Acute jaundice and hepatitis (Pole, 2006, p. 283).

Combinations

  • For liver congestion: combine with kutki, bhumiamalaki and pippali (Pole, 2006, p. 283)
  • Small amounts of long/black pepper enhances anti-inflammatory activity of turmeric (Pole, 2006, p. 283)
  • For congestion of the lower abdomen and menstrual imbalance: combine with guggulu, mustaka and purnarnava (Pole, 2006, p. 283)

Interactions: Turmeric may potentiate effects of anti-platelet or anticoagulant medications (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 918).

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Vitis vinifera

nebbiolo

Giovanni, D. (2013). Barbaresco DOCG. Retrieved from: http://demarie.com/our-wines/barbaresco-docg/?lang=en

Botanical Name: Vitis vinifera
Common name: Grape, Grapeseed extract (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 565)
Family: Vitaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 565)
Parts used: seeds, grape skins (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 565)

Constituents: Proanthocyanidins and stilbenes (incl. resveratrol and viniferins) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 565)

Actions

  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 233)
  • Anti-carcinogenic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566)
  • Anti-tumor (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566)
  • Cardioprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 567)
  • Vasoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 233)

 

Indications

  • Chronic venus insufficiency (Natural Standard, 2014; Kiesewetter, Koscielny, Kalus, Vix, Peil, Petrini, Van Toor, & de Mey, 2000)
  • Fluid retentions/peripheral venous insufficiency/capillary resistance (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 567)
  • OEdema (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Diabetic retinopathy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Diabetic nephropahy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Eye strain (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Hyperlidaemia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Atherosclerosis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Dermal wound healing (topical) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Chloasma/Melasma (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Pancreatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Sun burn (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Protection against chemical toxicity (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569; Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Dosage & Preparation: Fluid extract (1:1): 20-40mL/week (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)

Cautions & Contraindications: Adverse effects are uncommon (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)

Interactions:

  • Theoretically additive effect when combined with anti-platelet medication (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)
  • Theoretical increased risk of bleeding when used in conjunction with anticoagulant drugs (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)
  • Tannins may decrease iron absorption, best to take at least 2 hrs apart (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)

Camellia sinensis

green-tea
Cocoon Apothecary. (2014). Camellia Oil. Retrieved from: http://www.cocoonapothecary.com/pages/Camellia-Oil.html

Botanical Name: Camellia sinensis
Common name: Green Tea, Matsu-cha, Green sencha tea, Japanese tea, Chienese tea (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)
Family: Theaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)
Parts used: Leaf (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)

Quality: Cold, bitter and sweet (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 122)

History/Folklore: Green tea is the unfermented product of black tea. In Chinese medicine Green Tea has a cooling effect, where as its fermented product black tea has a warming effect (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 122)

Constituents:

  • Polyphenols (Inlc. Catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, proanthocyanidins. Notably: epigallocatechin gallate).
  • Caffeine (about 3%)
  • Small amounts of common methyl-xanthines, theobromine and theophylline
  • Tannin, oxalic acid, trace elements and vitamins.

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)

 

Actions

  • Chemoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)
  • Antiproliferative (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)
  • Antimicrobial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)
  • Antiviral (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 573)
  • Anticarcinogenic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 573)
  • Antihypertensive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 573)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 573)

 

Indications

  • Cancer prevention (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 574-755)
  • Cancer treatment (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 575)
  • Cardiovascuar protections (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 575-576)
  • Dental carriers and gingivitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 576)
  • Sunburn protection (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 576)
  • Weight loss (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 576)
  • Liver disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 576-567)
  • Colitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 577)
  • Dementia/cognitive impairment (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 577)
  • Beta-thalassaemia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 577)
  • Renal failure (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 577)
  • Urinary stones (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 577)
  • Diabetes (via reducing serum glucose/improving kidney function) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 577)
  • Genital warts (topical) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 577; Gross, 2009)
  • Seasonal allergic rhinitis (Maeda-Yamamoto, Ema, Monobe, Shibuichi, Shinoda, Yamamotto & Fujisawa, 2009)
  • Revovery from alcohol abuse (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 122)

 

Dosage & Preparation:
Genital and perianal warts: 15% strength Polyphenon E ointment applied to infected area/tds (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 578; Gross, 2009).
Tea: 3-9g/day (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 122)

 

Cautions

  • In large amounts may cause CNS stimulation due to caffeine content (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 578)
  • Excessive intake will increase adverse effects due to caffeine content, therefore the herb is not recommended for people with hypertension, arrhythmias, severe liver disease, anxiety disorder or insomnia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 578)
  • Contraindicated in cold or spleen deficiency in TCM (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 123)

 

Interactions:

  • Has shown to have antagonistic reaction with anti-coagulants (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 578)
  • Potential to reduce iron absorption due to tannin content (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 578)
  • May potentate effects of diretics due to caffeine content (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 572)
  • May theoretically decrease effects of CNS depressants due to caffeine content (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 578)

