Fucus vesiculosuis

cha-de-fucus-vesiculosus-beneficios-e-propriedades

Reprodução. (n.d.). Chá de Fucus vesiculosus – Benefícios e propriedades. Retrieved from: http://chabeneficios.com.br/cha-de-fucus-vesiculosus-beneficios-e-propriedades/

Botanical Name: Fucus vesiculosis
Common name: Kelp, Bladderwrack (Natural Standard, 2014)
Family: Fucaceae (Natural Standard, 2014)
Parts used: Whole Plant (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 551)

Constituents:

  • Phenolic compounds
  • Mucopolysaccharides
  • Sulphuryl-, sulphonyl- & phosphonyl-glycosyl ester diglycerides
  • Trace metals (notably iodine)

(Hoffmann, 2010, p. 551)

 

Actions

  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 551)
  • Antibacterial (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Antifungal (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Anticoagulant (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Antioxidant (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Indications

  • Hypothyroid, underactive thyroid and goitre (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 551; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 551; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Acne (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Atopic dermatitis (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Burns (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Cancer (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Gingivitis (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Herpes (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Hyperglycaemia (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Kidney disease (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Dried herb: 0.8-2g dried thallus/tds
  • Tincture (1:5 in 25%): 2-6mL/tds
  • Fluid extract (1:1 in 25%): 0.5-2mL/tds

(Hoffmann, 2010, p. 551)

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

  • Due to the plants high iodine content it may interfere with pre existing thyroid abnormal thyroid function (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 551)
  • Brown seaweeds are known to concentrate toxic elements such as heavy metals (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 551)
  • Binding properties of fucoidan may reduce intestinal iron absorption (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 551)
Advertisements

Piper methysticum

kava-piper_methysticum1

Nature Pacific PTY LTD. (2004). Kava Kava. Retrieved from: http://www.naturepacific.com/contents/en-us/d59_kava.html

Botanical Name: Piper methysticum
Common name: Kava Kava
Family: Piperaceae
Parts used: Rhizome

 

Folklore and traditional use: Kava kava root prepared as a beverage has a long history of use in welcoming ceremonies in the Pacific Islands (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 246).

Kava kava has been used both medicinally and ceremoniallyy in the Pacific region (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456).

  • In Fiji it is used to treat bladder and kidney disease, as a diuretic, for coughs, colds and a sore throat.
  • In Samoa the root is used to treat gonorrhea.
  • In Hawaii it use to be used to treat skin disorders, to sooth nerves, induce sleep, to treat general debility, colds and chills.
  • In traditional Polynesian medicine it was used topically to treat skin disease, leprosy.
  • In Western herbal medicine, kava was indicated in a range of genitourinary tract ailments, such as gonorrhea, vaginitis and nocturnal incontinence.
  • The Eclectics recommended kava for neuralgia, toothache, earache, ocular pain, dizziness, despondency, anorexia, dyspepsia, intestinal catarrh, hemorrhoids and renal colic.

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)

 

Constituents:

  • Resin containing 6-stytly-4-methoxy-alpha-pyrone derivatives also known as ‘kava lactones’ or ‘kava pyrones’ including:
    • kavain
    • Dehydrokavain (DHK)
    • Methysticin
    • Dihydromethysticin
    • Yangonin
    • Desmethoxyyangonin
  • Flavonoids (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 457)

 

Actions

  • Anxiolytic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456; Bone, 2003, p. 291)
  • Hypnotic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Mild sedative (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Skeletal muscle relaxant (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Local anesthetic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Mild analgesic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Relaxing nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Antifungal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Anticonvulsant (Bone, 2003, p. 291)

 

Indications

  • General Anxiety Disorder (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 246)
  • Nervous tension (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Restlessness (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Mild depression (of non-psychotic origin) (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Insomnia (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 247)
  • Hoffmann suggests that kava is good for anxiety without dampening alertness (administered at a normal therapeutic dose) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Comparable to benzodiazepines in the treatment of anxiety, without the side effects (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573) this also suggests kava kava’s benefit in the withdrawal of benzodiazepine drugs (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 247).
  • Does not impair reaction time, and appears to improve concentration (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)

 

Preparation & Dosage: Commission E recommends preparations equivalent to 20-120mg of kavalactones/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)

 

Cautions

  • A side effect of over consumption referred to as “kava dermopathy”, manifests as a skin rash, non-inflammatory dryness and scaling of skin. This is most often seen with heavy, long-term consumers. However this was also observed in clinical trials with doses of 300-800mg of isolated constituent dihydromethystici (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573).
  • Hepatotoxicity has been reported, leading to restrictions in availability in some countries (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Caution to be taken in elderly individuals with Parkinson’s disease due to potential dopamine antagonism (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 452)
  • Liver conditions (Bone, 2003, p. 291)

