Tribulus terrestris

demirdikeni1

Tuscu, S. (2008). Çocuk İstiyorum Tüp Bebek. Retrieved from: http://www.cocukistiyorum.com/tr/content.asp?PID=%7B1050DD8C-F0E6-4668-9FCB-32EF4A44F9FA%7D&PT=%20Yumurta%20kalitesi%20ve%20sperm%20say%FDs%FDn%FD%20art%FDran%20bitki

Botanical Name: Tribulus terrestris
Common name: Tribulus, Gokshur (Sanskrit), Gokharu (Hindi), Puncture vine (Chhatre, Nesari, Somani, Kanchan & Sathaye, 2014).
Family: Zygophyllaceae (Chhatre et al., 2014).
Parts used: Dried fruit (Chhatre et al., 2014).

Quality: In Ayurvedia medicine Tribulus is describes as madhura (sweet), gura (heavy to digest), brumhema (nourishing) and Vatanut (pacifies vata dhsa).

Constituents: Saponins (incl. furostanol, spirostanol and sarsasapogenin), flavonoids, glycosides (incl. spirostanol glycosides) and alkaloids (Chhatre et al., 2014).

 

Actions

  • Diuretic
  • Aphrodisiac
  • Antiurolithic
  • Immunomodulatory
  • Cardiotonic
  • Hepatoprotective
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Analgesic
  • Anti-spasmodic
  • Anti-cancer
  • Anti-bacterial
  • Anthelmintic

(Chhatre et al., 2014).

 

Indications

  • Coronary Artery Disease (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Infertility (men) (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Infertility (women) (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Exercise performance enhancement (Natural Standard, 2014)

In Auyrvedic medicine, the herb is indicated in the genitourinary tract to clear urinary stones, as a urinary disinfectant and for impotence (Chhatre et al., 2014)

Accoring to Chhatre, in TCM the herb is used to “restore depressed liver, treat feeling of fullness in chest, mastitis, flatulence, acute conjunctivitis, headache and vitiligo” (2014).

 

Cautions

  • Individuals with menstrual disorders as it may cause menorrhagia (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia as it may increase prostate volume (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Hypoglycemia/diabetes as it may decrease blood sugar levels (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Pregnancy due to traditional use as abortifacent (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Contraindications: Know allergy (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Interactions

  • Beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Digoxin due to evidence of positive ionotropic activity (Natural Standard, 2014)

Curcuma longa

turmeric-info0
HowStuffWorks. (2014). Tumeric. Retrieved from: http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/botany/turmeric-info.htm

Turmeric-Root-and-Powder-1024x666
Christie, D. (2014). Top 5 Benefits of Tumeric. Retrieved from: http://www.harboursidefitness.com.au/blog-post/top-5-benefits-of-turmeric/

Botanical Name: Curcuma longa
Common name: Tumeric, Indian saffron, jianghuang (Chinese), shati (Sanskrit) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900)
Family: Zingeberaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)
Parts used: root and rhizome Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)

Quality: Pungent, bitter, astringent, heating (Pole, 2006, p. 282). In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is used to dry damp and move stagnation in the blood (Pole, 2006, p. 282).

History/Folklore: Native to India and South-East Asia, Tumeric has been recorded in medical texts dating back to 600BC (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Constituents: Essential oil (sesquiterpene ketones, zingiberene, phellandrene, sabinene, cineole and borneol); Yellow pigments “diarylheptanoids” or “curcuminoids” (incl. curcumin) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901).

Yellow pigment curcumin has been shown to influence transcription factors, cytokines, growth factors, kinases and other enzymes (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 902-903; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Anti-platelet (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 903; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 904; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Hepatoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 904-905)
  • Nephroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 904-905)
  • Neuroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 905)
  • Cardioprotective and vasoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 905)
  • Hypolipidaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 905-906)
  • Antibacterial (Pole, 2006, p. 282; Zorotchian Moghadamtousi, Abdul Kadir, Hassandarvish, Tajik, Abubakar & Zandi, 2014, p. 2)
  • Antimicrobial (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 906-907)
  • Antiparasitic (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 907)
  • Antiviral (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, pp. 2-3)
  • Antiparasitic (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 2)
  • Antitumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 908)
  • Anti-depressant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 909)
  • Radioprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Antiallergic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Emmenagogue (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Blood tonic (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Carminative (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Alterative (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Vulunary (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Anti-carcinogenic (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • TCM specific: blood and qi tonifier with analgesic properties (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Indications

