Curcuma longa

turmeric-info0
HowStuffWorks. (2014). Tumeric. Retrieved from: http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/botany/turmeric-info.htm

Turmeric-Root-and-Powder-1024x666
Christie, D. (2014). Top 5 Benefits of Tumeric. Retrieved from: http://www.harboursidefitness.com.au/blog-post/top-5-benefits-of-turmeric/

Botanical Name: Curcuma longa
Common name: Tumeric, Indian saffron, jianghuang (Chinese), shati (Sanskrit) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900)
Family: Zingeberaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)
Parts used: root and rhizome Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)

Quality: Pungent, bitter, astringent, heating (Pole, 2006, p. 282). In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is used to dry damp and move stagnation in the blood (Pole, 2006, p. 282).

History/Folklore: Native to India and South-East Asia, Tumeric has been recorded in medical texts dating back to 600BC (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Constituents: Essential oil (sesquiterpene ketones, zingiberene, phellandrene, sabinene, cineole and borneol); Yellow pigments “diarylheptanoids” or “curcuminoids” (incl. curcumin) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901).

Yellow pigment curcumin has been shown to influence transcription factors, cytokines, growth factors, kinases and other enzymes (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 902-903; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Anti-platelet (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 903; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 904; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Hepatoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 904-905)
  • Nephroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 904-905)
  • Neuroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 905)
  • Cardioprotective and vasoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 905)
  • Hypolipidaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 905-906)
  • Antibacterial (Pole, 2006, p. 282; Zorotchian Moghadamtousi, Abdul Kadir, Hassandarvish, Tajik, Abubakar & Zandi, 2014, p. 2)
  • Antimicrobial (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 906-907)
  • Antiparasitic (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 907)
  • Antiviral (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, pp. 2-3)
  • Antiparasitic (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 2)
  • Antitumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 908)
  • Anti-depressant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 909)
  • Radioprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Antiallergic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Emmenagogue (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Blood tonic (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Carminative (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Alterative (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Vulunary (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Anti-carcinogenic (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • TCM specific: blood and qi tonifier with analgesic properties (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Indications

  • Cancer prevention (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 907)
  • Cystic fibrosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 909)
  • HIV/AIDS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
    • One human trial exhibited an increase in CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte counts (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
    • Another human trial showed relief of HIV-associated chronic diarrhoea (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Eye disorders (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 911)
  • Genetic diseases (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 911)
  • Alzehimer’s disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 916)
  • Skin conditions (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 916)
  • Candida (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 7)
  • Helicobacter pylori (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 8)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:1): 5-14mL/day
  • 4g powdered tumeric mixed with water/1-2 day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)

Cautions

  • Doses > 15g/day should not be administered long term or in conjunction with anti-platelet or anti-coagulant medication (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Individuals complaining of hair loss (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Women trying to conceive (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Pregnancy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 918)

Contraindications

  • Biliary tract obstruction (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is contraindicated in high vāta and pitta (Pole, 2006, p. 283).
  • Acute jaundice and hepatitis (Pole, 2006, p. 283).

Combinations

  • For liver congestion: combine with kutki, bhumiamalaki and pippali (Pole, 2006, p. 283)
  • Small amounts of long/black pepper enhances anti-inflammatory activity of turmeric (Pole, 2006, p. 283)
  • For congestion of the lower abdomen and menstrual imbalance: combine with guggulu, mustaka and purnarnava (Pole, 2006, p. 283)

Interactions: Turmeric may potentiate effects of anti-platelet or anticoagulant medications (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 918).

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Rosmarinus officinalis

Rosmarinus_officinalis_-_Köhler–s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-258

Image: Köhler, F. (1897). Rosmarinus officinalis. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosemary#mediaviewer/File:Rosmarinus_officinalis_-_K%C3%B6hler%E2%80%93s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-258.jpg

Botanical Name: Rosmarinus officinalis
Common name: Rosemary
Family: Lamiaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
Parts used: Leaf, twig (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)

Constituents:

  • Volatile oil (Borneol, camphene, camphor, cineole, limonene, linalool)
  • Flavonoids (apigenin, diosmentin, diosmin, luteolin)
  • Rosmarinic and other phenolic acid
  • Diterpenes (including carnosol, carnosolic acid and rosmariquinone)
  • Rosmaricine
  • Triterpenes (including ursolic acid and oleanolic acid)

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)

 

Actions

  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 316)
  • Antidepressant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Rubefacient (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Antimicrobial (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Hepatoprotective (Bone, 2003, p. 389; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 317)
  • Circulatory Stimulant (Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Antioxidant (Bone, 2003, p. 389; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 316)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 316)

 

Indications

  • Increased mental concentration (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 317)
  • Stomach upset accompanied by psychological tension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Enhancing detoxification phase I and II of the liver (Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Flatulent dyspepsia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Headache or depression associated with debility (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Muscular pain (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Sciatica (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Neuralgia (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Premature baldness (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Alopecia (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 317)
  • Gastric headache (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Atherosclerosis prevention (Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Impaired hepatic and biliary function (Bone, 2003, p. 389)

