Vitex agnus castus

Vitex_agnus-castus

Bauer, F. (1831). Vitex agnus-castus. Retrieved from: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/scientific-resources/natural-resources/homeopathy/database/index.jsp?row=&img=2&action=browse&searchterm=&remedy=&remcode=30

Botanical Name: Vitex agnus castus
Common name: Chaste tree, vitex, Monk’s pepper (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 220)
Family: Labiatae (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 220)
Parts used: ripe fruits (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 220)

History/Folklore: The herb has being used traditionally for gynaecological conditions such as promoting menstruation (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 220). The berries have long been considered a symbol of chastity, and were used in the Middle ages to suppress sexual excitability and was used by wonks to suppress libido (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 489). The Eclectics used the herb as a galactagogue, emmenagogue, to ‘repress the sexual passions’, for impotence, sexual melancholia, sexual irritability, melancholia and mild dementia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 489).

Constituents: Essential oil (incl. monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, sabinene, cineole, β-caryophyllene & trans-β-farnesence); Flavonoids (incl. methoxylated flavones such as casticin, eupatorin and penduletin) and other flavonoids incl. vitexin and orientin; iridoid glycosides (incl. aucubin and agnuside); diterpenes (incl. rotundifuran, vitexilactone, vitetrifolin B and C and viteagnusins A-I) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 491)

Actions

  • Prolactin inhibitor (Braun & Cohen, 2007, pp. 220-221; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 489)
  • Dopamine agonist (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 489)
  • Oestrogen-receptor binding (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 221)
  • Increases progesterone levels (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 221)
    • By enhancingcorpus luteal development via dopaminergic activity on the anterior pituitary (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 489)
  • Opioid receptor (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 221)
    • Vitex works on the μ-opiate receptor, which is the primary action site for β-endorphon (in vivo), a peptide which assists in regulating the menstrual cycle through inhibition of the hyperthalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 221)
  • Galactagogue (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 489; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 595)
  • Antitumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 493)
  • Antimicrobial (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 493)
  • Uterine tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 595)

Indications

  • Premenstrual syndrome (Braun & Cohen, 2007, pp. 221-222; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 489)
  • Mastalgia (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 222)
  • Menstrual cycle irregularities (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 222; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 489)
  • Poor lactation (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 222; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 489)
  • Fertility disorders (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 222)
  • Acne vulgaris (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 223)
  • Menopausal symptoms (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 223)
  • Help expel placenta after birth (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 223)
  • Fibroids (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 223)
  • Premature ovarian failure (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 223)
  • Cystic hyperplasia of the endometrium (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 489)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 1.0-2.5mL/day or 6-18mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 143)
  • Tincture (1:5 in 60%): 2.5mL/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 596)

Cautions

  • Traditionally not recommended in pregnancy (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 223)

Contraindications

  • Oestrogen or progesterone sensitive tumors (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 223)

Interactions

  • May have an antagonistic reaction on dopamine receptor antagonists (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 223)
  • Oral contraceptives may interfere with the effectiveness of Vitex (Braun & Cohen, 2007, p. 223)
Advertisements

Curcuma longa

turmeric-info0
HowStuffWorks. (2014). Tumeric. Retrieved from: http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/botany/turmeric-info.htm

Turmeric-Root-and-Powder-1024x666
Christie, D. (2014). Top 5 Benefits of Tumeric. Retrieved from: http://www.harboursidefitness.com.au/blog-post/top-5-benefits-of-turmeric/

Botanical Name: Curcuma longa
Common name: Tumeric, Indian saffron, jianghuang (Chinese), shati (Sanskrit) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900)
Family: Zingeberaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)
Parts used: root and rhizome Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)

Quality: Pungent, bitter, astringent, heating (Pole, 2006, p. 282). In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is used to dry damp and move stagnation in the blood (Pole, 2006, p. 282).