  • Cancer prevention (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 907)
  • Cystic fibrosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 909)
  • HIV/AIDS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
    • One human trial exhibited an increase in CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte counts (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
    • Another human trial showed relief of HIV-associated chronic diarrhoea (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Eye disorders (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 911)
  • Genetic diseases (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 911)
  • Alzehimer’s disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 916)
  • Skin conditions (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 916)
  • Candida (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 7)
  • Helicobacter pylori (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 8)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:1): 5-14mL/day
  • 4g powdered tumeric mixed with water/1-2 day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)

Cautions

  • Doses > 15g/day should not be administered long term or in conjunction with anti-platelet or anti-coagulant medication (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Individuals complaining of hair loss (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Women trying to conceive (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Pregnancy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 918)

Contraindications

  • Biliary tract obstruction (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is contraindicated in high vāta and pitta (Pole, 2006, p. 283).
  • Acute jaundice and hepatitis (Pole, 2006, p. 283).

Combinations

  • For liver congestion: combine with kutki, bhumiamalaki and pippali (Pole, 2006, p. 283)
  • Small amounts of long/black pepper enhances anti-inflammatory activity of turmeric (Pole, 2006, p. 283)
  • For congestion of the lower abdomen and menstrual imbalance: combine with guggulu, mustaka and purnarnava (Pole, 2006, p. 283)

Interactions: Turmeric may potentiate effects of anti-platelet or anticoagulant medications (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 918).

Filipendula ulmaria

tumblr_mgqkkr58l61qgzqeto1_1280

Systematica (2013). Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. [as Spiraea ulmaria L.]. Retrieved from: http://www.systematica.org/post/41370444569/filipendula-ulmaria-l-maxim-as-spiraea

1600px-Filipendula_ulmaria_(flowers)

Hillewaert, H. (2008). Meadowsweet at Kampenhout, Belgium. Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Filipendula_ulmaria_%28flowers%29.jpg

Botanical Name: Filipendula ulmaria
Common name: Medowsweet (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
Family: Rosaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 743).
Parts used: Aerial parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)

History/Folklore:

  • One of the three herbs most sacred to the Druids (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742).
  • One of 50 ingredients in drink ‘Save’ mentioned in Chaucer’s Knight’s Tale (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742).
  • Salic acid (from which acetylsalicyclic is derived) was extracted from its flowerbud playing an important role in the development of aspirin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742).

Constituents: Flavonoids (incl. rutin, glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol glycosides); hydrolysable tannins (notably rugosin-D); phenolic glycosides (incl. spiraein); and essential oil (containing salicylaldehyde, phenylethyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol and methylsalicylate) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 743).

Actions

  • Anti-ulcer (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 742, 743)
  • Antacid (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Diuretic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Mild urinary antiseptic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Astringent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Anti-thrombotic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Anti-coagulant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)
  • Antibacterial (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Antimicrobial (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Immunomodulatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 743)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)
  • Gastroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)

Indications

  • Cervical dysplasia (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 742, 744)
  • Acne (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)
  • Wound healing (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)

Traditional indicatons

  • Disorders of the upper GI tract (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Flatulence (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Dyspepsia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Indigestion (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Gastric reflux (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
  • Hyperacidity (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
  • Gastric ulcers (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Diarrhoea (notably in children) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Cystitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Kidney stones (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Gout and rheumatic disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
  • Fever (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Infusion: 12-18g dried herb/day
  • Liquid extract (1:1): 4.5-18mL/day
  • Tincture (1:5): 6-12ml/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 742-743)

Cautions

  • Constipation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Iron deficient anemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Malnutrition (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Long term use of high doses not advised (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Due to presence of salicylates, caution is to be taken in individuals with salicylate sensitivity or glucose-6-phosphate deficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
  • Bleeding disorders, due to anticoagulant activity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Caution to be taken in children under 15 years old (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 745)

Contraindications: Pregnancy and lactation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)

Interactions:

  • Presence of tannins may interfere with absorption of metal ions, thiamine and alkaloids. It is recommended the herb to be taken at least 2hrs away from other minteral supplementation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • May theoretically potentiate effects of anticoagulant drugs (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)

