Ginkgo biloba

896px-Ginkgo_biloba_SZ136

Von Siebold, P. F., & Zuccarini, J. G. (1870). Flora Japonica, Sectio Prima (Tafelband). Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ginkgo_biloba_SZ136.png

Botanical Name: Ginkgo biloba
Common name: Ginko (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
Family: Ginkoaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597)
Parts used: Leaf, seed kernel (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)

Folklore: Perhaps one of the oldest living tree species, Ginko’s origin is believe to be remote mountainous valleys of Zhejiang. First introduced into Europe in 1690 by Botanist Engelbert Kaempfer, up until 350 years ago the medicinal knowledge was restricted to China (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 493). Traditional therapeutic use is not well documented (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597).

Constituents:

  • Flavonols (inlc. quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, quercetin-3-beta-D-glucoside, quercitrin and rutin and coumaric acid esters of these flavonoids)
  • Terpene lactones (“terpenoids”) including bilobalide and ginkgolides A, B, C & J.
  • Biflavonoids, ginkgolic acids, sterols, procyanidins and polysaccharides

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597)

 

Actions

  • Anti –platelet activating factor (PAF) activity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Tissue perfusion enhancer (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Circulatory stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Nootropic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Neuroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anxiolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Adaptogen (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Vasodilator (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Digestive bitter (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Uterine Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)

 

Indications

  • Restricted cerebral blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Memory and/or cognitive impairment (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Fatigue (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Stroke (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Vertigo (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Acute cochlear deafness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Tinnitus of vascular origin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Peripheral arterial disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Favorable modification or cardiovascular risk (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Early stages of Alzheimer’s-type dementia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Multi-infarct dementia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Reduced retinal blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Normal tension glaucoma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Age-related muscular degeneration (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Congestive dysmenorrhea and PMS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Hypoxia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anxiety (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Adjuvant therapy in chronic schizophrenia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Symptoms associated with Multiple Sclerosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Allergic conjunctivitis (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Asthma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Protections from radiation damage (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Idiopathic oedema (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Vitilogo (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

120-140 standardized extract/day

120-140mg dry extract (in divided doses)/day

4-8 weeks treatment for optimal results (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 554)

 

Cautions

  • Caution should be taken in individuals with coagulation disorders when used in conjunction with antiplatelet or anticoagulant medication, although clinical trials suggesting this are insufficient (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617).
  • Individuals undergoing surgery are advised to cease taking it 5-7 days prior due to potential (minor) risk of increased blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617)

 

Contraindications:

  • Known sensitivity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617)
  • If unusual bleeding or bruising occurs cease treatment immedietly (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 505)

 

Interactions: Theoretically Ginko may increase bleeding risk when taken in conjunction with Warfarin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 505)

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Zizyphus spinosa

201212050952596831

Maya. (2010). Zizyphus spinosa cv Suanzao. Retrieved from: http://e.zgqjz.com/2012/12/05/1180.htm

Botanical Name: Zizyphus spinosa
Common name: Suan zao ren (Chinese), sour jujube, spiny ziziphus, wild ziziphus (Natural Standard, 2014)
Family: Rhamnaceae (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
Parts used: Seed and stem bark (Natural Standard, 2014)

Quality: sour, sweet taste and neutral temperature (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)

Constituents: Saponins, alkaloids, flavones and vitamin C (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)

Actions

  • Analgesic (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Antipyretic (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Anxiolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 279)
  • Hypnotic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 274)
  • Sedative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 274)

 

Indications

  • Hypertension (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Insomnia (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Irritability (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Anxiety (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 278)
  • Nocturnal emissions (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • 10-30g/day (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)

 

Cautions

  • Pregnancy (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 447)

 

Contraindications:

  • TCM specific: severe diarrhoea and repletion heat (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 447)
  • Individuals with a latex allergy (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Individuals with allergy to Rhamnaceae (buckthorn) family (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Due to sedative nature, individuals should not operate heavy machinery under the influence of this herb (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Combinations: In TCM Ziziphus is an ingredient in Suan Zao Ren Tang decoction, which is administered for insomnia, nocturnal emissions, somnolence, neurasthenia, menopausal symptoms and excessive worrying (Natural Standard, 2014).

