Corydalis ambigua

pain2-1

Dharmananda, S. (n.d.). SIMPLE TRADITIONAL FORMULAS FOR PAIN. Retrieved from: http://www.itmonline.org/arts/pain.htm

Botanical Name: Corydalis ambigua, Corydalis spp., Corydalis yanhusuo, C. amurensis
Common name: Yan hu su (Chinese) (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
Family: Fumariaceae (Natural Standard, 2014).
Parts used: rhizome (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Qualities: Warm, pungent and bitter

Constituents: Alkaloids (incl. corydalin, corybulbin, apomorphic and berberine alkaloids) (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Actions

  • Analgesic (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Hypnotic (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Sedative (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532; Natural Standard 2014)
  • Anti-ulcerative (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Anti-parasitic (Natural Standard, 2014)

TCM specific: moves blood, relieves pain, breaks up blood stasis and moves and regulates qi (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Indications

  • Moves blood and relieves pain in dysmenorrheal (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Chest pain (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Epigastric and abdominal pain (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Pain following blunt trauma (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Hernia-like pain (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Angina pectoris (Natural Standard, 2014)

Dosage & Preparation: 3-15g/day (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Caution: Has shown to have inhibitory effect in K(ATP) channels (Natural Standard, 2014)

Contraindications:

  • Pregnancy (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • As a hypnotic and sedative, the herb is contraindicated in depression (Bone, 2013, p. 275).

 

Combinations: For dysmenorrhea and pain in limbs combine with Cortex cinnamomi (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

 

Interactions: May interact with sedatives, hypnotics, anti-arrythmias and analgesics (Natural Standard, 2014)

Zizyphus spinosa

201212050952596831

Maya. (2010). Zizyphus spinosa cv Suanzao. Retrieved from: http://e.zgqjz.com/2012/12/05/1180.htm

Botanical Name: Zizyphus spinosa
Common name: Suan zao ren (Chinese), sour jujube, spiny ziziphus, wild ziziphus (Natural Standard, 2014)
Family: Rhamnaceae (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
Parts used: Seed and stem bark (Natural Standard, 2014)

Quality: sour, sweet taste and neutral temperature (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)

Constituents: Saponins, alkaloids, flavones and vitamin C (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)

Actions

  • Analgesic (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Antipyretic (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Anxiolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 279)
  • Hypnotic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 274)
  • Sedative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 274)

 

Indications

  • Hypertension (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Insomnia (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Irritability (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Anxiety (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 278)
  • Nocturnal emissions (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • 10-30g/day (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)

 

Cautions

  • Pregnancy (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 447)

 

Contraindications:

  • TCM specific: severe diarrhoea and repletion heat (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 447)
  • Individuals with a latex allergy (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Individuals with allergy to Rhamnaceae (buckthorn) family (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Due to sedative nature, individuals should not operate heavy machinery under the influence of this herb (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Combinations: In TCM Ziziphus is an ingredient in Suan Zao Ren Tang decoction, which is administered for insomnia, nocturnal emissions, somnolence, neurasthenia, menopausal symptoms and excessive worrying (Natural Standard, 2014).

 

Interactions:

  • May potentialte effects of barbiturates and other sedative medications (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Decreases the effect of caffeine (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)

Valeriana officinalis

val1
Grieve M, (1971). Figure 1: Valeriana officinalis. Retrieved from: http://www.itmonline.org/arts/valerian.htm#figure%201

Botanical Name: Valeriana officinalis
Common name: Valerian
Family: Valerianaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
Parts used: Rhizome, stolon, root (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)

Folklore and traditional use:

  • Medicinal use of Valarian dates back to the Dioscordis and Galen, in which the plant was administered for epilepsy.
  • In was used during World War II for sleep promotion amongst civilians.
  • IN Europe, Valarian oil was used as a remedy for cholera.
  • The Eclectricts used the herb as a cerebral stimulant in chorea, hysteria (associated with mental depression) and in fever.
  • IN Ayurvedic medicine Valarian was used for hysteria, neurosis and epilepsy.