Rosmarinus officinalis

Rosmarinus_officinalis_-_Köhler–s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-258

Image: Köhler, F. (1897). Rosmarinus officinalis. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosemary#mediaviewer/File:Rosmarinus_officinalis_-_K%C3%B6hler%E2%80%93s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-258.jpg

Botanical Name: Rosmarinus officinalis
Common name: Rosemary
Family: Lamiaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
Parts used: Leaf, twig (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)

Constituents:

  • Volatile oil (Borneol, camphene, camphor, cineole, limonene, linalool)
  • Flavonoids (apigenin, diosmentin, diosmin, luteolin)
  • Rosmarinic and other phenolic acid
  • Diterpenes (including carnosol, carnosolic acid and rosmariquinone)
  • Rosmaricine
  • Triterpenes (including ursolic acid and oleanolic acid)

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)

 

Actions

  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 316)
  • Antidepressant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Rubefacient (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Antimicrobial (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Hepatoprotective (Bone, 2003, p. 389; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 317)
  • Circulatory Stimulant (Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Antioxidant (Bone, 2003, p. 389; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 316)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 316)

 

Indications

  • Increased mental concentration (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 317)
  • Stomach upset accompanied by psychological tension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Enhancing detoxification phase I and II of the liver (Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Flatulent dyspepsia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Headache or depression associated with debility (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Muscular pain (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Sciatica (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Neuralgia (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577; Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Premature baldness (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 577)
  • Alopecia (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 317)
  • Gastric headache (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Atherosclerosis prevention (Bone, 2003, p. 389)
  • Impaired hepatic and biliary function (Bone, 2003, p. 389)

 

Preparation & Dosage: Liquid extract (1:2): 2.0-4.5mL/day or 15-30mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 390)

Cautions: Rosemary should not be taken with meals or iron supplements in individuals with iron deficiency due to the potential interference of iron absorption (Bone, 2003, p. 389)

Combinations

  • For alopecia: combine with thyme, lavender and cedarwood (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 317).
  • For depression: combine with Skullcap, Kola and Oats (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 229)

Salvia miltiorrhiza

salvia1
Dharmananda, S. (n.d.). Salvia. Retrieved from: http://www.itmonline.org/arts/salvia.htm

Botanical Name: Salvia miltiorrhiza
Common name: dan shen (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 229), red sage.
Family: Lamiaceae
Parts used: dried root (Lin & Hsieh, 2010)

History/Folklore: TCM herb traditionally used for huo xue hua yu (activating blood circulation to disperse stasis), jie du xiao zhong (removing toxic substances and reducing swelling), and qing xin an shen (nourishing the heart to calm the mind) (Gao, Mendoza, Lu & Lawrence, 2012).

Constituents:

  • Tanshinone I
  • Tanshinone IIA
  • Cryptotanshinone
  • Dihydrotanshinone
  • Danshensu
  • Salvianolic acid B

(Lin & Hsieh, 2010)

 

Actions

  • Hypotensive (Lin & Hsieh, 2010)
  • Anti-coagulant (Gao et al., 2012)
  • Anti-platelet (Lin & Hsieh, 2010; Gao et al., 2012)
  • Antioxidant (Lin & Hsieh, 2010; Gao et al., 2012)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Lin & Hsieh, 2010)
  • GABA receptor (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 229)
  • Neuroprotective (Lin & Hsieh, 2010)
  • Hepatoprotective (Gao et al., 2012)
  • Immunomodulatory (Gao et al., 2012)

 

Indications

Traditional:

  • Irrengular menstruation
  • Dysmenorrhea
  • Amenorrhea
  • Precordial pain
  • Abdominal pain
  • Body/joint pain
  • Skin ulcer
  • Palpitations
  • Insomnia

(Gao et al., 2012)

 

Contemporary:

  • Angina pectoris (Gao et al., 2012)
  • Coronary heart disease (Gao et al., 2012)
  • Ischaemic damage following stroke (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 229; Gao et al., 2012)
  • Reduce/prolongs development of altherosclerosis (Lin & Hsieh, 2010)
  • Prevents cerebral infarction (Lin & Hsieh, 2010)
  • Myocardial infarction (Gao et al., 2012)

 

Combinations: Combines with Astraglais membranaceus and Polygonum multiflorum in a age tonic (Bone, 2010, p. 77)