History/Folklore: Native to India and South-East Asia, Tumeric has been recorded in medical texts dating back to 600BC (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Constituents: Essential oil (sesquiterpene ketones, zingiberene, phellandrene, sabinene, cineole and borneol); Yellow pigments “diarylheptanoids” or “curcuminoids” (incl. curcumin) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901).

Yellow pigment curcumin has been shown to influence transcription factors, cytokines, growth factors, kinases and other enzymes (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 902-903; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Anti-platelet (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 903; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 904; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Hepatoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 904-905)
  • Nephroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 904-905)
  • Neuroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 905)
  • Cardioprotective and vasoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 905)
  • Hypolipidaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 905-906)
  • Antibacterial (Pole, 2006, p. 282; Zorotchian Moghadamtousi, Abdul Kadir, Hassandarvish, Tajik, Abubakar & Zandi, 2014, p. 2)
  • Antimicrobial (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 906-907)
  • Antiparasitic (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 907)
  • Antiviral (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, pp. 2-3)
  • Antiparasitic (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 2)
  • Antitumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 908)
  • Anti-depressant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 909)
  • Radioprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Antiallergic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Emmenagogue (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Blood tonic (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Carminative (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Alterative (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Vulunary (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Anti-carcinogenic (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • TCM specific: blood and qi tonifier with analgesic properties (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Indications

  • Cancer prevention (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 907)
  • Cystic fibrosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 909)
  • HIV/AIDS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
    • One human trial exhibited an increase in CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte counts (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
    • Another human trial showed relief of HIV-associated chronic diarrhoea (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Eye disorders (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 911)
  • Genetic diseases (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 911)
  • Alzehimer’s disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 916)
  • Skin conditions (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 916)
  • Candida (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 7)
  • Helicobacter pylori (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 8)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:1): 5-14mL/day
  • 4g powdered tumeric mixed with water/1-2 day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)

Cautions

  • Doses > 15g/day should not be administered long term or in conjunction with anti-platelet or anti-coagulant medication (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Individuals complaining of hair loss (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Women trying to conceive (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Pregnancy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 918)

Contraindications

  • Biliary tract obstruction (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is contraindicated in high vāta and pitta (Pole, 2006, p. 283).
  • Acute jaundice and hepatitis (Pole, 2006, p. 283).

Combinations

  • For liver congestion: combine with kutki, bhumiamalaki and pippali (Pole, 2006, p. 283)
  • Small amounts of long/black pepper enhances anti-inflammatory activity of turmeric (Pole, 2006, p. 283)
  • For congestion of the lower abdomen and menstrual imbalance: combine with guggulu, mustaka and purnarnava (Pole, 2006, p. 283)

Interactions: Turmeric may potentiate effects of anti-platelet or anticoagulant medications (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 918).

Vitis vinifera

nebbiolo

Giovanni, D. (2013). Barbaresco DOCG. Retrieved from: http://demarie.com/our-wines/barbaresco-docg/?lang=en

Botanical Name: Vitis vinifera
Common name: Grape, Grapeseed extract (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 565)
Family: Vitaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 565)
Parts used: seeds, grape skins (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 565)

Constituents: Proanthocyanidins and stilbenes (incl. resveratrol and viniferins) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 565)

Actions

  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 233)
  • Anti-carcinogenic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566)
  • Anti-tumor (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566)
  • Cardioprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 566)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 567)
  • Vasoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 233)

 

Indications

  • Chronic venus insufficiency (Natural Standard, 2014; Kiesewetter, Koscielny, Kalus, Vix, Peil, Petrini, Van Toor, & de Mey, 2000)
  • Fluid retentions/peripheral venous insufficiency/capillary resistance (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 567)
  • OEdema (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Diabetic retinopathy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Diabetic nephropahy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Eye strain (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Hyperlidaemia (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Atherosclerosis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Dermal wound healing (topical) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Chloasma/Melasma (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Pancreatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Sun burn (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 568)
  • Protection against chemical toxicity (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569; Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Dosage & Preparation: Fluid extract (1:1): 20-40mL/week (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)

Cautions & Contraindications: Adverse effects are uncommon (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)

