Corydalis ambigua

pain2-1

Dharmananda, S. (n.d.). SIMPLE TRADITIONAL FORMULAS FOR PAIN. Retrieved from: http://www.itmonline.org/arts/pain.htm

Botanical Name: Corydalis ambigua, Corydalis spp., Corydalis yanhusuo, C. amurensis
Common name: Yan hu su (Chinese) (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
Family: Fumariaceae (Natural Standard, 2014).
Parts used: rhizome (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Qualities: Warm, pungent and bitter

Constituents: Alkaloids (incl. corydalin, corybulbin, apomorphic and berberine alkaloids) (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Actions

  • Analgesic (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Hypnotic (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Sedative (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532; Natural Standard 2014)
  • Anti-ulcerative (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Anti-parasitic (Natural Standard, 2014)

TCM specific: moves blood, relieves pain, breaks up blood stasis and moves and regulates qi (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Indications

  • Moves blood and relieves pain in dysmenorrheal (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Chest pain (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Epigastric and abdominal pain (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Pain following blunt trauma (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Hernia-like pain (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Angina pectoris (Natural Standard, 2014)

Dosage & Preparation: 3-15g/day (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Caution: Has shown to have inhibitory effect in K(ATP) channels (Natural Standard, 2014)

Contraindications:

  • Pregnancy (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • As a hypnotic and sedative, the herb is contraindicated in depression (Bone, 2013, p. 275).

 

Combinations: For dysmenorrhea and pain in limbs combine with Cortex cinnamomi (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

 

Interactions: May interact with sedatives, hypnotics, anti-arrythmias and analgesics (Natural Standard, 2014)

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Zizyphus spinosa

201212050952596831

Maya. (2010). Zizyphus spinosa cv Suanzao. Retrieved from: http://e.zgqjz.com/2012/12/05/1180.htm

Botanical Name: Zizyphus spinosa
Common name: Suan zao ren (Chinese), sour jujube, spiny ziziphus, wild ziziphus (Natural Standard, 2014)
Family: Rhamnaceae (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
Parts used: Seed and stem bark (Natural Standard, 2014)

Quality: sour, sweet taste and neutral temperature (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)

Constituents: Saponins, alkaloids, flavones and vitamin C (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)

Actions

  • Analgesic (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Antipyretic (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Anxiolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 279)
  • Hypnotic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 274)
  • Sedative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 274)

 

Indications

  • Hypertension (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Insomnia (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Irritability (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Anxiety (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 278)
  • Nocturnal emissions (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • 10-30g/day (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)

 

Cautions

  • Pregnancy (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 447)

 

Contraindications:

  • TCM specific: severe diarrhoea and repletion heat (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 447)
  • Individuals with a latex allergy (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Individuals with allergy to Rhamnaceae (buckthorn) family (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Due to sedative nature, individuals should not operate heavy machinery under the influence of this herb (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Combinations: In TCM Ziziphus is an ingredient in Suan Zao Ren Tang decoction, which is administered for insomnia, nocturnal emissions, somnolence, neurasthenia, menopausal symptoms and excessive worrying (Natural Standard, 2014).

 

Interactions:

  • May potentialte effects of barbiturates and other sedative medications (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Decreases the effect of caffeine (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)

Valeriana officinalis

val1
Grieve M, (1971). Figure 1: Valeriana officinalis. Retrieved from: http://www.itmonline.org/arts/valerian.htm#figure%201

Botanical Name: Valeriana officinalis
Common name: Valerian
Family: Valerianaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
Parts used: Rhizome, stolon, root (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)

Folklore and traditional use:

  • Medicinal use of Valarian dates back to the Dioscordis and Galen, in which the plant was administered for epilepsy.
  • In was used during World War II for sleep promotion amongst civilians.
  • IN Europe, Valarian oil was used as a remedy for cholera.
  • The Eclectricts used the herb as a cerebral stimulant in chorea, hysteria (associated with mental depression) and in fever.
  • IN Ayurvedic medicine Valarian was used for hysteria, neurosis and epilepsy.

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)

 

Constituents:

  • Iridoids or “valepotriates” (including valtrate, isovaltrate, didrovaltrate and acevaltrate.
  • Essential oil: containing monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and carboxylic compounds
  • Valerenic acid (non-volatile cyclopentane sesquiterpenes)

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 582)

 

Actions

  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Anxiolytic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Mild Sedative (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Hypnotic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Spasmolytic/Antispasmodic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)

 

Indications

  • Insomnia (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Restlessness (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Nervous tension (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Depression (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Anxiety (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Alleviation of symptoms of benzodiazepine withdrawal (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Stress related heart conditions (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Dried root: 3-9g /day
  • Liquid extract: (1:2) 2-6mL / day
  • Tincture: (1:5) 5-15mL /day

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)

 

Cautions & Contradictions: None known (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 587)

 

Interactions: Although no reports have been made, Valarinan may theoretically increase effects of CNS depressants when taken in conjunction (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 587).