 

Interactions: Contraindicated in individuals on warfarin (Lin & Hsieh, 2010)

Glycyrrhiza glabra

3eb270
Mharr. (2008). PlantFiles: Picture #7 of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Retrieved from: http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/showimage/186125/

Botanical Name: Glycyrrhiza glabra
Common name: Licorice, licorice root, yashimadhu (Sanskrit), ganco (Chinese), Kanzo (Japanese) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
Family: Leguminosae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650)
Parts used: Root and stolen (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650)

History/Folklore: Use of licorice root dates back to 2500BC, found referenced on Assyrian clay and Egyptian papyri. The herb is also used extensively in both Auyrvedia and Traditional Chinese Medicine (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 650).

Constituents: Triterpenoid saponins (notably: glycyrrhizin); Glycyrrhetic acid; flavonoids (incl. liquiritigenin glycosides); chalchones (incl. isoliquiritin); isoflavonoids (incl. glabridin, glabrone and formononetin); sterols; coumrains; fatty acids; phenolics; and arabinogalactans (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 721)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-allergic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651)
  • Anti-ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 651)
  • Anti-viral (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Antibacterial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652)
  • Expectorant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-tussive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 652; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 653)
  • Antidepressant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 653)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 653-654; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Anti-platelet (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Immunomodulatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Adrenal tonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Demulcent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Mild laxative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)

 

Indications

  • Peptic ulcer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Gastritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Dyspepsia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Dermatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 654)
  • Allergies (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Viral Infections (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Respiratory tract infection (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Chronic stress (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Polycystic ovary disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 730)
  • Complications of diabeties (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 655)
  • Menopause (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 655-656)
  • Weight loss (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Addison’s disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 730)
  • Hypercholesterolaemia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Depression (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • Urinary tract inflammation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Adrenal insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)
  • Viral Hepatitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 731)
  • HIV/AIDS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 731)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Decoction: 3-12g/day
  • Liquid extract (1:1): 2-6mL/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 719)

 

Cautions

  • Adverse reactions have been recorded at doses > 100-400mg/day (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 656)
  • High doses over a long period of time may lead to increased blood pressure, therefore caution should be taken in individuals with hypertension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 656-658)
  • Caution to be taken in men with a history of impotence, infertility or decreased libido due to potential ability to reduce testosterone (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 658)

 

Contraindications

  • Pregnancy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 567; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Cholestatic liver disease and cirrhosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Hypokalaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)
  • Severe kidney insufficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 733)

 

Interactions:

  • Anti-hypertensives (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 657)
  • Digoxin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 657)
  • May potentate effects of diuretics and laxatives (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 734)

Panax ginseng

panax_ginseng

Johal, R. (2012). Ginseng and Ginkgo Biloba Complex shows promise for mental tasks. Retrieved from: http://www.predatornutrition.com/blog/2012/03/08/ginseng-and-ginkgo-biloba-complex-shows-promise-for-mental-tasks/

Botanical Name: Panax ginseng
Common name: Korean Ginseng, Panax, Ren Shen (Mandarine), Ninjin (Japanese) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
Family: Araliaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)
Parts used: Root (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)

Folklore and traditional use: In Chinese, Gin referres to “man” and seng to “essence” (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 199). The name panax is said to be derived from the Greek word pancea meaning “cure all” (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628). It is considered to be the most potent Qi tonic in Chinese Medicine (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 199), and is indicated in collapsed Qi conditions (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628). It is proposed to:

  • Generates fluids
  • Tonify lungs and stomach
  • Strengthens the spleen
  • Calms the spirit manifestation of heart Qi.

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)

 

Traditional TCM indications include:

  • Shallow or labored breathing
  • Lethargy
  • Chest and abdominal distention
  • Palpitations with anxiety
  • Insomnia
  • Restlessness

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)

In Western herbal medicine the herb is traditionally used as a mild stomachic, tonic, and a stimulant for anorexia and nervous related digestive complaints (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628).

Having wide range pharmacological properties, ginseng appears to have whole body effects as well as having a profound influence on the metabolism of an individual cell (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628). There is no equivalent concept or treatment in contemporary biomedicine (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628). Recent western studies fail to establish the efficiency of ginseng root extract to support traditional indications (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 199).