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)

 

Constituents:

  • Iridoids or “valepotriates” (including valtrate, isovaltrate, didrovaltrate and acevaltrate.
  • Essential oil: containing monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and carboxylic compounds
  • Valerenic acid (non-volatile cyclopentane sesquiterpenes)

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 582)

 

Actions

  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Anxiolytic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Carminative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Mild Sedative (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Hypnotic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Spasmolytic/Antispasmodic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)

 

Indications

  • Insomnia (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Restlessness (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Nervous tension (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Depression (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Anxiety (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)
  • Alleviation of symptoms of benzodiazepine withdrawal (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)
  • Stress related heart conditions (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 592)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Dried root: 3-9g /day
  • Liquid extract: (1:2) 2-6mL / day
  • Tincture: (1:5) 5-15mL /day

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 581)

 

Cautions & Contradictions: None known (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 587)

 

Interactions: Although no reports have been made, Valarinan may theoretically increase effects of CNS depressants when taken in conjunction (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 587).

 

Combinations:

  • For depression and anxiety combines with Hypericum perforatum (Bone, 2003, p. 447)
  • For insomnia combine with Melissa officinalis or Humulus lupulus (Bone, 2003, p. 447)

Piper methysticum

kava-piper_methysticum1

Nature Pacific PTY LTD. (2004). Kava Kava. Retrieved from: http://www.naturepacific.com/contents/en-us/d59_kava.html

Botanical Name: Piper methysticum
Common name: Kava Kava
Family: Piperaceae
Parts used: Rhizome

 

Folklore and traditional use: Kava kava root prepared as a beverage has a long history of use in welcoming ceremonies in the Pacific Islands (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 246).

Kava kava has been used both medicinally and ceremoniallyy in the Pacific region (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456).

  • In Fiji it is used to treat bladder and kidney disease, as a diuretic, for coughs, colds and a sore throat.
  • In Samoa the root is used to treat gonorrhea.
  • In Hawaii it use to be used to treat skin disorders, to sooth nerves, induce sleep, to treat general debility, colds and chills.
  • In traditional Polynesian medicine it was used topically to treat skin disease, leprosy.
  • In Western herbal medicine, kava was indicated in a range of genitourinary tract ailments, such as gonorrhea, vaginitis and nocturnal incontinence.
  • The Eclectics recommended kava for neuralgia, toothache, earache, ocular pain, dizziness, despondency, anorexia, dyspepsia, intestinal catarrh, hemorrhoids and renal colic.

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)

 

Constituents:

  • Resin containing 6-stytly-4-methoxy-alpha-pyrone derivatives also known as ‘kava lactones’ or ‘kava pyrones’ including:
    • kavain
    • Dehydrokavain (DHK)
    • Methysticin
    • Dihydromethysticin
    • Yangonin
    • Desmethoxyyangonin
  • Flavonoids (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 457)

 

Actions

  • Anxiolytic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456; Bone, 2003, p. 291)
  • Hypnotic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Mild sedative (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Skeletal muscle relaxant (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Local anesthetic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Mild analgesic (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Relaxing nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Antifungal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Anticonvulsant (Bone, 2003, p. 291)

 

Indications

  • General Anxiety Disorder (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 246)
  • Nervous tension (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Restlessness (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Mild depression (of non-psychotic origin) (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 456)
  • Insomnia (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 247)
  • Hoffmann suggests that kava is good for anxiety without dampening alertness (administered at a normal therapeutic dose) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Comparable to benzodiazepines in the treatment of anxiety, without the side effects (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573) this also suggests kava kava’s benefit in the withdrawal of benzodiazepine drugs (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 247).
  • Does not impair reaction time, and appears to improve concentration (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)

 

Preparation & Dosage: Commission E recommends preparations equivalent to 20-120mg of kavalactones/tds (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)

 

Cautions

  • A side effect of over consumption referred to as “kava dermopathy”, manifests as a skin rash, non-inflammatory dryness and scaling of skin. This is most often seen with heavy, long-term consumers. However this was also observed in clinical trials with doses of 300-800mg of isolated constituent dihydromethystici (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573).
  • Hepatotoxicity has been reported, leading to restrictions in availability in some countries (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)
  • Caution to be taken in elderly individuals with Parkinson’s disease due to potential dopamine antagonism (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 452)
  • Liver conditions (Bone, 2003, p. 291)

 

Contradictions:

According to Commission E Kava kava is contraindicated in:

  • Pregnancy
  • Lactation
  • Endogenous depression

(Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 462)

 

Interactions: May increase effects of substances that act upon the central nervous system (alcohol, barbiturates, psycopharmaceutical agents) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 573)

Passiflora incarnata

Passiflora_incarnata

Cécilia COURTINARD. (n.d.). La Passiflora. Retrieved from: http://coclo63.free.fr/botanique.html

Passiflora incarnata & Hymenoptera

Jackson, L. (2003). Passiflora incarnata/Purple Passionflower. Retrieved from: http://www.floridanature.org/species.asp?species=passiflora_incarnata

Botanical Name: Passiflora incarnata
Common name: Passionflower
Family: Passifloraceae
Parts used: Aerial Parts (Bone, 2003, p. 362)

Constituents:

  • Alkaloids (harman, harmaline, harmol, harmine, harmalol, passaflorine)
  • Flavonoids (apigenin, homoorientin, isovitexin, kemferol, luteolin, orientin, quercetin, rutin, saoibaretin, saponarin and vitexin.)

