Caulophyllum thalictroides

Blue Cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides)

FloraFinder. (n.d.). Caulophyllum thalictroides. Retrieved from: http://www.florafinder.com/Species/Caulophyllum_thalictroides.php

Botanical Name: Caulophyllum thalictroides
Common name: Blue Cohosh (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
Family: Berberidaceae (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
Parts used: Root (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
 

Constituents: Quinolizidine alkaloids (incl. sparteine, methylcytisine and anagyrine); and Saponins (incl. caulosaponin) (Bone, 2003, p. 107)

Actions

  • Spasmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Uterine and ovarian tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Emmenagogue (Bone, 2003, p. 106; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 509)
  • Oxytocic (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 516)
  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 516)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 488; Xia, Li, Liang, Yang, Lu, & Kuang, 2014)
  • Analgesic (Xia et al., 2014)


Traditional use
Native to North America, Caulophyllum thalictroides was used traditionally to induce childbirth and to ease labor pain, alleviate menstrual abnormalities (Xia et al., 2014).

Indications

  • Amenorrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Menorrhagia (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Ovarian or uterine pain or inflammation (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Uterine prolapse (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Abdominal cramping (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Rheumatic conditions (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Muscular weakness (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Nervous debility (Bone, 2003, p. 106)

Dosage & Preparation: Liquid extract (1:2): 1.5-3.0mL/day OR 10-20mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 107)

Cautions

  • Potential for tertogenic effects (Bone, 2003, p. 106; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 160)
  • Adverse side effects have been reported including hyperthermia, hypertension, tachycardia, hyperventilation, diaphoresis and weakness (Bone, 2003, pp. 106-107)

Contraindications: Caulophyllum thalictroides’ traditional use to aid childbirth is controversial and has been studied for effects it may have on newborns (Xia et al., 2014). It has been associated with heart attack and strokes in newborn’s as therefore the herb is Pregnancy and lactation (Bone, 2003, p. 106; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 395)

Dioscorea villosa

Wild-Yam-Root-Picture-300x225

Prime Health Channel. (2014). Wild Yam. Retrieved from: http://www.primehealthchannel.com/wild-yam.html

Botanical Name: Dioscorea villosa
Common name: Wild Yam (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
Family: Dioscorea (Bone, 2003, p. 464)
Parts used: Root and rhizome (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1024)

History/Folklore: Once the herb was used as a source of diosgenin used to produce artifical progesterone in the manufacturing of contraceptive hormones (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1024). It is to be noted that the conversion of diogensin needed to produce progesterone cannot occur in the human body and therefore Wild Yam is not a source of progesterone (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1024).

 

Constituents: Diosgensin, dioscin, dioscorin, vitamin C, beta-carotene, Vitamins B1 and B3, iron, magnesium, potassium, selenium, zinc and polyphenols (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1024).

 

Actions

  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543; Bone, 2003, p. 464)
  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Hepatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Cholagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1024)
  • Diaphoretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)

 

Indications

  • Intestinal colic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Bilous colic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Diverticulitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Dysmenorrhea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Neuralgic dysmenorrheal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Ovarian neuralgia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Ovarian and uterus pain (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Acute phase of rheumatoid arthritis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543; Bone, 2003, p. 464)
  • Pains of pregnancy and associated nausea and vomiting (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 543)
  • Alleviation of menopausal symptoms (Bone, 2003, p. 464)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Decoction of dried root (2-3g/tds)
  • 1:5 Tincture (2-10mL/tds) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 1025)
  • 3-6mL liquid extract (1:2)/day or 20-40mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 464)

 

Cautions: Due to saponin content, may cause irritation of gastric mucosa (Bone, 2003, p. 464)

 

Combinations:

  • For intestinal colic: combines with Acorus calamus, Matricaria chamomilla and Zinziber officinale.
  • For rheumatoid arthritis: combines with Actaea racemosa (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 241)

Smilax ornate / Smilax spp.

Sarsaparilla_Smilaxofficinalis_SmilaxChina_Photo05

MDidea. (2013). Botanical Description:Sarsaparilla,Smilax Medica,Smilax China. Retrieved from: http://www.mdidea.com/products/proper/proper08802.html

Botanical Name: Smilax ornate / Smilax spp.
Common name: Sarsaparilla (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)
Family: Smilacaceae (Bone, 2003, p. 397)
Parts used: Root & rhizome (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)

History/Folklore: Amazonian natives used the root for menopause and to enhance the “virility of men” (Bone, 2003, p. 398). The genus Smilax contains a range of species, with Smilax ornata, S. aristolochiifolia and S. medica medically interchangeable (Bone, 2003, p. 397). The herb has a wide range of traditional use including skin disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, syphilis, leprosy (conjunction) and as a tonic and flavouring agent (Bone, 2003, p. 398).

