Caulophyllum thalictroides

Blue Cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides)

FloraFinder. (n.d.). Caulophyllum thalictroides. Retrieved from: http://www.florafinder.com/Species/Caulophyllum_thalictroides.php

Botanical Name: Caulophyllum thalictroides
Common name: Blue Cohosh (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
Family: Berberidaceae (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
Parts used: Root (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
 

Constituents: Quinolizidine alkaloids (incl. sparteine, methylcytisine and anagyrine); and Saponins (incl. caulosaponin) (Bone, 2003, p. 107)

Actions

  • Spasmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Uterine and ovarian tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Emmenagogue (Bone, 2003, p. 106; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 509)
  • Oxytocic (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 516)
  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 516)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 488; Xia, Li, Liang, Yang, Lu, & Kuang, 2014)
  • Analgesic (Xia et al., 2014)


Traditional use
Native to North America, Caulophyllum thalictroides was used traditionally to induce childbirth and to ease labor pain, alleviate menstrual abnormalities (Xia et al., 2014).

Indications

  • Amenorrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Menorrhagia (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Ovarian or uterine pain or inflammation (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Uterine prolapse (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Abdominal cramping (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Rheumatic conditions (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Muscular weakness (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Nervous debility (Bone, 2003, p. 106)

Dosage & Preparation: Liquid extract (1:2): 1.5-3.0mL/day OR 10-20mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 107)

Cautions

  • Potential for tertogenic effects (Bone, 2003, p. 106; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 160)
  • Adverse side effects have been reported including hyperthermia, hypertension, tachycardia, hyperventilation, diaphoresis and weakness (Bone, 2003, pp. 106-107)

Contraindications: Caulophyllum thalictroides’ traditional use to aid childbirth is controversial and has been studied for effects it may have on newborns (Xia et al., 2014). It has been associated with heart attack and strokes in newborn’s as therefore the herb is Pregnancy and lactation (Bone, 2003, p. 106; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 395)

Artemisia vulgaris

artemisia_vulgaris_mugwort_flowers_04-08-05-1

Aphotoflora. (2004). Aphotoflora. Retrieved from: http://www.aphotoflora.com/d_artemisia_vulgaris_mugwort.html

Botanical Name: Artemisia vulgaris
Common name: Mugwort, Motherwort, Cronewort (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
Family: Asteraceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)
Parts used: Leaf and root (Hoffmann, 2013, p. 531)

Folklore: The name “Motherwort” is derived from western folklore as a herb for the womb (Holms, 1989, p. 317)

Constituents: Volatile oil (linalool, 1,8-cineole, β-thujone, borneol, α- and β- pinene); sesquiterpene lactones (incl. vulgarin); flavonoids; coumarin derivatives and triterpenes (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531).

Actions

  • Bitter tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)
  • Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)
  • Nervine tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)

 

TCM actions:

  • Warms channels
  • Stops bleeding
  • Dispels cold
  • Relieves pain’
  • Drains dampness
  • Warms the uterus
  • Alleviates itching

(Hempen, 2009, p. 586)

 

Indications Traditional

  • Mugwort root is a traditional European treatment for epilepsy (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Traditionally used in Moxibustion in the treatment of damp-cold and pain due to cold (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

TCM indications

  • Amenorrhea (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • Dysmenorrhea (Hempen, 2009, p. 587; Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • PMS with dry skin, swollen breasts, confusion and loss of self esteem (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • Estrogen or progesterone deficiency (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • Failure to progress during labor (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • Restless foetus (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)
  • Infertility (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Anorexia (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Gastric and biliary dyspepsia (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Liver congestion (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Jaundice (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Edema (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Aches, pains, fever and chills (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Boils, ulcers, sores (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Urinary and intestinal infections (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Intestinal parasites (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Eczema or itching (internal or external) (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)
  • Cough, wheezing phlegm (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

 

Dosage & Preparation: 3-9g/day (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

 

Cautions

  • Avoid during pregnancy and lactation due to effect on uterus and “drying” quality (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Long term use/excessive dose may cause toxicity due to thujone content (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Yin deficentcy heat (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

 

Interactions: For heavy menstrual bleeding, restless foetus or premature labor: combine with Angelicae sinensis (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