 

Preparation & Dosage: Liquid extract (1:2): 2.0-4.5mL/day or 15-30mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 390)

Cautions: Rosemary should not be taken with meals or iron supplements in individuals with iron deficiency due to the potential interference of iron absorption (Bone, 2003, p. 389)

Combinations

  • For alopecia: combine with thyme, lavender and cedarwood (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 317).
  • For depression: combine with Skullcap, Kola and Oats (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 229)

Cinnamomus zeylanicum

cinnamon2
Heavenly Products. (2014). Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon Cinnamon- Dried Bark and Powder). Retrieved from: https://www.heavenly-products.com/cart/index.php?cPath=156_129_272

Botanical Name: Cinnamomus zeylanicum
Common name: Cinnamon
Family: Lauraceae (Natural Standard, 2014)
Parts used: Bark (Natural Standard, 2014)

Constituents: Essential oil, cinnamic aldehyde (Bone, 2003, p. 149)

Actions

  • Antioxidant (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Analgesic (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Circulatory Stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 147)
  • Aromatic digestive (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 192)
  • Warming expectorant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 240)
  • Carminative (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • Astringent (Bone, 2003, p. 149)

Indications

  • Loss of appetite (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • Dyspeptic complaints (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • Common cold and influenza (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • Uterine haemorrhage (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • Metabolic Syndrome (Ziegenfuss, Hofheins, Mendel, Landis & Anderson, 2006)
  • Oral Candidiasis (Quale, Landman, Zaman, Bumey & Sathe, 1996)
  • Allergic rhinitis (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Wound healing (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Increase in sperm quality (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Acute infections (promotes immune activities) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 150)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 3-6mL/day or 20-40mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • One study showed that 500 mg/day of cinnamon (Cinnulin PF®) for 12-weeks lead to significant improvements in symptoms of metabolic syndrome such as fasting blood sugar, systolic blood pressure, and body composition (Ziegenfuss et al., 2006).

 

Cautions

  • May cause contact sensitivity due to cinnamic aldehyde (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 104; Bone, 2003, p. 149)
  • As a aromatic and expectorant cinnamon may cause or irritate GI reflux (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 196, 240)
  • Pregnancy (Bone, 2003, p. 149)

 

Combination:

  • In TCM the herb is a component of Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang combination (Natural Standard, 2014)

Zingiber officinalis

1
Harvest Newsletter. (2011). Grow Local Ginger. Retrieved from: http://archive.constantcontact.com/fs033/1106770492400/archive/1107516061313.html

Botanical Name: Zingiber officinalis
Common name: Ginger
Family: Zinziberaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
Parts used: rhizome (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)

History/Folklore: Medicinal use of ginger is recorded in early Sanskrit and Chinese texts as well as in Ancient Greek, Roman and Arabic medical literature (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578).

Constituents: Essential oil (incl. zingiberene, sesquiphellandrene and β-bisabolene); gingerols and shogoals (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)

Actions

  • Carminative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Antiemetic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Peripheral circulatory stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Anti-platelet (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 578, 582)
  • Diaphoretic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578: Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Digestive stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Anti-ulcer (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 581)
  • Anti-microbial (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 583)
  • Antiparasitic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 583)
  • Anti-tumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Rubefacient (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Cholagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)

 

Indications

  • Motion sickness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Morning sickness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Post-operative and drug induced nausea (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 578-579)
  • Osteoarthritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 570)
  • Gastroparesis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • Chilbains (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Stimulate appetite (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Chemotherapy-induce nausea (Ryan, Heckler, Roscoe, Dakhil, Kirshner, Flynn, Hickok & Morrow, 2011)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Fresh rhizome: 500-1000mg/tds
  • Dried rhizome: 500mg/2-4 times a day
  • Liquid extract (1:2): 0.7-3mL/day
  • Tincture (1:5): 1.7-7.5ml/day (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)

 

Cautions

  • May enhance bioavailability of other medications (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • May cause heart burn (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • May have a blood thinning effect (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Some sources say it is unsuitable for morning sickness and results are conflicting (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Treatment during pregnancy should not exceed a daily dose of 2g of dried ginger (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)
  • Inhibits thromboxane synthase and acts as a prostaglandin agonist (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)

 

Contraindications:

  • Gallstones (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)

Interactions:

  • Increases bioavilability of other drugs by increasing absorption from GI tract and/or protecting the drug from metabolized by the liver’s first phase (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591).
  • In Individuals already taking blood thinning medication, daily dose of ginger should not exceed 4g (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)
  • May increase bleeding when combined with other anti-coagulants (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)

Zanthoxylum clava-herculus /Z.americana

Zanthoxylum_americanum
Barra, A. (1999). Prickly Ash Zanthoxylum spp.. Retrieved from: http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail403.php

Botanical Name: Zanthoxylum clava-herculus /Z.americana
Common name: Prickley Ash
Family: Rutaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
Parts used: Bark, Berry (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)

Constituents: Alkaloids; coumarins; resin; tannins; and volatile oil (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)