Constituents: Saponins: sarasapogenin, smilagenin, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)

 

Actions

  • Alterative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)
  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584; Bone, 2003, p. 397)
  • Diaphoretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)
  • Depurative (Bone, 2003, p. 397)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone, 2003, p. 397)

 

Indications

  • Psoriasis (Bone, 2003, p. 397; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)
  • Chronic skin disorders (Bone, 2003, p. 397)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (Bone, 2003, p. 397; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • 3-6mL liquid extract (1:2)/day
  • 20-40mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

(Bone, 2003, p. 397)

 

Cautions & Contraindications: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 397)

 

Interactions: May increase absorption of digitalis glycosides (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 584)

Actaea racemosa

PCD3619_IMG0015

Brandsford, W. D. (1988). Actae racemosa var. racemosa. Retrieved from: http://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=9316

Botanical Name: Actaea racemosa/Cimicifuga racemosa
Common name: Black Cohosh, black snakeroot (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 427)
Family: Ranunculaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 428)
Parts used: root and rhizome (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 427)

History/Folklore: Traditionally used in North America to treat snakebites hence its common name (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 427)

Constituents: triterpene glycosides (incl. actein, 23-epi-26-deoxyacetin, cimiracemoside A and cimicifugoside); aromatic acids (incl. ferulic, isoferulic and aceryl caffeic acid); resins; tannins and fatty acids (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 428).

Actions

  • Hormone modulation (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 185)
    • Suppresses Luteinising hormone (LH) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 427)
  • Antirheumatic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 427)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 427)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 430)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 430)

Indications

  • Conditions requiring a reducing of LH levels
    • Infertility
    • Miscarriage
    • Cyst formation
    • Ovarian tumorigenesis
    • Polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • Menopausal symptoms (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 427, 430-433; Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 186; Beer & Neff, 2013)
  • Arthritis and rheumatism (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 427)
  • Neuralagia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 427)
  • Sciatica (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 427)
  • Menstrual disturbances (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 427; Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 187)
  • Disorders or the respiratory tract (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 427)
  • Tinnitus (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 427)
  • Osteoperosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 427)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Dried root/rhizome decoction: 0.9-6g/day
  • Liquid extract (1:1): 0.9-6mL/day
  • Tincture (1:5): 3.0-7.5mL/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 427)

 

Cautions

  • High doses may cause frontal headache (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 427, 436)
  • Commission E suggests treatment should no exceed 6 months (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 427)
  • Caution to be taken in individuals with oestrogen-sensitive malignant tumors (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 435)
  • Long term use is associated with liver damage (low incidence) (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 435, 437; Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 187)

 

Contraindications

  • Pregnancy and lactation (despite traditional use for assisting childbirth) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 428)
  • Individuals with pre-existing liver disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 435)

Fucus vesiculosuis

cha-de-fucus-vesiculosus-beneficios-e-propriedades

Reprodução. (n.d.). Chá de Fucus vesiculosus – Benefícios e propriedades. Retrieved from: http://chabeneficios.com.br/cha-de-fucus-vesiculosus-beneficios-e-propriedades/

Botanical Name: Fucus vesiculosis
Common name: Kelp, Bladderwrack (Natural Standard, 2014)
Family: Fucaceae (Natural Standard, 2014)
Parts used: Whole Plant (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 551)

Constituents:

  • Phenolic compounds
  • Mucopolysaccharides
  • Sulphuryl-, sulphonyl- & phosphonyl-glycosyl ester diglycerides
  • Trace metals (notably iodine)

(Hoffmann, 2010, p. 551)

 

Actions

  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 551)
  • Antibacterial (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Antifungal (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Anticoagulant (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Antioxidant (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Indications

  • Hypothyroid, underactive thyroid and goitre (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 551; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 551; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Acne (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Atopic dermatitis (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Burns (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Cancer (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Gingivitis (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Herpes (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Hyperglycaemia (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Kidney disease (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Dried herb: 0.8-2g dried thallus/tds
  • Tincture (1:5 in 25%): 2-6mL/tds
  • Fluid extract (1:1 in 25%): 0.5-2mL/tds

(Hoffmann, 2010, p. 551)

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

  • Due to the plants high iodine content it may interfere with pre existing thyroid abnormal thyroid function (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 551)
  • Brown seaweeds are known to concentrate toxic elements such as heavy metals (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 551)
  • Binding properties of fucoidan may reduce intestinal iron absorption (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 551)

Harpagophytum procumbens

harpagofito

HIPERnatural.COM. (2014). HARPAGOFITO. Retrieved from: http://www.hipernatural.com/es/pltharpagofito.html

Botanical Name: Harpagophytum procumbens
Common name: Devil’s Claw (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
Family: Pedaliaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 510)
Parts used: Rhizome (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557), secondary root tuber (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)

History/Folklore: Native to Kalahari region of South Africa (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509). In South African traditional medicine, the herb is used in pregnancy to relieve pain and as a postpartum (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514).