 

Constituents: Ginsenosides (a complex mixture of triterpene dammarane and oleanane saponins); Polysaccarhides; Essential oil; Diacetylenes; Peptides; Trilinolein; and Arginine (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 629)

 

Actions

  • Adaptogen (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628: Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)
  • Tonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)
  • Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)
  • Immunomodulator (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 200)
  • Cardiotonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Hypoglycemic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 200)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 200)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 200)
  • Anti-oxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 203)
  • Anxiolytic (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 203)

 

Indications

Clinical

  • Improve cerebro-vascular deficit (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Improve cognitive performance (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Congestive heart failure (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Cancer prevention (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Depressed bone marrow associated with radiation therapy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Erectile dysfunction (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 204)
  • Male fertility problems (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Type 2 diabeties (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Acne (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 204)
  • Hair growth (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 203)
  • Anemia (By promoting haemopoiesis) (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 203)

Generally Panax increases vitatily and the body’s ability to withstand stress. It does this by:

  • Acting on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal cortex,
  • Restoring and strengthening the body’s immune system
  • Promotes longevity, growth and metabolism of normal body cells (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)

 

Traditional

  • Heart failure (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Dyspepsia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Asthma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Organ prolapse (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Spontaneous sweating (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Palpitations (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Neuralgia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Neurosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Anxiety (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Long term debility (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Menopausal symptoms (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 204)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Decoction: 0.5tsp powdered root/1 cup water. Bring to boil, simmer for 10 mins/tds
  • Tincture: (1:5 in 60%) 1-2mL (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)

 

Cautions

  • Avoid concurrent stimulents such as caffine and amphetamines (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)
  • Acute infections (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Ginseng abuse syndrome has been reported in individuals, with effects including hypertension, nervousness, insomnia, morning diarrhoea and skin reactions (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 206)
  • Pregnancy (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 207)

 

Contradictions:

  • Acute asthma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)
  • Fever (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 206)
  • Excessive menstruation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)
  • Nose bleeds (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)

Interactions

  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitor “phenolzine” (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)
  • Warfarin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)

Scutellaria lateriflora

baical_skullcap

Miro, K. (2013). Baical skullcap. Retrieved from: http://www.wellbeing.com.au/article/features/food/Baical-skullcap_1200

Botanical Name: Scutellaria lateriflora
Common name: Baical skullcap, Skullcap, Chinese Skullcap, Huang qin (Chinese) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
Family: Lamiaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)
Parts used: Aerial parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)

Constituents: Flavonoids (incl. baicalein, baicalin, scutellarein and wogonin); iridoids (incl. catalpol); volatile oil; and tannins (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)

 

Quality: In Traditional Chinese Medicine, Scutellaria lateriflora is used to clear heat and dry dampness (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218).

 

Actions

  • Nervine tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)
  • Anxiolytic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)
  • Antibacterial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
  • Antiviral (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
  • Diuretic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)

 

Indications

Traditionally used to control and treat petit mal seizures (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582). Hoffmann suggests that Skullcap may be used to treat any condition associated with “exhausted and depressive states”, by acting on the cerebro-spinal nervous system (2003, p.582).

 

Other indications include:

  • Premenstrual tension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)
  • Nervous exhaustion
  • Post-febrile nervous weakness
  • Chorea
  • Hysteria
  • Agitation
  • Epileptiform convulsions
  • Insomnia
  • Restless sleep

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

Dried herb: 6-15g/day

Liquid extract: (1:2) 30-60mL/week or 4.5-8.5mL/day

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

  • Contraindicated in interferon therapy.
  • In Chinese medicine, Baical Skullcap is contraindicated in “cold” conditions.

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Combinations: According to Hoffmann, Scutellaria lateriflora combines well with Valerian (1990, p. 233)

 

Baical Skullcap is an ingredient in popular Chinese/Japanese formulation “Minor Bupleurum Combination* (Xiao Chai Hu Tang in Chinese). This combination is most often used in the treatment of liver disease and bronchial asthma (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224).