 

Contradictions:

According to Commission E Kava kava is contraindicated in:

  • Pregnancy
  • Lactation
  • Endogenous depression

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 462)

 

Interactions: May increase effects of substances that act upon the central nervous system (alcohol, barbiturates, psycopharmaceutical agents) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)

Scutellaria baicalensis

Øëåìíèê áàéêàëüñêèé – Scutellariae baicalensis

Image I

post-19386-1182271924

Image II

Botanical Name: Scutellaria baicalensis
Common name: Baical Skullcap, Chinese skullcap, huang quin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
Family: Lamiaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
Parts used: Root (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)

Constituents

Flavenoids and their glycosides

  • Baicalin and its aglycone: Baicalein
  • Wogonin
  • Resin
  • Tannins
  • Melatonin

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)

 

Baicalin is porely absorbed through the gut, however becomes hydrolysed to its alglycone baicalein by intestinal bacteria (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218).

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 219)
  • Antifibrotic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 219)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Anti-allergic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Hypotensive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Anti-platelet (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Antixiolytic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Antimicrobial, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 221-222)
  • Anti-ulcerogenic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Antidiabetic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Anti-emetic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 223)

 

History & Traditional Use

Traditionally used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to clear heat and dry dampness. (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218).

 

Indications

  • Respiratory infections (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Bone marrow stimulation during chemotherapy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Epilepsy (in combination) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Chronic active hepatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Liver fibrosis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Chronic inflammation
    • Asthma
    • Arthritis
    • Allergies (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Hepatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Common cold (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Nausea and vomiting (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Mild hyper-tension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Dried herb: 6-15g/day
  • Liquid extract: (1:2) 4.5-8.5mL/day in divided doses

 

Cautions: Safety in pregnancy has not being defined by clinical trials. The herb is used in TCM for “restless foetus” (threatened abortion) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Contradictions

  • Contradicted during interferon therapy
  • Contradicted in “cold” conditions in TCM

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Combinations

Scutellaria baicalensis is an ingredient in popular Chinese/Japanese formulation Minor Burpleureum Combination (Xiao Chai Hu Tang in Chinese and Sho-saiko-to in Japanese). This combination contains:

  • Bulpleurum falcatum
  • Scutellaria baicalensis
  • Pinellia ternata
  • Panax ginseng
  • Zizyphus jujuba
  • Glycyrrhiza uralensis
  • Zingiber officinale

This treatment has been used for 3000 years in the treatment of pyretic disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224).

 

REFERENCE
Braun, L., & Cohen, M. (2010). Herbs & Natural Supplements: An Evidence based Guide (3rd ed.). Chatswood NSW: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Image: Beauty & Health Philosophy. (2008-2014). Beauty & Health Philosophy. Retrieved from: http://nsp-zdorovje.narod.ru/fito/wlemnik-scutellaria.html

Image II: Molbiol.ur. (2001-2014). Шлемник байкальский (Scutellaria baicalensis, Labiatae/Lamiaceae). Retrieved from: http://molbiol.ru/forums/lofiversion/index.php/t173641.html

Albizia lebbeck

normal_00523-Albizia-lebbeck

Botanical Name: Albizia lebbeck
Common name: Albizia, Pit shirish shirisha (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 190)
Family: Fabaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 190)
Parts used: Leaves and stem bark(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 190)

 

Constituents

Chemical components are poorly understood, however reported to contain:

  • Albiziasaponins A, B and C
  • Epicatechin
  • Procyanidins
  • Stigmastadine

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 190)

 

Actions

  • Mast cell stabilisation (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 190)
  • Alters neurotransmitter activity (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 190)
  • Anticonvulsant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 190)
  • Memory enhancement (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 190)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 191)
  • Antifungal (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 191)
  • Antispasmodic (smooth muscle) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 191)
  • Immunostimulant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 191)

 

Indiactions

Succus from leaves is traditionally used to treat night blindness and the bark and seeds to treat diarrhoea, dysentery and haemorrhoids (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 191).In ayurvedic medicine the herb is used to treat bronchitis, asthma, allergy and inflammation (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 191).

 

Albizia has not being significantly investigated for medicinal use, indications are based on in vitro and in vivo evidence and historical and thereapeutic use:

  • Potentially useful for amnesia due to memory enhancing action (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 190).
  • Allergic rhinitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 191)
  • Athsma (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 191)
  • Potentially useful for allergic conditions due to mast cell stabilising action (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 190)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Liquid extract: (1:2) 3.5-8.5mL/day

Dried herb: 3-6g/day

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 191)

 

Cautions & Contradicitions

Animal studies have shown albizia to significantly reduce male fertility (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 190).