 

Interactions:

  • May potentialte effects of barbiturates and other sedative medications (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Decreases the effect of caffeine (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)

Panax ginseng

panax_ginseng

Johal, R. (2012). Ginseng and Ginkgo Biloba Complex shows promise for mental tasks. Retrieved from: http://www.predatornutrition.com/blog/2012/03/08/ginseng-and-ginkgo-biloba-complex-shows-promise-for-mental-tasks/

Botanical Name: Panax ginseng
Common name: Korean Ginseng, Panax, Ren Shen (Mandarine), Ninjin (Japanese) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
Family: Araliaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)
Parts used: Root (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)

Folklore and traditional use: In Chinese, Gin referres to “man” and seng to “essence” (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 199). The name panax is said to be derived from the Greek word pancea meaning “cure all” (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628). It is considered to be the most potent Qi tonic in Chinese Medicine (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 199), and is indicated in collapsed Qi conditions (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628). It is proposed to:

  • Generates fluids
  • Tonify lungs and stomach
  • Strengthens the spleen
  • Calms the spirit manifestation of heart Qi.

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)

 

Traditional TCM indications include:

  • Shallow or labored breathing
  • Lethargy
  • Chest and abdominal distention
  • Palpitations with anxiety
  • Insomnia
  • Restlessness

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)

In Western herbal medicine the herb is traditionally used as a mild stomachic, tonic, and a stimulant for anorexia and nervous related digestive complaints (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628).

Having wide range pharmacological properties, ginseng appears to have whole body effects as well as having a profound influence on the metabolism of an individual cell (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628). There is no equivalent concept or treatment in contemporary biomedicine (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628). Recent western studies fail to establish the efficiency of ginseng root extract to support traditional indications (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 199).

 

Constituents: Ginsenosides (a complex mixture of triterpene dammarane and oleanane saponins); Polysaccarhides; Essential oil; Diacetylenes; Peptides; Trilinolein; and Arginine (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 629)

 

Actions

  • Adaptogen (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628: Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)
  • Tonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)
  • Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)
  • Immunomodulator (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 200)
  • Cardiotonic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Hypoglycemic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 200)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 200)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 200)
  • Anti-oxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 203)
  • Anxiolytic (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 203)

 

Indications

Clinical

  • Improve cerebro-vascular deficit (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Improve cognitive performance (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Congestive heart failure (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Cancer prevention (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Depressed bone marrow associated with radiation therapy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Erectile dysfunction (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 204)
  • Male fertility problems (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Type 2 diabeties (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Acne (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 204)
  • Hair growth (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 203)
  • Anemia (By promoting haemopoiesis) (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 203)

Generally Panax increases vitatily and the body’s ability to withstand stress. It does this by:

  • Acting on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal cortex,
  • Restoring and strengthening the body’s immune system
  • Promotes longevity, growth and metabolism of normal body cells (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)

 

Traditional

  • Heart failure (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Dyspepsia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Asthma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Organ prolapse (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Spontaneous sweating (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Palpitations (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Neuralgia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Neurosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Anxiety (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Long term debility (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Menopausal symptoms (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 204)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Decoction: 0.5tsp powdered root/1 cup water. Bring to boil, simmer for 10 mins/tds
  • Tincture: (1:5 in 60%) 1-2mL (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)

 

Cautions

  • Avoid concurrent stimulents such as caffine and amphetamines (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)
  • Acute infections (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 628)
  • Ginseng abuse syndrome has been reported in individuals, with effects including hypertension, nervousness, insomnia, morning diarrhoea and skin reactions (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 206)
  • Pregnancy (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 207)

 

Contradictions:

  • Acute asthma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)
  • Fever (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 206)
  • Excessive menstruation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)
  • Nose bleeds (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)

Interactions

  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitor “phenolzine” (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)
  • Warfarin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 644)

Valeriana officinalis

val1
Grieve M, (1971). Figure 1: Valeriana officinalis. Retrieved from: http://www.itmonline.org/arts/valerian.htm#figure%201

Botanical Name: Valeriana officinalis
Common name: Valerian
Family: Valerianaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
Parts used: Rhizome, stolon, root (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)

Folklore and traditional use:

  • Medicinal use of Valarian dates back to the Dioscordis and Galen, in which the plant was administered for epilepsy.
  • In was used during World War II for sleep promotion amongst civilians.
  • IN Europe, Valarian oil was used as a remedy for cholera.
  • The Eclectricts used the herb as a cerebral stimulant in chorea, hysteria (associated with mental depression) and in fever.
  • IN Ayurvedic medicine Valarian was used for hysteria, neurosis and epilepsy.