Interactions:

  • Theoretically additive effect when combined with anti-platelet medication (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)
  • Theoretical increased risk of bleeding when used in conjunction with anticoagulant drugs (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)
  • Tannins may decrease iron absorption, best to take at least 2 hrs apart (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 569)

Zingiber officinalis

1
Harvest Newsletter. (2011). Grow Local Ginger. Retrieved from: http://archive.constantcontact.com/fs033/1106770492400/archive/1107516061313.html

Botanical Name: Zingiber officinalis
Common name: Ginger
Family: Zinziberaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
Parts used: rhizome (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)

History/Folklore: Medicinal use of ginger is recorded in early Sanskrit and Chinese texts as well as in Ancient Greek, Roman and Arabic medical literature (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578).

Constituents: Essential oil (incl. zingiberene, sesquiphellandrene and β-bisabolene); gingerols and shogoals (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)

Actions

  • Carminative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Antiemetic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Peripheral circulatory stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Anti-platelet (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 578, 582)
  • Diaphoretic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578: Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Digestive stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Anti-ulcer (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 581)
  • Anti-microbial (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 583)
  • Antiparasitic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 583)
  • Anti-tumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Rubefacient (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Cholagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)

 

Indications

  • Motion sickness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Morning sickness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Post-operative and drug induced nausea (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 578-579)
  • Osteoarthritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 570)
  • Gastroparesis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • Chilbains (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Stimulate appetite (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Chemotherapy-induce nausea (Ryan, Heckler, Roscoe, Dakhil, Kirshner, Flynn, Hickok & Morrow, 2011)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Fresh rhizome: 500-1000mg/tds
  • Dried rhizome: 500mg/2-4 times a day
  • Liquid extract (1:2): 0.7-3mL/day
  • Tincture (1:5): 1.7-7.5ml/day (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)

 

Cautions

  • May enhance bioavailability of other medications (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • May cause heart burn (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • May have a blood thinning effect (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Some sources say it is unsuitable for morning sickness and results are conflicting (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Treatment during pregnancy should not exceed a daily dose of 2g of dried ginger (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)
  • Inhibits thromboxane synthase and acts as a prostaglandin agonist (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)

 

Contraindications:

  • Gallstones (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)

Interactions:

  • Increases bioavilability of other drugs by increasing absorption from GI tract and/or protecting the drug from metabolized by the liver’s first phase (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591).
  • In Individuals already taking blood thinning medication, daily dose of ginger should not exceed 4g (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)
  • May increase bleeding when combined with other anti-coagulants (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)

Withania somnifera

WITHANIsomNIFERA
Nijemegen, B. J. (n.d.). Withania somnifers. Retrieved from: http://www.oocities.org/eagal14u/WithaniasSomnifera.html

Botanical name: Withania somnifera
Common Name: Ashwagandha, “Indian Ginseng”, Winter Cherry, Ajagandha, Karaj Hindi, Saam Al Ferakt (Ven Murthy et al., 2010, Abstract).
Family: Solanaceae (Ven Murthy et al., 2010, Abstract)
Part used: Root, leaves and bark (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949)

Active constituents: Ashwagandha contains steroidal alkaloids and lactones, which together are known as “withanoilides” (Ojha & Arya, 2009, p.156).

Origin: Native to South Asia, Central Asia and Africa, Ashwagandha is traditionally used in ayurvedic medicine (Ven Murthy et al., 2010, Abstract)

Qualities: Described as “medharasayan” in Ayurvedic medicine, which means ‘promoter of learning and memory revival’ (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949)

 

Actions

  • Adaptogen (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949; Ven Murthy et al., 2010, Abstract)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949; Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335; Wollen, 2010, p. 231)
  • Anti-tumor, antiproliferative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949; Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335)
  • Anti-stress (Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335; Wollen, 2010, p. 231)
  • Antioxidant (Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335; Wollen, 2010, p. 231)
  • Immunomodulator (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949; Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335)
  • Hematopoietic (Mishra et al., 2000, p. 335)
  • Mild sedative (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 949)
  • Tonic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 949)

 

Indications:

Rheumatologic conditions and Musculoskeletal disorders

Bone and Mills discuss the traditional indication in India and the Middle East in rheumatic pain (2013, p. 949). Mishra suggests that Ashwaganda’s use in rheumatologic conditions is likely a result of the herbs anti-inflammatory properties (2000, p. 335) and that the herb is indicated in variety musculoskeletal conditions (2000, p. 334).