Viburnum opulus

viburnum-opulus-fl-rboutwell viburnum-opulus-trilobum-fr-fbramley-b

Images: New England Wild Flower Society. (2013). Virburnum opulus/Highbush-cranberry. Retrieved from: https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/viburnum/opulus/

Botanical Name: Viburnum opulus
Common name: Cramp Bark (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
Family: Caprifoliaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
Parts used: Dried Bark (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

Constituents: Hydroquinones (incl. arbutin and methylarbutin), coumarines (incl. scopoletin and scopoline) and tannins (mainly catechins) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Actions

  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593; Bone, 2013, p. 212)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Vasorelaxant (Bone, 2013, p. 226)

 

Indications

  • Relaxes muscular spasm and tension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Cramps of both voluntary and involuntary muscles (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Dysmenorrhea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Excessive menstrual blood loss (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Delayed or sparse menstruation (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Irregular bleeding during miscarriage (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Protect against threatened miscarriage (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Atonic conditions of pelvic organs (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)
  • Angina (Bone, 2013, p. 228)
  • IBS (Bone, 2013, p. 201)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture: 4-8mL/tds
  • Decoction: 2tsp dried her/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 593)

 

Interactions: Use cautiously with immune modulators and hypertensive agents (Natural Standard, 2014)

Alchemilla vulgaris

sy4662

Plymley, K. (n.d.). Darwin Country. Retrieved from: http://www.darwincountry.org/explore/002939.html?ImageID=1334&Page=42&sid=

Botanical Name: Alchemilla vulgaris
Common name: Lady’s Mantle
Family: Rosaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
Parts used: Leaf and flowering shoots (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
 

Constituents: Tannins (mainly glycosides of ellagric acid) and salicycle acid (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)

 

Actions

  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Vunerary (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)

 

Indications

  • Menstrual pain (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Excessive bleeding (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Symptoms of menopause (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 300)
  • Menorrhagia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Metrorrhagia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Diarrhoea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Ulcers and sores of oral cavity (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 141)
  • Laryngitis (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:4 in 25%): 2-4mL/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Infusion: 2tsp/1 cup water/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)
  • Prepared as a mouthwash for laryngitis and mouth ulcers (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 525)

 

Cautions: Not recommended in constipation, iron-deficent anaemia and malnutrition due to tannin content (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 191)

Mitchella repens

SAW_02245

Wasowski, A & S. (2006). Mitchella repens. Retrieved from: http://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=23299

Botanical Name: Mitchella repens
Common name: Partridgeberry (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 568), Squaw vine (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 291)
Family: Rubiaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 568)
Parts used: Aerial parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 568)

Constituents: Unspecified alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, tannins and mucilage’s have been reported (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 568)

 

Actions

  • Postpartum (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Emmenagogue (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 291; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Uterine Tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)

 

Indications

  • Traditionally used in preparation for childbirth (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 301)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Colitis with presence of mucus (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Amenorrhoea (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)
  • Chronic congestion of the uterus (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 40%): 2-4mL/tds
  • Infusion: 1tsp/cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569)

 

Cautions & Contraindications: None known, however traditional use as an abortifacient would suggest the herb is inappropriate in the first stages of pregnancy (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 569; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 291)

Chamaelirium luteum

Chamaelirium_luteum,I_DL373

Discover Life. (n.d.). Index of /IM/I_DL/0003/mx. Retrieved from: http://www.discoverlife.org/IM/I_DL/0003/mx/

Botanical Name: Chamaelirium luteum
Common name: False Unicorn Root, Helonias root (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
Family: Melanthiaceae
Parts used: root (Bone, 2003, p. 204)

History/Folklore: The herb has been used by the Eclectics and Native Americans as a tonic for the female reproductive system (Bone, 2003, p. 204). Today the herb is endangered (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 384).

Constituents: Steroidal saponins incl. chamaelitin (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)

Actions

  • Uterine tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 204; Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Ovarian tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Estrogen modulating (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Diuretic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Anthelmintic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Emetic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)

Steroidal saponins act by binding with estrogen receptors of the hypothalamus (Bone, 2003, p. 205).