Constituents: Iridoid glycosides (incl. harpagide, harpagoside and procumbide); flavonoids (kaempferol and luteolin glycosides); phenolic acids (cholorogenic and cinnamic acid); quinone (harpagoquinone; triterpenes; oleanolic and ursolic acids derivatives; esters and sugars (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Anodyne (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Hepatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Analgesic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Bitter (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Anti-arrhythmia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)

Indications

  • Arthritis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Endometriosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Muscle pain (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Fever (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Allergic reactions (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)
  • Wound, ulcers, boils (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 509)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 40%): 1-2mL/tds
  • Decoction: 0.5 tsp/cup water/tds
  • 5g/day (for loss of appetite 1.5g/day)

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)

 

Cautions

  • Oesophageal reflux and states of hyperacidity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)
  • Pregnancy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)

 

Contraindications: Gastric or duodenal ulcers (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)

Interactions:

  • Moderate inhibitory effect towards cytochrome P450 enzyme: CYP 2C8, CYP 2C9, CYP 2C19 and CYP 3A4 (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)
  • May potentiate effects of Warfarin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)
  • May theoretically interact with anti-arrhythmic drugs (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 514)

Boswellia serrata

boswellia%20

The Chopra Centre. (2014). Boswellia. Retrieved from: http://www.chopra.com/community/online-library/ayurvedic-herbs-foods/boswellia

Botanical Name: Boswellia serrata
Common name: Boswellia, Indian Frankincence, Sallaki (Sanskrit), Salai guggal (Hindi) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441)
Family: Burseraceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 442)
Parts used: Resin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 442)

Quality: Bitter, pungent, astringent and sweet (Pole, 2006, p. 179). The herb is considered heating for its blood circulating properties and cooling due to its anti-inflammatory action (Pole, 2006, p. 179).

History/Folklore: Boswellia serrata from the genus Boswillia and is comprised of a range of small shrubs and trees native to North Africa and Asia. The many speices exude fragrant resins known as frankincense or oleo-gum. Boswellia serrata is related to B. carterii or “biblical frankincense”, and has a long history of therapeutic use notably in Auyrvedic medicine (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441).

The herb has a long-term connection with the spiritual realm and religious ceremony, and is also used for psychiatric conditions (Pole, 2006, p. 179). It is seen to have a specific effect on ājñā cakra (the spiritual centre, which is connected to the pituitary and hypothalamus (Pole, 2006, p. 179).

Constituents: penacyclic triterpene acids (mainly β-boswellic acid and acetyl-boswellic acids); tetracyclic triterpene acids; essential oil; terpenols; monosaccharides; uronic acids; sterols aand phlobaphenes (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 442)

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 441, 442)
  • Anti-allergic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 443)
  • Anti-cancer (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 443)
  • Analgesic (Pole, 2006, p. 179)
  • Anti-rheumatic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441; Pole, 2006, p. 179)
  • Emmenagogue (Pole, 2006, p. 179)
  • Antispasmodic (Pole, 2006, p. 179)

The herb has being studied in the treatment of Alzheimer’s and other inflammatory brain conditions due to its ability to cross the blood brain barrier (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441).

Ayurveda specific: Destroys toxins, reduces kapha and vāta, rejuvenating, useful in gynecology, rediracts vāta flow downwards, clearns adhesions from the body (Pole, 2006, p. 179).

 

Indications

  • Asthma (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 441, 446)
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441)
    • Ulcerative colitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 446)
    • Crohn’s Disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 446)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441)
  • Osteoarthritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 441, 444-446)
  • Oedema in correlation with brain tumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 441)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Resin decoction: 3-9g/day (Pole, 2006, p. 180)
  • Tincture (1:5 in 90%): 2-10mL/day

 

Cautions & Contraindications

  • Pregnancy (Pole, 2006, p. 180)
  • Weakened digestion (Pole, 2006, p. 180)

 

Combinations

  • For inflammation and arthritic conditions: combine with guggulu, myrrh and tumeric (Pole, 2006, p. 180)
  • For male sexual debility: combine with gokshura, ashwagandha and bala (Pole, 2006, p. 180)

 

Interactions: Moderate to potent inhibitors of applied CYP enzymes (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 447)