 

Anxiety and Stress related physiological effects

Bone & Mills state that Ashwaganda indication in both anxiety and pathology associated with negative impact of stress is supported by clinical trials (2013, p. 949). Ashwaganda has been trialed for it’s assistance in the treatment of anxiety with some positive results (Bhattacharya, Bhattacharya, Sairam & Ghosal, 2000, Abstract). A recent randomized control trial found that Ashwaganda reduced symptoms of stress (Wollen, 2010, p.231).

 

Cardiovascular Disease

Withanolides of Ashwaganda have demonstrated cardiotonic activity including increasing contractively and relaxation, and decreasing preload (Ojha & Arya, 2009, pp. 156-157). While studies surrounding around Ashwaganda’s cardiovascular effects are fairly preliminary, with many based around animal models, evidence is encouraging and further research is warranted (Ojha & Arya, 2009, p.156).

 

Growth improvement in children (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 949)

Bone & Mills comment on Ashwaganda’s benefit in child growth (2010, p. 949). Withania is a source of iron (Mishra at al., 2000, p. 336, and is described as an anti-anemic by Bone & Mills (2010, p.949). Iron is also an important nutrient in fetal development and thus the herb could have a positive effect in increasing iron levels in an individual (Yang, 2012, pp. 65-69.)

 

Conditions associated with aging

Aging results in a progressive shift in the body’s homeostatic adaptive responses, increasing the body’s vulnerability to both stress and disease (Tortora & Derrickson, 2012, p. 105). As discussed previously, Ashwaganda’s role as an adaptogen and anti-stress herb allows non-specific support in such stressors encountered with aging (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 949). Many of the contemporary indications are pathology associated with aging such as musculoskeletal disorders and cardiovascular disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949).

 

Alzheimer’s Disease

Withanolides possess neuroprotective properties (Wollen, 2010, p. 213). In vitro research demonstrated Ashwaganda’s ability to repair damage axons, dendrites and synapses, suggesting the potential of the herb in the indication of Alzheimer’s Disease (Wollen, 2010, p. 231). Human trials demonstrated the herbs ability to reduce symtoms associated with stress including forgetfulness and inability to concentrate (Wollen, 2010, p. 231).

 

Traditional Use:

In Ayurveda Ashwaganda root is indicated in a number of vata and kapha conditions, and is seen as an aphrodisiac, tonic and depurative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949). In the Middle East the root is used as a sedative, hypnotic and for rheumatic pains (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949)

 

Preparation: Decoction, liquid extract, capsules, tablet (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 949)

 

Dose:

  • Capsule: 1-6g in capsule form/day
  • Decoction: 1 part root 10 parts water/tds
  • Fluid extract: 2-4mL/tds

 

Cautions and Contradictions: Wollen states that no adverse effects were found in doses up to 500mg/day (2010, p. 231)

Tabebuia avellanedae

image1

Image I

Image 3

Image II

Botanical Name: Tabebuia avellanedae

Common name: Pau d-arco, taheebo (Costa, Iovin, Isaac, Pesavento, Seamon, Tran, Regina & Windsor, 2013).

Family: Bignoneaceae (Costa et al., 2013).

Parts used: Bark (Heinrich, Barnes, Gibbons & Williamson, 2012, p. 260)

 

Constituents

  • Naohthoquinones: Lapachol, Deosylapachol, a- and b-lapachone
  • Anthraquinones
  • Benzoic acid
  • Benzaldehyde dericatives

(Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 262)

 

Actions

  • Immunostimulant
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anti-cancer
  • Anti-tumor
  • Anti-bacterial, anti-fungal & anti-viral

(Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 262)

 

Indications (traditional)

Traditionally used in South America as an anti-cancer treatment, and to treat various infectious diseases including protozoal, bacterial, fungal and viral infections (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 262).