 

REFERENCE
Braun, L., & Cohen, M. (2010). Herbs & Natural Supplements: An Evidence based Guide (3rd ed.). Chatswood NSW: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Images: USDA, NRCS. (2009). Flora of USA and Canada. Retrieved from: http://luirig.altervista.org/schedenam/fnam.php?taxon=Albizia+lebbeck

Thuja occidentalis

thuja-occidentalis

Botanical Name: Thuja occidentalis
Common name: Thuja, Arborvitae, White cedar, Western Hemlock (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
Family: Cupressaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
Parts used: Young twigs (Hoffmann, 2990, p. 237)

 

Constituents

  • Volatile oil (thujane)
  • Flavenoid glycoside
  • Mucilage
  • Tannin

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)

 

Actions

  • Antiviral (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 169)
  • Expectorant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Stimulant (smooth muscle) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Alterative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Antifungal (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)

 

Indications

  • Bronchial catarrh (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Provides systemic stimulation in “heart weakness” (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • May help with delayed menstruation as it has a specific reflex action on the uterus (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Ordinary incontinence due to loss of muscle tone (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588).
  • Psoriasis and rheumatism (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Abnormal growths of the skin & mucus membranes (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)

o   Warts (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)

o   Ulcers (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)

o   Bed sores (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)

  • Ringworm (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Thrush (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Conditions of the blood (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Cancer: claimed to demonstrate abortive influence over incipient cancer and retard process (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)

 

Preparation & Dosage

Infusion: 1 tsp/1 cup water/tds

Tincture: (1:5 in 60%) 1-2mL tds

 

Cautions

  • Should be avoided when cough is due to over stimulation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Produces a sensation of tingling when applied in external preparations to open wounds, therefore it is usually best to dilute with water or prepare as an ointment (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)
  • Due to active constituent Thujone, large doses may be toxic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588).

 

Contradictions:

Contraindicated in pregnancy due to stimulating effect on the uterus (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 588)

 

Combinations

Combined with Senega, Grindelia or Lobelia in pulmonary conditions (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 237).

 

REFERENCE
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Image I: Chauhan, Y. (2012). Thuja Occidentalis – Homeopathic Remedy. Retrieved from: http://drypchauhan.wordpress.com/2012/11/29/thuja-occidentalis-homeopathic-remedy/

Tabebuia avellanedae

image1

Image I

Image 3

Image II

Botanical Name: Tabebuia avellanedae

Common name: Pau d-arco, taheebo (Costa, Iovin, Isaac, Pesavento, Seamon, Tran, Regina & Windsor, 2013).

Family: Bignoneaceae (Costa et al., 2013).

Parts used: Bark (Heinrich, Barnes, Gibbons & Williamson, 2012, p. 260)

 

Constituents

  • Naohthoquinones: Lapachol, Deosylapachol, a- and b-lapachone
  • Anthraquinones
  • Benzoic acid
  • Benzaldehyde dericatives

(Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 262)

 

Actions

  • Immunostimulant
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anti-cancer
  • Anti-tumor
  • Anti-bacterial, anti-fungal & anti-viral

(Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 262)

 

Indications (traditional)

Traditionally used in South America as an anti-cancer treatment, and to treat various infectious diseases including protozoal, bacterial, fungal and viral infections (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 262).

The genus Tabebuia consists of a range of tropical plants native to Central and South America. Tabebuia avellanedae is traditionally used in folk medicine to treat bacterial infections, cancer, inflammatory disease and peptic ulcers (Costa et al., 2013).

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Capsule: 1mg/tds
  • Infusion: 1tsp loose bark/1 cup water/2-8 times a day
  • Tincture: (1:5) 1mL/2-3 times a day

(Costa, 2013)

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

  • Cytotoxic in large doses (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 262)
  • Theoretically may increase bleeding and is therefore contraindicated in individuals with bleeding disorders, before or after surgery and in individuals taking anti-coagulant or antiplatelet medication (Costa et al., 2013)
  • Contraindicated in pregnancy due to presence of laphachol, which has demonstrated foetal mortality in animal studies (Costa et al., 2013).

 

REFERENCE
Costa, D., Iovin, R., Isaac, R. Pesavento, S., Seamon, E., Tran, D., Regina, C., & Windsor, R. (2013). Pau d’arco (Tabebuia spp.). Natural Standard Professional Monograph. Retrieved from: http://www.naturalstandard.com.ezproxy.think.edu.au/databases/herbssupplements/paudarco.asp?