 

Combinations:

  • For depression and anxiety combines with Hypericum perforatum (Bone, 2003, p. 447)
  • For insomnia combine with Melissa officinalis or Humulus lupulus (Bone, 2003, p. 447)

Piper methysticum

kava-piper_methysticum1

Nature Pacific PTY LTD. (2004). Kava Kava. Retrieved from: http://www.naturepacific.com/contents/en-us/d59_kava.html

Botanical Name: Piper methysticum
Common name: Kava Kava
Family: Piperaceae
Parts used: Rhizome

 

Folklore and traditional use: Kava kava root prepared as a beverage has a long history of use in welcoming ceremonies in the Pacific Islands (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 246).

Kava kava has been used both medicinally and ceremoniallyy in the Pacific region (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456).

  • In Fiji it is used to treat bladder and kidney disease, as a diuretic, for coughs, colds and a sore throat.
  • In Samoa the root is used to treat gonorrhea.
  • In Hawaii it use to be used to treat skin disorders, to sooth nerves, induce sleep, to treat general debility, colds and chills.
  • In traditional Polynesian medicine it was used topically to treat skin disease, leprosy.
  • In Western herbal medicine, kava was indicated in a range of genitourinary tract ailments, such as gonorrhea, vaginitis and nocturnal incontinence.
  • The Eclectics recommended kava for neuralgia, toothache, earache, ocular pain, dizziness, despondency, anorexia, dyspepsia, intestinal catarrh, hemorrhoids and renal colic.

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)

 

Constituents:

  • Resin containing 6-stytly-4-methoxy-alpha-pyrone derivatives also known as ‘kava lactones’ or ‘kava pyrones’ including:
    • kavain
    • Dehydrokavain (DHK)
    • Methysticin
    • Dihydromethysticin
    • Yangonin
    • Desmethoxyyangonin
  • Flavonoids (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 457)

 

Actions

  • Anxiolytic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456; Bone, 2003, p. 291)
  • Hypnotic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Mild sedative (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Skeletal muscle relaxant (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Local anesthetic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Mild analgesic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Relaxing nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Antifungal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Anticonvulsant (Bone, 2003, p. 291)

 

Indications

  • General Anxiety Disorder (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 246)
  • Nervous tension (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Restlessness (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Mild depression (of non-psychotic origin) (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Insomnia (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 247)
  • Hoffmann suggests that kava is good for anxiety without dampening alertness (administered at a normal therapeutic dose) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Comparable to benzodiazepines in the treatment of anxiety, without the side effects (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573) this also suggests kava kava’s benefit in the withdrawal of benzodiazepine drugs (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 247).
  • Does not impair reaction time, and appears to improve concentration (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)

 

Preparation & Dosage: Commission E recommends preparations equivalent to 20-120mg of kavalactones/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)

 

Cautions

  • A side effect of over consumption referred to as “kava dermopathy”, manifests as a skin rash, non-inflammatory dryness and scaling of skin. This is most often seen with heavy, long-term consumers. However this was also observed in clinical trials with doses of 300-800mg of isolated constituent dihydromethystici (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573).
  • Hepatotoxicity has been reported, leading to restrictions in availability in some countries (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Caution to be taken in elderly individuals with Parkinson’s disease due to potential dopamine antagonism (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 452)
  • Liver conditions (Bone, 2003, p. 291)

 

Contradictions:

According to Commission E Kava kava is contraindicated in:

  • Pregnancy
  • Lactation
  • Endogenous depression

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 462)

 

Interactions: May increase effects of substances that act upon the central nervous system (alcohol, barbiturates, psycopharmaceutical agents) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)

Passiflora incarnata

Passiflora_incarnata

Cécilia COURTINARD. (n.d.). La Passiflora. Retrieved from: http://coclo63.free.fr/botanique.html

Passiflora incarnata & Hymenoptera

Jackson, L. (2003). Passiflora incarnata/Purple Passionflower. Retrieved from: http://www.floridanature.org/species.asp?species=passiflora_incarnata

Botanical Name: Passiflora incarnata
Common name: Passionflower
Family: Passifloraceae
Parts used: Aerial Parts (Bone, 2003, p. 362)

Constituents:

  • Alkaloids (harman, harmaline, harmol, harmine, harmalol, passaflorine)
  • Flavonoids (apigenin, homoorientin, isovitexin, kemferol, luteolin, orientin, quercetin, rutin, saoibaretin, saponarin and vitexin.)

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)

 

Folklore/History: The name passionflower has been said to be derived from the plants similarity to the “crown of thorns” worn by Christ during the crucifixion (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 288)

Native Americas used passionflower topically for ringworm, swelling and sore eyes (Bone, 2003, p. 363)

 

Actions

  • Anxiolytic (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 288; Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Sedative (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 288; Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Hypnotic (Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Anodyne (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)
  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)

 

Indications (contemporary)

  • Anxiety with nervous restlessness (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 288)
  • Insomnia (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 288; Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Aphrodisiac (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 288)

Due to presence of a benzoflavone moiety, which has shown to increase the fertility and libido of male rats in vivo (Braun & Cohen, 2005, pp. 288-289).