 

Indications

  • Amenorrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 204; Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Dysmenorrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Ovarian pain (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Leukorrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Prolapse (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Atony of reproductive organs (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Threatened miscarriage (Bone, 2003, p. 204; Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)
  • Morning sickness (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Menopause symptoms (notably hot flushes) (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Infertility (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Sexual lassitude (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Morning sickness (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)

Hoffmann suggests that this herb is a superior tonic or the reproductive system and may be indicated for both men and women (1990, p. 199).

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 2-6ml/day or 15-40mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 204)
  • Decoction: 1-2tsp/1 cup water/tds (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 199)

Contraindications: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 204)

Interactions: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 204)

Curcuma longa

turmeric-info0
HowStuffWorks. (2014). Tumeric. Retrieved from: http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/botany/turmeric-info.htm

Turmeric-Root-and-Powder-1024x666
Christie, D. (2014). Top 5 Benefits of Tumeric. Retrieved from: http://www.harboursidefitness.com.au/blog-post/top-5-benefits-of-turmeric/

Botanical Name: Curcuma longa
Common name: Tumeric, Indian saffron, jianghuang (Chinese), shati (Sanskrit) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900)
Family: Zingeberaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)
Parts used: root and rhizome Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)

Quality: Pungent, bitter, astringent, heating (Pole, 2006, p. 282). In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is used to dry damp and move stagnation in the blood (Pole, 2006, p. 282).

History/Folklore: Native to India and South-East Asia, Tumeric has been recorded in medical texts dating back to 600BC (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Constituents: Essential oil (sesquiterpene ketones, zingiberene, phellandrene, sabinene, cineole and borneol); Yellow pigments “diarylheptanoids” or “curcuminoids” (incl. curcumin) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901).

Yellow pigment curcumin has been shown to influence transcription factors, cytokines, growth factors, kinases and other enzymes (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 902-903; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Anti-platelet (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 903; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 904; Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Hepatoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 904-905)
  • Nephroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 904-905)
  • Neuroprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 905)
  • Cardioprotective and vasoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 905)
  • Hypolipidaemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 905-906)
  • Antibacterial (Pole, 2006, p. 282; Zorotchian Moghadamtousi, Abdul Kadir, Hassandarvish, Tajik, Abubakar & Zandi, 2014, p. 2)
  • Antimicrobial (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 906-907)
  • Antiparasitic (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 907)
  • Antiviral (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, pp. 2-3)
  • Antiparasitic (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 2)
  • Antitumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 908)
  • Anti-depressant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 909)
  • Radioprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Antiallergic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Emmenagogue (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Blood tonic (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Carminative (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Alterative (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Vulunary (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • Anti-carcinogenic (Pole, 2006, p. 282)
  • TCM specific: blood and qi tonifier with analgesic properties (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 900).

Indications

  • Cancer prevention (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 907)
  • Cystic fibrosis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 909)
  • HIV/AIDS (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
    • One human trial exhibited an increase in CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte counts (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
    • Another human trial showed relief of HIV-associated chronic diarrhoea (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 910)
  • Eye disorders (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 911)
  • Genetic diseases (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 911)
  • Alzehimer’s disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 916)
  • Skin conditions (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 916)
  • Candida (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 7)
  • Helicobacter pylori (Zorotchian Moghadamtousi et al., 2014, p. 8)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:1): 5-14mL/day
  • 4g powdered tumeric mixed with water/1-2 day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 901)

Cautions

  • Doses > 15g/day should not be administered long term or in conjunction with anti-platelet or anti-coagulant medication (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Individuals complaining of hair loss (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Women trying to conceive (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • Pregnancy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 918)

Contraindications

  • Biliary tract obstruction (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 917)
  • In Ayurvedic medicine the herb is contraindicated in high vāta and pitta (Pole, 2006, p. 283).
  • Acute jaundice and hepatitis (Pole, 2006, p. 283).

Combinations

  • For liver congestion: combine with kutki, bhumiamalaki and pippali (Pole, 2006, p. 283)
  • Small amounts of long/black pepper enhances anti-inflammatory activity of turmeric (Pole, 2006, p. 283)
  • For congestion of the lower abdomen and menstrual imbalance: combine with guggulu, mustaka and purnarnava (Pole, 2006, p. 283)

Interactions: Turmeric may potentiate effects of anti-platelet or anticoagulant medications (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 918).