Actions

  • Circulatory Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 233)
  • Tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Alterative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Diaphoretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596; Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Hepatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Sialogogue (Bone, 2003, p. 379; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 104)

 

Indications

  • Rheumatism (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596; Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Chronic skin disorders (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Poor circulation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596; Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Leg cramps (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Varicose veins (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596; Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Varicose ulcers (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Gastric distension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Loss of sensitivity in injured nerves (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)
  • Haemorrhoids (Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Raynaud’s Syndrome (Bone, 2003, p. 379)
  • Hypotension (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 233)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 60%): 2-4mL/tds
  • Infusion: 102tsp/1 cup water/tds

 

Cautions

  • Causes a tingling sensation in oral cavity when taken in liquid form, which may give patients a chocking or panicked reaction (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 104)

 

Contraindications

  • Contraindicated in hypertension (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 233)
  • Individuals on anticoagulant therapy (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)

Capsicum minimum

Botanical-Chili-Plant-Printable-GraphicsFairy-sm-664x1024
Watson, K. (2013). Chili Pepper Botanical Printable. Retrieved from: http://thegraphicsfairy.com/chili-pepper-botanical-printable/

Botanical Name: Capsicum minimum
Common name: Cayenne (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
Family: Solonaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
Parts used: Fruit (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)

Constituents: Capsaicinoids (incl. capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin); carotenoids (incl. capsanthin, capsorubin and carotene; and Steroidal saponins (“capsicidins”) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)

Actions

  • Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 247)
  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Anti-catarrhal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Sialalgogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Rubefacient (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Antimicrobial (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Antiseptic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 247)
  • Local anesthetic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)

As a local anaesthetic, Cayenne only blocks impulses to nerve C fibers (strictly related to pain) therefore it does not interfe with temperature, touch and pressure (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536).

Cayenne blocks transmission of pain and itching by nerve fibers in skin and topically relieves pain by depleting local supplies of substance P (neurotransmitter) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536).

 

Indications

  • Flatulent dyspepsia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Colic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Insufficient peripheral circulation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Debility (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Lumbago and rheumatic pains (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Laryngitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536)
  • Painful skin disorders, such as: psoriasis, pruritus or shingles (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Arthritis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Cluster headache (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Phantom limb pains (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • Vasomotor rhinitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)
  • GI infections (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 202)

In TCM the herb is used as an anticonvulsant and is indicated in epilepsy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 43)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 25%): 0.25-1mL/tds
  • Infusion: 0.5-1tsp/1 cup water. Infuse for 10mins. Drink when needed.

 

Cautions: The specific action Cayenne has on vansiloid receptors may creates an illusion of pain and burning, however tissue damage is not concurrent in these sensations and no harm results (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 43, 104)

 

Combinations

  • Combines with Myrrh in a gargle for laryngitis or as an antiseptic wash (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 536).
  • High doses may cause tachecardia and hypertension in certain individuals (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • May aggravate gastrointestinal reflux (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Caution to be taken in individuals with bleeding disorders (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Interactions

  • May react with anticoagulant and anti-platelet medication (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • May inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes (Natural Standard, 2014)

Valeriana officinalis

val1
Grieve M, (1971). Figure 1: Valeriana officinalis. Retrieved from: http://www.itmonline.org/arts/valerian.htm#figure%201

Botanical Name: Valeriana officinalis
Common name: Valerian
Family: Valerianaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
Parts used: Rhizome, stolon, root (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)

Folklore and traditional use:

  • Medicinal use of Valarian dates back to the Dioscordis and Galen, in which the plant was administered for epilepsy.
  • In was used during World War II for sleep promotion amongst civilians.
  • IN Europe, Valarian oil was used as a remedy for cholera.
  • The Eclectricts used the herb as a cerebral stimulant in chorea, hysteria (associated with mental depression) and in fever.
  • IN Ayurvedic medicine Valarian was used for hysteria, neurosis and epilepsy.

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)

 

Constituents:

  • Iridoids or “valepotriates” (including valtrate, isovaltrate, didrovaltrate and acevaltrate.
  • Essential oil: containing monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and carboxylic compounds
  • Valerenic acid (non-volatile cyclopentane sesquiterpenes)

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 582)

 

Actions

  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Anxiolytic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Mild Sedative (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Hypnotic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Spasmolytic/Antispasmodic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)

 

Indications

  • Insomnia (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Restlessness (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Nervous tension (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Depression (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Anxiety (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Alleviation of symptoms of benzodiazepine withdrawal (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Stress related heart conditions (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Dried root: 3-9g /day
  • Liquid extract: (1:2) 2-6mL / day
  • Tincture: (1:5) 5-15mL /day

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)

 

Cautions & Contradictions: None known (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 587)

 

Interactions: Although no reports have been made, Valarinan may theoretically increase effects of CNS depressants when taken in conjunction (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 587).

 

Combinations:

  • For depression and anxiety combines with Hypericum perforatum (Bone, 2003, p. 447)
  • For insomnia combine with Melissa officinalis or Humulus lupulus (Bone, 2003, p. 447)