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)

 

Constituents:

  • Iridoids or “valepotriates” (including valtrate, isovaltrate, didrovaltrate and acevaltrate.
  • Essential oil: containing monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and carboxylic compounds
  • Valerenic acid (non-volatile cyclopentane sesquiterpenes)

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 582)

 

Actions

  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Anxiolytic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Mild Sedative (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Hypnotic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Spasmolytic/Antispasmodic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)

 

Indications

  • Insomnia (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Restlessness (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Nervous tension (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Depression (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Anxiety (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Alleviation of symptoms of benzodiazepine withdrawal (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Stress related heart conditions (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Dried root: 3-9g /day
  • Liquid extract: (1:2) 2-6mL / day
  • Tincture: (1:5) 5-15mL /day

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)

 

Cautions & Contradictions: None known (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 587)

 

Interactions: Although no reports have been made, Valarinan may theoretically increase effects of CNS depressants when taken in conjunction (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 587).

 

Combinations:

  • For depression and anxiety combines with Hypericum perforatum (Bone, 2003, p. 447)
  • For insomnia combine with Melissa officinalis or Humulus lupulus (Bone, 2003, p. 447)

Piper methysticum

kava-piper_methysticum1

Nature Pacific PTY LTD. (2004). Kava Kava. Retrieved from: http://www.naturepacific.com/contents/en-us/d59_kava.html

Botanical Name: Piper methysticum
Common name: Kava Kava
Family: Piperaceae
Parts used: Rhizome

 

Folklore and traditional use: Kava kava root prepared as a beverage has a long history of use in welcoming ceremonies in the Pacific Islands (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 246).

Kava kava has been used both medicinally and ceremoniallyy in the Pacific region (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456).

  • In Fiji it is used to treat bladder and kidney disease, as a diuretic, for coughs, colds and a sore throat.
  • In Samoa the root is used to treat gonorrhea.
  • In Hawaii it use to be used to treat skin disorders, to sooth nerves, induce sleep, to treat general debility, colds and chills.
  • In traditional Polynesian medicine it was used topically to treat skin disease, leprosy.
  • In Western herbal medicine, kava was indicated in a range of genitourinary tract ailments, such as gonorrhea, vaginitis and nocturnal incontinence.
  • The Eclectics recommended kava for neuralgia, toothache, earache, ocular pain, dizziness, despondency, anorexia, dyspepsia, intestinal catarrh, hemorrhoids and renal colic.

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)

 

Constituents:

  • Resin containing 6-stytly-4-methoxy-alpha-pyrone derivatives also known as ‘kava lactones’ or ‘kava pyrones’ including:
    • kavain
    • Dehydrokavain (DHK)
    • Methysticin
    • Dihydromethysticin
    • Yangonin
    • Desmethoxyyangonin
  • Flavonoids (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 457)

 

Actions

  • Anxiolytic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456; Bone, 2003, p. 291)
  • Hypnotic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Mild sedative (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Skeletal muscle relaxant (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Local anesthetic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Mild analgesic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Relaxing nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Antifungal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Anticonvulsant (Bone, 2003, p. 291)

 

Indications

  • General Anxiety Disorder (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 246)
  • Nervous tension (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Restlessness (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Mild depression (of non-psychotic origin) (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Insomnia (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 247)
  • Hoffmann suggests that kava is good for anxiety without dampening alertness (administered at a normal therapeutic dose) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Comparable to benzodiazepines in the treatment of anxiety, without the side effects (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573) this also suggests kava kava’s benefit in the withdrawal of benzodiazepine drugs (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 247).
  • Does not impair reaction time, and appears to improve concentration (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)

 

Preparation & Dosage: Commission E recommends preparations equivalent to 20-120mg of kavalactones/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)

 

Cautions

  • A side effect of over consumption referred to as “kava dermopathy”, manifests as a skin rash, non-inflammatory dryness and scaling of skin. This is most often seen with heavy, long-term consumers. However this was also observed in clinical trials with doses of 300-800mg of isolated constituent dihydromethystici (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573).
  • Hepatotoxicity has been reported, leading to restrictions in availability in some countries (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Caution to be taken in elderly individuals with Parkinson’s disease due to potential dopamine antagonism (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 452)
  • Liver conditions (Bone, 2003, p. 291)

 

Contradictions:

According to Commission E Kava kava is contraindicated in:

  • Pregnancy
  • Lactation
  • Endogenous depression

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 462)

 

Interactions: May increase effects of substances that act upon the central nervous system (alcohol, barbiturates, psycopharmaceutical agents) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)