 

* Bupleureum falcatum, Scutellaria baicalensis, Pinellia ternata, Panax ginseng, Zizyphus jujuba, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Zingiber officinalis

Bacopa monniera

bacopa-monnieri-isp

Herbal Extracts Plus. (2012). BACOPA MONNIERI. Retrieved from: http://www.herbalextractsplus.com/bacopa-monnieri.html

Botanical Name: Bacopa monniera
Common name: Bacopa, Brahmi (Sanskrit) (not to be confused with Gotu Kola), Indian pennywort (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 263)
Family: Scrophulariaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 263)
Parts used: Aerial parts (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 263)

Constituents: Dammarene-type saponins; Bacosaponins; Alkaloids (brahmine and herpestine); Flavonoids; Phytosterols; Luteolin; and Phenylethanoid glycosides (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 263)

 

Actions:

  • Antioxidant
  • Neuroprotective
  • Antidepressant
  • Anti-ulcer
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Hepatoprotectice
  • Adaptogen (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 263-264)

Associated with

  • Mast cell stabilization
  • Increases thyroid hormone levels
  • Antispasmodic (smooth muscle)
  • Anticlastogenic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 264)

 

History: Bacopa monniera has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for almost 3000 years. A notable nervine tonic, Bacopa monniera is classified as ‘Medhya rasayana’ as a medicinal plant that rejuvenates memory and interlect. The herb’s brain tonic potential has now gained a reputation in modern western herbal medicine (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 263).

 

Indications

Traditional indications include:

  • Asthma
  • Mental disorders
  • Epilepsy (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Clinical trails have shown potential for Bacopa in:

  • Cognition (B grade evidence)
  • Anxiety
  • Epilepsy
  • Irritable bowel Syndrome
  • Memory enhancement (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

Dried herb: 5-10g/day

Fluid extract: (1:2) 5-13mL/day (in divided doses)

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 266)

 

Cautions

  • Caution advised in hyperthyroidism
  • May cause gastrointestinal symptoms in individuals with celiac disease, fat malabsorption, vitamin A, D, E and K deficiency or dyspepsia due to high saponin content.

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 266)

 

Interactions

  • Drugs or herbs metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzyme
  • Thyroid medication
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Sedatives

(Natural Standard, 2014)

Crataeva nurvala

amara02222

Forst, G. (1786). Crataeva religiosa -Tempelbaum – Temple Plant. Übersetzt von Alois Payer. Retrieved from: http://www.payer.de/amarakosa/amara205a.htm

Botanical Name: Crataeva nurvala

Common name: Crateva, Varuna (Sanskrit), Varun (Hindi), Buch-Hum.

Family: Capparidaceae (Bhattacharjee, Shashindara & Ashwathanaryana, 2012, p. 1162)

Parts used: Steam and root bark (Premila, 2006, p. 157)

 

Qualities: The bark is hot and bitter with a sharp, sweet taste (Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162)

 

Constituents:

  • Alkaloids: incl. cadabicine, cadabicine diacetate and cadabicine dimethyl ether
  • Sterols: incl. diosgenin, b-sitosterol
  • Flavonoids: incl. rutin and quercitin
  • Isothiocyanate glucoside: glucoapparin
  • Saponins,
  • Triterpenes, notably lupeol
  • Tannins
  • Glucosinolates
  • Phytosterols

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162; Premila, 2006, pp. 157-158).

 

Actions:

Active principle “lupeol” has potential diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-rheumatic, contraceptive, rubefacient and vesicant actions (Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162).

 

Additional traditional actions include

  • Bitter tonic
  • Laxative
  • Anti-emetic

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162).

 

Indications

Traditional Indications include:

  • Urolithiasis
  • Urinary infections
  • Kidney and bladder stones
  • Promote appetite

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, pp. 1162-1163; Premila, 2006, p. 157)

  • Breathing problems
  • Fever
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Weak immune system
  • Wound healing
  • Memory loss
  • Heart and lung weakness
  • Decrease secretion of bile and phlegm
  • Hepatitis
  • Edema
  • Ascites arthritis
  • Jaundice
  • Ecezma
  • Rabies
  • Birth control
  • Irregular menstruation
  • Convulsions
  • Tympanites

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, pp. 1162-1163).

  • Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
  • Rheumatism (internally and externally)

(Premila, 2006, p. 157)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

Decoction: In one trail a stem bark decoction of 1 part stem bark/16 parts water/tid for a period of 6 months in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy found to relieve related symptoms (Premila, 2006, p. 157)

Herbalists recommend around 3,000 – 6,000 mg crude herb per day (Herbosophy, 2014).