Ginkgo biloba

896px-Ginkgo_biloba_SZ136

Von Siebold, P. F., & Zuccarini, J. G. (1870). Flora Japonica, Sectio Prima (Tafelband). Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ginkgo_biloba_SZ136.png

Botanical Name: Ginkgo biloba
Common name: Ginko (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
Family: Ginkoaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597)
Parts used: Leaf, seed kernel (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)

Folklore: Perhaps one of the oldest living tree species, Ginko’s origin is believe to be remote mountainous valleys of Zhejiang. First introduced into Europe in 1690 by Botanist Engelbert Kaempfer, up until 350 years ago the medicinal knowledge was restricted to China (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 493). Traditional therapeutic use is not well documented (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597).

Constituents:

  • Flavonols (inlc. quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, quercetin-3-beta-D-glucoside, quercitrin and rutin and coumaric acid esters of these flavonoids)
  • Terpene lactones (“terpenoids”) including bilobalide and ginkgolides A, B, C & J.
  • Biflavonoids, ginkgolic acids, sterols, procyanidins and polysaccharides

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597)

 

Actions

  • Anti –platelet activating factor (PAF) activity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Tissue perfusion enhancer (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Circulatory stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Nootropic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Neuroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anxiolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Adaptogen (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Vasodilator (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Digestive bitter (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Uterine Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)

 

Indications

  • Restricted cerebral blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Memory and/or cognitive impairment (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Fatigue (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Stroke (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Vertigo (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Acute cochlear deafness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Tinnitus of vascular origin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Peripheral arterial disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Favorable modification or cardiovascular risk (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Early stages of Alzheimer’s-type dementia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Multi-infarct dementia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Reduced retinal blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Normal tension glaucoma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Age-related muscular degeneration (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Congestive dysmenorrhea and PMS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Hypoxia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anxiety (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Adjuvant therapy in chronic schizophrenia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Symptoms associated with Multiple Sclerosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Allergic conjunctivitis (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Asthma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Protections from radiation damage (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Idiopathic oedema (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Vitilogo (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

120-140 standardized extract/day

120-140mg dry extract (in divided doses)/day

4-8 weeks treatment for optimal results (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 554)

 

Cautions

  • Caution should be taken in individuals with coagulation disorders when used in conjunction with antiplatelet or anticoagulant medication, although clinical trials suggesting this are insufficient (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617).
  • Individuals undergoing surgery are advised to cease taking it 5-7 days prior due to potential (minor) risk of increased blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617)

 

Contraindications:

  • Known sensitivity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617)
  • If unusual bleeding or bruising occurs cease treatment immedietly (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 505)

 

Interactions: Theoretically Ginko may increase bleeding risk when taken in conjunction with Warfarin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 505)

Salvia miltiorrhiza

salvia1
Dharmananda, S. (n.d.). Salvia. Retrieved from: http://www.itmonline.org/arts/salvia.htm

Botanical Name: Salvia miltiorrhiza
Common name: dan shen (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 229), red sage.
Family: Lamiaceae
Parts used: dried root (Lin & Hsieh, 2010)

History/Folklore: TCM herb traditionally used for huo xue hua yu (activating blood circulation to disperse stasis), jie du xiao zhong (removing toxic substances and reducing swelling), and qing xin an shen (nourishing the heart to calm the mind) (Gao, Mendoza, Lu & Lawrence, 2012).

Constituents:

  • Tanshinone I
  • Tanshinone IIA
  • Cryptotanshinone
  • Dihydrotanshinone
  • Danshensu
  • Salvianolic acid B

(Lin & Hsieh, 2010)

 

Actions

  • Hypotensive (Lin & Hsieh, 2010)
  • Anti-coagulant (Gao et al., 2012)
  • Anti-platelet (Lin & Hsieh, 2010; Gao et al., 2012)
  • Antioxidant (Lin & Hsieh, 2010; Gao et al., 2012)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Lin & Hsieh, 2010)
  • GABA receptor (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 229)
  • Neuroprotective (Lin & Hsieh, 2010)
  • Hepatoprotective (Gao et al., 2012)
  • Immunomodulatory (Gao et al., 2012)

 

Indications

Traditional:

  • Irrengular menstruation
  • Dysmenorrhea
  • Amenorrhea
  • Precordial pain
  • Abdominal pain
  • Body/joint pain
  • Skin ulcer
  • Palpitations
  • Insomnia

(Gao et al., 2012)

 

Contemporary:

  • Angina pectoris (Gao et al., 2012)
  • Coronary heart disease (Gao et al., 2012)
  • Ischaemic damage following stroke (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 229; Gao et al., 2012)
  • Reduce/prolongs development of altherosclerosis (Lin & Hsieh, 2010)
  • Prevents cerebral infarction (Lin & Hsieh, 2010)
  • Myocardial infarction (Gao et al., 2012)

 

