Ginkgo biloba

896px-Ginkgo_biloba_SZ136

Von Siebold, P. F., & Zuccarini, J. G. (1870). Flora Japonica, Sectio Prima (Tafelband). Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ginkgo_biloba_SZ136.png

Botanical Name: Ginkgo biloba
Common name: Ginko (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
Family: Ginkoaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597)
Parts used: Leaf, seed kernel (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)

Folklore: Perhaps one of the oldest living tree species, Ginko’s origin is believe to be remote mountainous valleys of Zhejiang. First introduced into Europe in 1690 by Botanist Engelbert Kaempfer, up until 350 years ago the medicinal knowledge was restricted to China (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 493). Traditional therapeutic use is not well documented (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597).

Constituents:

  • Flavonols (inlc. quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, quercetin-3-beta-D-glucoside, quercitrin and rutin and coumaric acid esters of these flavonoids)
  • Terpene lactones (“terpenoids”) including bilobalide and ginkgolides A, B, C & J.
  • Biflavonoids, ginkgolic acids, sterols, procyanidins and polysaccharides

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 597)

 

Actions

  • Anti –platelet activating factor (PAF) activity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Tissue perfusion enhancer (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Circulatory stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Nootropic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Neuroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anxiolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Adaptogen (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Vasodilator (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Digestive bitter (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)
  • Uterine Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 553)

 

Indications

  • Restricted cerebral blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Memory and/or cognitive impairment (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Fatigue (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Stroke (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Vertigo (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Acute cochlear deafness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Tinnitus of vascular origin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Peripheral arterial disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Favorable modification or cardiovascular risk (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Early stages of Alzheimer’s-type dementia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Multi-infarct dementia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Reduced retinal blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Normal tension glaucoma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Age-related muscular degeneration (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Congestive dysmenorrhea and PMS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Hypoxia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Anxiety (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Adjuvant therapy in chronic schizophrenia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Symptoms associated with Multiple Sclerosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Allergic conjunctivitis (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Asthma (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Protections from radiation damage (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Idiopathic oedema (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)
  • Vitilogo (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 596)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

120-140 standardized extract/day

120-140mg dry extract (in divided doses)/day

4-8 weeks treatment for optimal results (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 554)

 

Cautions

  • Caution should be taken in individuals with coagulation disorders when used in conjunction with antiplatelet or anticoagulant medication, although clinical trials suggesting this are insufficient (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617).
  • Individuals undergoing surgery are advised to cease taking it 5-7 days prior due to potential (minor) risk of increased blood flow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617)

 

Contraindications:

  • Known sensitivity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 617)
  • If unusual bleeding or bruising occurs cease treatment immedietly (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 505)

 

Interactions: Theoretically Ginko may increase bleeding risk when taken in conjunction with Warfarin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 505)

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Viscum album

Sturm04042

Stüber, K. (2006). BioLib alphabetic index of Latin plant species names. Retrieved from: http://caliban.mpiz-koeln.mpg.de/library/species/species_00365.html

Botanical Name: Viscum album
Common name: Mistletoe (European)
Family: Viscaceae (Bone, 2003, p. 329)
Parts used: Ariel Parts (Bone, 2003, p. 329)

History/Folklore: Eurapean Mistletoe was considered a sacred herb in Celtic tradition (Natural Standard, 2014). The herb has a history of use in ancient Greek and Roman medicine (Natural Standard, 2014). The Eclectic’s used large and frequent doses of the fresh plant to facilitate labour (Bone, 2003, p. 329). In the beginning of the 20th century Mistletoe became a cancer therapy in herbal medicine potentially due to the herbs immunostimulatory and cytotoxic actions, however it is yet to gain significant clinical evidence to support this (Natural Standard, 2014).

American Mistletoe (associated with Christmas tradition) is a different species with similar properties, but different traditional uses (Natural Standard, 2014).

 

Constituents:

  • Lectin-I , lectin-II & lectin-III
  • ViscalbCBA,
  • Chitin-binding protein, and
  • Viscotoxins (A1-3; B),
  • Eleutheroside E
  • Flavanone glycosides,
  • Alkaloids
  • Green parts of the plant contain highly esterified D-galacturonan.
  • Mistletoe berries contain arabinogalactan, phenylpropanoids: syringin, syringenin-apiosylglucoside)

(Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Actions

  • Hypotensive (Bone, 2003, p. 329)
  • Peripheral vasodilator (Bone, 2003, p. 329)
  • Mild sedative (Bone, 2003, p. 329)

 

Indications

  • Hypertension (Bone, 2003, p. 329; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Tachycardia (Bone, 2003, p. 329)
  • Cardiac hypertrophy (Bone, 2003, p. 329)
  • Atherosclerosis (Bone, 2003, p. 329)
  • Epilepsy (Bone, 2003, p. 329)
  • Nervous excitability (Bone, 2003, p. 329)
  • Anxiety (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Vertigo (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • The German commission E acknowledges the herb in the treatment of malignant tumors and degenerative inflammation of joints (Natural Standard, 2014).

 

Preparation & Dosage

3-6mL liquid extract (1:2)/day

20-40mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

 

Cautions & Contraindications:

  • Raw berries are considered toxic, caution to be taken when administered orally (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Historical use as emmenagogue, suggest caution to be taken in pregnancy (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Combinations: For raised blood pressure, combine with Hawthorn Berries and Lime Blossom (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 215)

Tilia spp.

linden_flower

Kidman, D. (2014). Linden Flower (Tilia spp.) and its Uses. Retrieved from: http://dkmommyspot.com/linden-flower-tilia-spp-and-its-uses/

Botanical Name: Tilia spp.
Common name: Linden flower, Lime blossom (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
Family:
Parts used: Flower (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

History/Folklore: In Western Herbal Medicine, the most commonly used species is T. cordata and T. platyphyllos

Constituents:

  • Essential oil (Bone, 2003, p. 319)
  • Flavonids (Bone, 2003, p. 319)

 

Actions

  • Spasmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Peripheral vasodilator (Bone, 2003, p. 318; Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 203)
  • Mild sedative (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Diaphoretic (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

 

Indications

  • Common cold (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Cold-related coughs (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Catarrhal respiratory conditions (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Anxiety, restlessness (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Insomnia (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Heachache (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Hypertension (Bone, 2003, p. 318)
  • Palpitations (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  1. 0-4.5mL liquid extract (1:2)/day

15-30mL liquid extract (1:2)/week

(Bone, 2003, p. 318)

 

Cautions: Due to potential for the herb to interact with iron absorption, in individuals with anaemia, the herb should be taken away from meals (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

 

Contraindications: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 318)

 

Interactions

  • May reduce iron absorption (Bone, 2003, p. 318)