Heinrich, M., Barnes, J., Gibbons, S., & Williamson, E. (2012). Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Image I: Karthikeyan., S. (2014). Flowering Trees. Retrieved from: http://www.wildwanderer.com/blog/?page_id=90

Image II: Roxo, I. (n.d.). Panoramio. Retrieved from: http://www.panoramio.com/photo/2003791

Allium sativum

Nolan_Allium_sativum

Botanical Name: Allium sativum
Common name: Garlic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)
Family: Liliaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)
Parts used: bulb (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)

Constituents

  • Organosulfur compounds: including ‘alliin’ (which is converted to allicin in presence of enzyme allinase)
  • Enzyme allinase
  • Minerals
  • Flavenoids

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)

 

Actions

  • Anti-microbial, antibacterial, anti-fungal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526; Basch, Bryan, Conquer, Hammerness, Hashmi, Hasskarl, Isaac, Ladak, LeBlanc, Nummy, Pelikhov, Smith, Seamon, Grimes Serrano, Spencer, Gruenwald, Ulbricht, Vora & Windsor, 2013)
  • Diaphoretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)
  • Hypocholestermic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)
  • Cholagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)

 

Indications

  • Alopecia areata (Basch et al., 2013)
  • Bacteria, viruses and parasites of the alimentary canal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526).
  • Gastritis (Basch et al., 2013)
  • Helicobactor pylori infection (Basch et al., 2013)
  • Supports development of natural flora while simultaneously killing pathogenic organisms (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 187)
  • Benign Breast Disease (Basch et al., 2013)
  • Cancer (Basch et al., 2013)
  • Gastric cancer prevention (Basch et al., 2013)
  • Cardiovascular disease (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526; Basch et al., 2013)
  • Angina (Basch et al., 2013)
  • Atherosceroisis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526; Basch et al., 2013)
  • Hyperlipidaemia (Basch et al., 2013)
  • Hypertension (Basch et al., 2013)
  • Reduces serum cholesterol (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)
  • Reduces triglyceride levels (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)
  • Raises HLDL levels (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)
  • Active inhibitor of platelet aggregating factor (PAF) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)
  • Prevents pre-oxidation of fats (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)
  • Chronic venous ulcers (Basch et al., 2013)
  • Cystic fibrosis (Basch et al., 2013)
  • Common cold (Basch et al., 2013)
  • Dental conditions (Basch et al., 2013)
  • Heavy metal/lead toxicity (Basch et al., 2013)
  • Hepatitis (Basch et al., 2013)
  • Infections and conditions of the respiratory system
  • Chronic Bronchitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)
  • Respiratory catarrh (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)
  • Recurrent colds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)
  • Influenza (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)
  • Upper respiratory tract Infection (Basch et al., 2013).
  • Whooping cough (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)
  • Bronchial asthma (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)
  • Mosquito repellent (Basch et al., 2013)
  • Otitis media (Basch et al., 2013)
  • Parasitic infection (Basch et al., 2013; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)
  • Sickle cell anaemia (Basch et al., 2013)
  • Systemic sclerosis (Basch et al., 2013)
  • Tick repellent (Basch et al., 2013)
  • Warts (Basch et al., 2013)
  • Preventative medicine in most infectious conditions (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Garlic oil capsule: 1-3/tds
  • Garlic powder: 600-900mg/day
  • Prophylaxis: 1 clove/sd
  • Acute infection: 1 clove/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

  • High doses may irritate gastric mucosa (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)
  • Thereapeutic doses may potentiate activity of anti-coagulant, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic medication (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)
  • Caution is advised both before and after surgical procedures (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 526)
  • To be administer with caution in individuals with bleeding disorders or taking anticoagulents (Basch et al., 2013).
  • To be administer with caution in individuals with thyroid disorders or taking thyroid medication (Basch et al., 2013).
  • May interefere with breastfeeding (Basch et al., 2013).

 

REFERENCE
Basch, E., Basch, S., Bryan, J., Conquer, J., Hammerness, P., Hashmi, S., Hasskarl, J., Isaac, R., Ladak, A., LeBlanc, Y., Nummy, K., Pelikhov, G., Smith, M., Seamon, E., Grimes Serrano, J., Spencer, A., Gruenwald, J., Ulbricht, C., Vora, M., & Windsor, R. (2013). Garlic (Allium sativum). Natural Standard Professional Monograph. Retrieved from: http://www.naturalstandard.com.ezproxy.think.edu.au/databases/herbssupplements/garlic.asp?#

Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Image I: Nolan, K. (n.d.). Royal Botanical Gardens & Domain Trust. Retrieved from: http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/education/art_and_illustration/botanica/artist/Kate_Nolan?SQ_DESIGN_NAME=printer_friendly