Combinations: Combines with Astraglais membranaceus and Polygonum multiflorum in a age tonic (Bone, 2010, p. 77)

 

Interactions: Contraindicated in individuals on warfarin (Lin & Hsieh, 2010)

Glycyrrhiza glabra

3eb270
Mharr. (2008). PlantFiles: Picture #7 of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Retrieved from: http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/showimage/186125/

Botanical Name: Glycyrrhiza glabra
Common name: Licorice, licorice root, yashimadhu (Sanskrit), ganco (Chinese), Kanzo (Japanese) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
Family: Leguminosae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650)
Parts used: Root and stolen (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650)

History/Folklore: Use of licorice root dates back to 2500BC, found referenced on Assyrian clay and Egyptian papyri. The herb is also used extensively in both Auyrvedia and Traditional Chinese Medicine (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650).

Constituents: Triterpenoid saponins (notably: glycyrrhizin); Glycyrrhetic acid; flavonoids (incl. liquiritigenin glycosides); chalchones (incl. isoliquiritin); isoflavonoids (incl. glabridin, glabrone and formononetin); sterols; coumrains; fatty acids; phenolics; and arabinogalactans (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 721)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-allergic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651)
  • Anti-ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651)
  • Anti-viral (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Antibacterial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652)
  • Expectorant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-tussive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 653)
  • Antidepressant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 653)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 653-654; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-platelet (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Immunomodulatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Adrenal tonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Demulcent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Mild laxative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)

 

Indications

  • Peptic ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Gastritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Dyspepsia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Dermatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Allergies (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Viral Infections (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Respiratory tract infection (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Chronic stress (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Polycystic ovary disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 730)
  • Complications of diabeties (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Menopause (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 655-656)
  • Weight loss (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Addison’s disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 730)
  • Hypercholesterolaemia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Depression (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Urinary tract inflammation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Adrenal insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Viral Hepatitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 731)
  • HIV/AIDS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 731)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Decoction: 3-12g/day
  • Liquid extract (1:1): 2-6mL/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)

 

Cautions

  • Adverse reactions have been recorded at doses > 100-400mg/day (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • High doses over a long period of time may lead to increased blood pressure, therefore caution should be taken in individuals with hypertension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 656-658)
  • Caution to be taken in men with a history of impotence, infertility or decreased libido due to potential ability to reduce testosterone (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 658)

 

Contraindications

  • Pregnancy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 567; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Cholestatic liver disease and cirrhosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Hypokalaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Severe kidney insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)

 

Interactions:

  • Anti-hypertensives (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 657)
  • Digoxin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 657)
  • May potentate effects of diuretics and laxatives (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 734)

Rhodiola rosea

ss-rhodiola2-300x300-1

Serenity Station. Rhodiola for Relaxation. (2013). Retrieved from: http://www.serenity-station.com/rhodiola-relaxation/

Botanical Name: Rhodiola rosea
Common name: Rhodiola, Golden root, Rose root, Arctic root (Huang, Perry, Ernst, 2011, p. 235)
Family: Crassulaceae (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
Parts used: Root (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 794)

History/Folklore: Found in high altitudes of Arctic regions, and throughout Europe and Asia (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235). The herb is used widely throughout Russia and Scandinavia (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235).

Constituents: Salidroside and aglycones; rhodiolo A, rosiridol and sachalinol; Rosavins; gossypectin-7-acid, rhodioflavonoside, gallic acid, trans-p-hydroycinnamic acid and p-tyrosol; cinnamic acid; hydroquinone (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 795)

Actions

  • Adaptogen (Hoffmann, 2003, p.484; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 795)
  • Tonic (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Antidepressant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 796)
  • Immunomodulatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 796)
  • Antibacterial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 796)
  • Cardioprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 796)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 797)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 797)
  • Cytoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 797)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 797)

Acts as an adaptogen by modulating the stress response (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 795). Some ways it achieves this is by:

  • Increasing the bio-electrical activity of the brain (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Inhibiting enzymes that degrade neurotransmitters such as dopamine, adrenaline, seratonin and achetlycholine (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Preventing a rise in mediators for the stress response (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)

 

Indications

  • Stress induced depression (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 798)
  • General Anxiety Disorder (GAD) (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 798)
  • Fatigue (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 798)
  • Anaemia (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Impotence (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Infections (incl. cold and flu) (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Cancer (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Nervous System disorders (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Headache (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Improves memory and attention span (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Increases physical endurance (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 798)
  • Resistance to altitude sickness (Huang et al., 2011, p. 235)
  • Diabetes (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 799)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

Fluid extract (1:2): 20-49mL/week (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 799)

Cautions: No major risks are associated with Rhodiola (Huang et al., 2011, p. 242)

 

Contraindications: Contraindicated in bipolar disorder (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 799)

 

Interactions: Emit caution when used in conjunction with Adriamycin, Cyclophosphamide and antidepressants based on theoretical evidence (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 799)