The genus Tabebuia consists of a range of tropical plants native to Central and South America. Tabebuia avellanedae is traditionally used in folk medicine to treat bacterial infections, cancer, inflammatory disease and peptic ulcers (Costa et al., 2013).

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Capsule: 1mg/tds
  • Infusion: 1tsp loose bark/1 cup water/2-8 times a day
  • Tincture: (1:5) 1mL/2-3 times a day

(Costa, 2013)

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

  • Cytotoxic in large doses (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 262)
  • Theoretically may increase bleeding and is therefore contraindicated in individuals with bleeding disorders, before or after surgery and in individuals taking anti-coagulant or antiplatelet medication (Costa et al., 2013)
  • Contraindicated in pregnancy due to presence of laphachol, which has demonstrated foetal mortality in animal studies (Costa et al., 2013).

 

REFERENCE
Costa, D., Iovin, R., Isaac, R. Pesavento, S., Seamon, E., Tran, D., Regina, C., & Windsor, R. (2013). Pau d’arco (Tabebuia spp.). Natural Standard Professional Monograph. Retrieved from: http://www.naturalstandard.com.ezproxy.think.edu.au/databases/herbssupplements/paudarco.asp?

Heinrich, M., Barnes, J., Gibbons, S., & Williamson, E. (2012). Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Image I: Karthikeyan., S. (2014). Flowering Trees. Retrieved from: http://www.wildwanderer.com/blog/?page_id=90

Image II: Roxo, I. (n.d.). Panoramio. Retrieved from: http://www.panoramio.com/photo/2003791

Arctium lappa

Screen Shot 2014-04-11 at 6.13.54 PM

Image I

arctium_lappa_c23

Image II

Botanical Name: Arctium lappa
Common name: Burdock (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 528)
Family: Asteraceae(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 528)
Parts used: Root, rhizome, leaf (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 528)

Constituents

  • Lignans: arctigen, arctiin, matairesinol
  • Polyacetylenes
  • Carbohydrates: inulin, mucilage, pectin
  • Phenolic acids

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 528)

 

Actions

  • Alterative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 528; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 318)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 528)
  • Bitter (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 528)
  • Antimicrobial activity (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 529)
  • Potential anti-tumour and protection against mutagenicity (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 529)

 

Indications

  • Skin conditions that result in dry and scaly patches (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 528)
  • Eczema (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 318; Hoffmann 2003, p. 528)
  • Dandruff (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 528)
  • Psoriasis (long-term use) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 528)
  • Rheumatic complaints associated with psoriasis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 528)
  • Anorexia nervosa: increases appetite and stimulates digestive juice secretion as a bitter (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 528)
  • Used to support kidney function (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 528)
  • Cystitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 528)
  • As a general alterative burdock generally acts on skin, kidneys, mucus and serious membranes (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 529)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Tincture (1:5): 2-4mL/tds

Decocotion: 1tsp root/1cup of water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 528)

 

Cautions

Photo-sensitivity reactions have been reported from external contact with celery stems, likely due to presence of furanocoumarines (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 528)

 

Contradictions

Known allergy (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 529)

 

Interactions

One animal study in rats showed that dietary fiber taken with burdock root provided protection against toxicity from artifical food colourings (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 529).

 

Combinations

For skin problems combines with Yellow dock, Red colover or cleavers (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 186)

 

REFERENCE
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Image I: Farmalem. (2008). Tinture Madri della Farmacia Santi Cosma e Damiano. Retrieved from: http://www.farmaciasanticosmaedamiano.com/tinture_madri

Image II: Mackrell, C. (2005). Arctium lappa, 1 of 4. Retrieved from: http://www.floralimages.co.uk/page.php?taxon=arctium_lappa,1