  • Adjuvant therapy for opiate withdrawal (Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Nervous symptoms resulting in:
    • Menstrual disturbances
    • Nervous headache
    • Nervous tachycardia (Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Neuralgic pain (Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Generalized seizures, epilepsy (Bone, 2003, pp. 362-363)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 40%): 1-4mL taken once in evening to induce sleep.
  • Infusion: 1 tsp/1 cup water. Infuse for 15mins. Take before sleep or twice a day for other conditions (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)

 

Cautions & Contradictions: Excessive doses may cause drowsiness (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 289)

 

Combinations: Combine with Valeriana officinalis for insomnia (Bone, 2003, p. 362)

 

Interactions:

  • May have additive effects when combined with benzodiazepines (combination could be beneficial under medical supervision) (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 289).
  • May cause additional CNS sedation when taken in combination with barbiturates (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 289).

Humulus lupulus

Humulus_lupulus

Southwest school of Botanical Medicine. (n.d.). Humulus lupulus.jpg – European Hops (99K) 819 X 1281. Retrieved from: http://www.swsbm.com/NGSImages/NGS.html

Botanical Name: Humulus lupulus
Common name: Hops (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
Family: Cannabacceae (strobils) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
Parts used: Inflorescence (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)

History and folklore: Most famous for producing bitter flavour in beer. Traditionally the herb is used in digestive complaints as a bitter tonic that has antispasmodic effects. Traditional indications include neuralgia, depression and pain. The herb has also been used to “ween” patients off sedative medication (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 238).

 

Constituents: Volatile oil (humulene, beta-caryophyllene, myrcene and farnesence); Flavonoids (notably glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin); Oleoresin; Humulone; Lupulene; Estrogenic substances; Tannins; Lipids; Xanthohumol (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)

 

Actions

  • Sedative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 238)
  • Hypnotic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Antimicrobial (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 238)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)

 

Indications

  • Insomnia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Tension and anxiety (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 238)
  • Nervous system tension related restlessness, headache and indigestion (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 238)
  • Hysteria (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Delirium tremens (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Facial neuralgia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Excessive sexual excitement (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

Tincture (1:5 in 40%): 1-4mL/tds

Infusion: 1 tsp/1 cup water. Infuse for 10-15mins. Drink at night

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

  • Contraindicated in depression (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • May increase effects of alcohol and sedatives (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Contraindicated in estrogenic related tumors (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 238)
  • Not recommended in pregnancy (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 238).

Eschscholtzia californica

Eschscholzia_californica_i01

Step, E., & Watson, W. (1896). Favorite Flowers of Garden and Greenhouse. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eschscholzia_californica#mediaviewer/File:Eschscholzia_californica_i01.jpg

Botanical Name: Eschscholtzia californica
Common name: California Poppy (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
Family: Papveraceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
Parts used: Dried aerial parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)

Folklore: Used by Native Americans and Hispanics for it’s sedative and analgesic effects. Traditionally prescribed for toothache in children (Bone, 2003, p. 124).

 

Constituents:

  • Alkaloids: chelerythrine (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 230)
  • Isoquinoline alkaloids (eshscholtzine and californidine) (Bone, 2003, p. 124)
  • Flavonoids (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)

 

Actions

  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
  • Hypnotic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547; Bone, 2003, p. 124)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
  • Anodyne (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
  • Anxiolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 124)
  • Mild sedative (Bone, 2003, p. 124)
  • Analgesic (Bone, 2003, p. 124)

Extracts have been shown to inhibit enzymatic degradation of catecholamines, the synthesis of adrenalin, dopamine, beta-hydroxylase and monoamine oxidase (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 230).

  • Antitumor

Alkaloid constituent chelerythrine is a well known protein kinase C inhibitor, which has antitumor activity (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 230).

  • Antiinflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 230)

 

Indications

  • Overexcitment and sleeplessness in children (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
  • Gallbladder colic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
  • Bone suggests Californian poppy to be useful in painful conditions where morphine or codeine may be used (2003, p. 124)
  • Anxiety (Bone, 2003, p. 124)
  • Disturbed sleep (Bone, 2003, p. 124)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

Tincture (1:5 in 25%)

  • To promote sleep 1-4mL at night
  • For antispasmodic indications 0.5-3mL/tds

Infusion

  • To promote restful sleep 1-2 tsp dried herb/1 cup water. Infuse 10 mins. Drink at night

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)

 

Cautions & Contradictions: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 124)

 

Combinations:

  • Combined with Corydalis cava for disturbed sleep (Bone, 2003, p. 124)

 

Interactions

  • Has additive effects when combines with other sedatives (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)