Tribulus terrestris

demirdikeni1

Tuscu, S. (2008). Çocuk İstiyorum Tüp Bebek. Retrieved from: http://www.cocukistiyorum.com/tr/content.asp?PID=%7B1050DD8C-F0E6-4668-9FCB-32EF4A44F9FA%7D&PT=%20Yumurta%20kalitesi%20ve%20sperm%20say%FDs%FDn%FD%20art%FDran%20bitki

Botanical Name: Tribulus terrestris
Common name: Tribulus, Gokshur (Sanskrit), Gokharu (Hindi), Puncture vine (Chhatre, Nesari, Somani, Kanchan & Sathaye, 2014).
Family: Zygophyllaceae (Chhatre et al., 2014).
Parts used: Dried fruit (Chhatre et al., 2014).

Quality: In Ayurvedia medicine Tribulus is describes as madhura (sweet), gura (heavy to digest), brumhema (nourishing) and Vatanut (pacifies vata dhsa).

Constituents: Saponins (incl. furostanol, spirostanol and sarsasapogenin), flavonoids, glycosides (incl. spirostanol glycosides) and alkaloids (Chhatre et al., 2014).

 

Actions

  • Diuretic
  • Aphrodisiac
  • Antiurolithic
  • Immunomodulatory
  • Cardiotonic
  • Hepatoprotective
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Analgesic
  • Anti-spasmodic
  • Anti-cancer
  • Anti-bacterial
  • Anthelmintic

(Chhatre et al., 2014).

 

Indications

  • Coronary Artery Disease (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Infertility (men) (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Infertility (women) (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Exercise performance enhancement (Natural Standard, 2014)

In Auyrvedic medicine, the herb is indicated in the genitourinary tract to clear urinary stones, as a urinary disinfectant and for impotence (Chhatre et al., 2014)

Accoring to Chhatre, in TCM the herb is used to “restore depressed liver, treat feeling of fullness in chest, mastitis, flatulence, acute conjunctivitis, headache and vitiligo” (2014).

 

Cautions

  • Individuals with menstrual disorders as it may cause menorrhagia (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia as it may increase prostate volume (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Hypoglycemia/diabetes as it may decrease blood sugar levels (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Pregnancy due to traditional use as abortifacent (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Contraindications: Know allergy (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Interactions

  • Beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Digoxin due to evidence of positive ionotropic activity (Natural Standard, 2014)
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Serenoa repens

Screen Shot 2014-08-08 at 8.54.12 PM

Gottleib, R. (2006). Saw Palmetto. Retrieved from: http://www.artmajeur.com/en/artist/raphaelg/collection/architectural-and-biological-illustrations/1086633/artwork/saw-palmetto/1212021

Botanical Name: Serenoa repens
Common name: Saw Palmetto
Family: Arecaceae (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)
Parts used: Fruit (berry) (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)

 

History/Folklore: Traditionally associated with treatment of the prostate gland (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804). Other traditional use includes conditions of the respiratory tract, notably when accompanied by catarrh (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804). The Eclectics administered the herb for upper and lower respiratory complaints; atrophy of reproductive organs; and benign prostatic hypertrophy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804).

 

Constituents:

  • Essential oil
  • Fixed oil (caproic, lauric and palmitic acid)
  • Sterols
  • Polysaccharides

(Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)

 

Actions

  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)
  • Urinary antiseptic (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)
  • Endocrine agent (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804; Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Male tonic (Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Antiandrogenic (Bone, 2010, p. 400; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804)

 

Indications

  • Symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)

Appears to inhinit dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (potentially responsible for multiplication of prostate cells) by blocking activity of enzyme 5-α-reductase (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)

  • Difficulties with urination (Hoffmann, 2010, p. 583)
  • Inflammation of genitourinary tract (Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Cystitis (Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Atrophy of sexual tissues (Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Sex hormone deficiency (Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Noninfectious prostatitis (Bone, 2010, p. 400)
  • Odema (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804)
  • Male pattern baldness (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804)

 

Preparation: Dried berry decoction, tablets, capsules or liquid extract (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 804)

 

Dosage:

  • 0-4.5mL liquid extract (1:2)/day
  • 15-15mL liquid extract (1:2)/week (Bone, 2010, p. 400)

 

Cautions and Contraindications: None known (Bone, 2010, p. 400)

Capsella bursa-pastoris

Capsella_bursa-pastoris_Sturm23

Sturm, J. (1796). Deutschlands Flora in Abbildungen. Retrieved from: http://www.biolib.de

Botanical Name: Capsella bursa-pastoris
Common name: Shepherd’s Purse (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
Family: Brassicaceae (Natural Standard, 2014)
Parts used: Ariel Parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)

 

Active Constituents:

  • Flavonoids: luteolin-7-rutinoside & quercetin-3-rutinoside
  • Plant acids: fumaric & bursic acids

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)

 

Actions

  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)

 

Indications

  • To alleviate water retention in kidney disorders (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Diarrhoea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Dysentery
  • Nose bleeds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Wounds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Passive hemorrhage (gastric and intestinal) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Hematuria (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Chronic menorrhagia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
    • Stimulate menstruation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
    • Reducing excess menstrual flow (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • “Dysfunctional uterine bleeding” (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 295)
  • Atonic dyspepsia
  • Bruised or strained muscles (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Rheumatic joints (topical) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Threatened miscarriage (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 301)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • 1-4g dried herb/tds
  • 1-4mL liquid extract (1:1 in 25%)/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)

 

Cautions & Contraindications:

  • Should be avoided in kidney stones due to oxalic acid content (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 535)
  • Caution to be taken in pregnancy due to potential emmenagogue action and effect on uterine tone (Natural Standard, 2014)

Alchemilla vulgaris

sy4662

Plymley, K. (n.d.). Darwin Country. Retrieved from: http://www.darwincountry.org/explore/002939.html?ImageID=1334&Page=42&sid=

Botanical Name: Alchemilla vulgaris
Common name: Lady’s Mantle
Family: Rosaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
Parts used: Leaf and flowering shoots (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
 

Constituents: Tannins (mainly glycosides of ellagric acid) and salicycle acid (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)

 

Actions

  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Vunerary (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)

 

Indications

  • Menstrual pain (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Excessive bleeding (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Symptoms of menopause (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 300)
  • Menorrhagia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Metrorrhagia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Diarrhoea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Ulcers and sores of oral cavity (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 141)
  • Laryngitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:4 in 25%): 2-4mL/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Infusion: 2tsp/1 cup water/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Prepared as a mouthwash for laryngitis and mouth ulcers (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)

 

Cautions: Not recommended in constipation, iron-deficent anaemia and malnutrition due to tannin content (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 191)

Mitchella repens

SAW_02245

Wasowski, A & S. (2006). Mitchella repens. Retrieved from: http://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=23299

Botanical Name: Mitchella repens
Common name: Partridgeberry (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 568), Squaw vine (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 291)
Family: Rubiaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 568)
Parts used: Aerial parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 568)

Constituents: Unspecified alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, tannins and mucilage’s have been reported (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 568)

 

Actions

  • Postpartum (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Emmenagogue (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 291; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Uterine Tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)

 

Indications

  • Traditionally used in preparation for childbirth (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 301)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Colitis with presence of mucus (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Amenorrhoea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Chronic congestion of the uterus (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 40%): 2-4mL/tds
  • Infusion: 1tsp/cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)

 

Cautions & Contraindications: None known, however traditional use as an abortifacient would suggest the herb is inappropriate in the first stages of pregnancy (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 291)

Chamaelirium luteum

Chamaelirium_luteum,I_DL373

Discover Life. (n.d.). Index of /IM/I_DL/0003/mx. Retrieved from: http://www.discoverlife.org/IM/I_DL/0003/mx/

Botanical Name: Chamaelirium luteum
Common name: False Unicorn Root, Helonias root (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
Family: Melanthiaceae
Parts used: root (Bone, 2003, p. 204)

History/Folklore: The herb has been used by the Eclectics and Native Americans as a tonic for the female reproductive system (Bone, 2003, p. 204). Today the herb is endangered (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 384).

Constituents: Steroidal saponins incl. chamaelitin (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)

Actions

  • Uterine tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 204; Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Ovarian tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Estrogen modulating (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Anthelmintic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Emetic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)

Steroidal saponins act by binding with estrogen receptors of the hypothalamus (Bone, 2003, p. 205).

 

Indications

  • Amenorrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 204; Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Dysmenorrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Ovarian pain (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Leukorrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Prolapse (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Atony of reproductive organs (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Threatened miscarriage (Bone, 2003, p. 204; Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Morning sickness (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Menopause symptoms (notably hot flushes) (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Infertility (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Sexual lassitude (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Morning sickness (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)

Hoffmann suggests that this herb is a superior tonic or the reproductive system and may be indicated for both men and women (1990, p. 199).

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 2-6ml/day or 15-40mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Decoction: 1-2tsp/1 cup water/tds (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)

Contraindications: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 204)

Interactions: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 204)

Asparagus racemosa

Asparagus racemosus-1

Prasad, S. R. (n.d.). ASPARAGUS (Shatavari) as Multi target Drug in Women. Retrieved from: http://technoayurveda.com/Shatavari.html

Botanical Name: Asparagus racemosa
Common name: Shatavari, Wild Asparagus, Satavar (Hindi), Satavari (Sanskrit) (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
Family: Liliaceae (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
Parts used: Root (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
Quality: Bitter, sweet, cooling (Pole, 2006, p. 217)

History: Shatavari is regarded in Ayurvedic medicine as part of the rasayana group, which translates to the path that primordial tissue takes (Bone, 2003, p. 410). Australian aboriginals used shatavari topically in a wash for scabies, ulceration and chicken pox (Bone, 2003, p. 410).

Constituents: Steroidal saponins (incl. shatavarin I); alkaloids (incl. pyrrolizidine alkaloid ‘asparagamine A’); and mucilage (Bone, 2003, p. 410).

Actions

  • Tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Galactagogue (Bone, 2003, p. 409; (\Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Sexual tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Female reproductive tonic (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Adaptogen (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Sapsmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Antidiarrheal (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Diuretic (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Aphrodisiac (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Immunosuppressant (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Immunomodulator (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Nervine (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Demulcent (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Anti-bacterial (Pole, 2006, p. 217)

Indications

  • Promote conception (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Sexual debility (Both male and female) (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Infertility (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Impotence (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Promote lactation (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Menopause (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Promote appetite in children (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Infections (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Diarrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Colic (Pole, 2006, p. 217)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 4.5-8.5mL/day or 30-60mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 409)

Contraindications

  • Acute lung congestion (Pole, 2006, p. 218)
  • High kapha and/or āma (Pole, 2006, p. 218)

Combinations: Combine with Ashwagandha for a uterine tonic or to promote fertility in both male and females (Pole, 2006, p. 218)

Interactions: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 409)