Passiflora incarnata

Passiflora_incarnata

Cécilia COURTINARD. (n.d.). La Passiflora. Retrieved from: http://coclo63.free.fr/botanique.html

Passiflora incarnata & Hymenoptera

Jackson, L. (2003). Passiflora incarnata/Purple Passionflower. Retrieved from: http://www.floridanature.org/species.asp?species=passiflora_incarnata

Botanical Name: Passiflora incarnata
Common name: Passionflower
Family: Passifloraceae
Parts used: Aerial Parts (Bone, 2003, p. 362)

Constituents:

  • Alkaloids (harman, harmaline, harmol, harmine, harmalol, passaflorine)
  • Flavonoids (apigenin, homoorientin, isovitexin, kemferol, luteolin, orientin, quercetin, rutin, saoibaretin, saponarin and vitexin.)

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)

 

Folklore/History: The name passionflower has been said to be derived from the plants similarity to the “crown of thorns” worn by Christ during the crucifixion (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 288)

Native Americas used passionflower topically for ringworm, swelling and sore eyes (Bone, 2003, p. 363)

 

Actions

  • Anxiolytic (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 288; Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Sedative (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 288; Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Hypnotic (Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Anodyne (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)
  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)

 

Indications (contemporary)

  • Anxiety with nervous restlessness (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 288)
  • Insomnia (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 288; Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Aphrodisiac (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 288)

Due to presence of a benzoflavone moiety, which has shown to increase the fertility and libido of male rats in vivo (Braun & Cohen, 2005, pp. 288-289).

  • Adjuvant therapy for opiate withdrawal (Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Nervous symptoms resulting in:
    • Menstrual disturbances
    • Nervous headache
    • Nervous tachycardia (Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Neuralgic pain (Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Generalized seizures, epilepsy (Bone, 2003, pp. 362-363)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 40%): 1-4mL taken once in evening to induce sleep.
  • Infusion: 1 tsp/1 cup water. Infuse for 15mins. Take before sleep or twice a day for other conditions (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)

 

Cautions & Contradictions: Excessive doses may cause drowsiness (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 289)

 

Combinations: Combine with Valeriana officinalis for insomnia (Bone, 2003, p. 362)

 

Interactions:

  • May have additive effects when combined with benzodiazepines (combination could be beneficial under medical supervision) (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 289).
  • May cause additional CNS sedation when taken in combination with barbiturates (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 289).

Eschscholtzia californica

Eschscholzia_californica_i01

Step, E., & Watson, W. (1896). Favorite Flowers of Garden and Greenhouse. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eschscholzia_californica#mediaviewer/File:Eschscholzia_californica_i01.jpg

Botanical Name: Eschscholtzia californica
Common name: California Poppy (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
Family: Papveraceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
Parts used: Dried aerial parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)

Folklore: Used by Native Americans and Hispanics for it’s sedative and analgesic effects. Traditionally prescribed for toothache in children (Bone, 2003, p. 124).

 

Constituents:

  • Alkaloids: chelerythrine (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 230)
  • Isoquinoline alkaloids (eshscholtzine and californidine) (Bone, 2003, p. 124)
  • Flavonoids (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)

 

Actions

  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
  • Hypnotic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547; Bone, 2003, p. 124)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
  • Anodyne (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
  • Anxiolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 124)
  • Mild sedative (Bone, 2003, p. 124)
  • Analgesic (Bone, 2003, p. 124)

Extracts have been shown to inhibit enzymatic degradation of catecholamines, the synthesis of adrenalin, dopamine, beta-hydroxylase and monoamine oxidase (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 230).

  • Antitumor

Alkaloid constituent chelerythrine is a well known protein kinase C inhibitor, which has antitumor activity (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 230).

  • Antiinflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 230)

 

Indications

  • Overexcitment and sleeplessness in children (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
  • Gallbladder colic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
  • Bone suggests Californian poppy to be useful in painful conditions where morphine or codeine may be used (2003, p. 124)
  • Anxiety (Bone, 2003, p. 124)
  • Disturbed sleep (Bone, 2003, p. 124)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

Tincture (1:5 in 25%)

  • To promote sleep 1-4mL at night
  • For antispasmodic indications 0.5-3mL/tds

Infusion

  • To promote restful sleep 1-2 tsp dried herb/1 cup water. Infuse 10 mins. Drink at night

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)

 

Cautions & Contradictions: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 124)

 

Combinations:

  • Combined with Corydalis cava for disturbed sleep (Bone, 2003, p. 124)

 

Interactions

  • Has additive effects when combines with other sedatives (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)