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)

 

Folklore/History: The name passionflower has been said to be derived from the plants similarity to the “crown of thorns” worn by Christ during the crucifixion (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 288)

Native Americas used passionflower topically for ringworm, swelling and sore eyes (Bone, 2003, p. 363)

 

Actions

  • Anxiolytic (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 288; Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Sedative (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 288; Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Hypnotic (Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Anodyne (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)
  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)

 

Indications (contemporary)

  • Anxiety with nervous restlessness (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 288)
  • Insomnia (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 288; Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Aphrodisiac (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 288)

Due to presence of a benzoflavone moiety, which has shown to increase the fertility and libido of male rats in vivo (Braun & Cohen, 2005, pp. 288-289).

  • Adjuvant therapy for opiate withdrawal (Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Nervous symptoms resulting in:
    • Menstrual disturbances
    • Nervous headache
    • Nervous tachycardia (Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Neuralgic pain (Bone, 2003, p. 362)
  • Generalized seizures, epilepsy (Bone, 2003, pp. 362-363)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 40%): 1-4mL taken once in evening to induce sleep.
  • Infusion: 1 tsp/1 cup water. Infuse for 15mins. Take before sleep or twice a day for other conditions (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 570)

 

Cautions & Contradictions: Excessive doses may cause drowsiness (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 289)

 

Combinations: Combine with Valeriana officinalis for insomnia (Bone, 2003, p. 362)

 

Interactions:

  • May have additive effects when combined with benzodiazepines (combination could be beneficial under medical supervision) (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 289).
  • May cause additional CNS sedation when taken in combination with barbiturates (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 289).

Humulus lupulus

Humulus_lupulus

Southwest school of Botanical Medicine. (n.d.). Humulus lupulus.jpg – European Hops (99K) 819 X 1281. Retrieved from: http://www.swsbm.com/NGSImages/NGS.html

Botanical Name: Humulus lupulus
Common name: Hops (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
Family: Cannabacceae (strobils) (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
Parts used: Inflorescence (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)

History and folklore: Most famous for producing bitter flavour in beer. Traditionally the herb is used in digestive complaints as a bitter tonic that has antispasmodic effects. Traditional indications include neuralgia, depression and pain. The herb has also been used to “ween” patients off sedative medication (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 238).

 

Constituents: Volatile oil (humulene, beta-caryophyllene, myrcene and farnesence); Flavonoids (notably glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin); Oleoresin; Humulone; Lupulene; Estrogenic substances; Tannins; Lipids; Xanthohumol (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)

 

Actions

  • Sedative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 238)
  • Hypnotic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Antimicrobial (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 238)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Astringent (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)

 

Indications

  • Insomnia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Tension and anxiety (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 238)
  • Nervous system tension related restlessness, headache and indigestion (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557; Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 238)
  • Hysteria (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Delirium tremens (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Facial neuralgia (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Excessive sexual excitement (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

Tincture (1:5 in 40%): 1-4mL/tds

Infusion: 1 tsp/1 cup water. Infuse for 10-15mins. Drink at night

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

  • Contraindicated in depression (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • May increase effects of alcohol and sedatives (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 557)
  • Contraindicated in estrogenic related tumors (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 238)
  • Not recommended in pregnancy (Braun & Cohen, 2005, p. 238).

Eschscholtzia californica

Eschscholzia_californica_i01

Step, E., & Watson, W. (1896). Favorite Flowers of Garden and Greenhouse. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eschscholzia_californica#mediaviewer/File:Eschscholzia_californica_i01.jpg

Botanical Name: Eschscholtzia californica
Common name: California Poppy (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
Family: Papveraceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
Parts used: Dried aerial parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)

Folklore: Used by Native Americans and Hispanics for it’s sedative and analgesic effects. Traditionally prescribed for toothache in children (Bone, 2003, p. 124).

 

Constituents:

  • Alkaloids: chelerythrine (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 230)
  • Isoquinoline alkaloids (eshscholtzine and californidine) (Bone, 2003, p. 124)
  • Flavonoids (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)

 

Actions

  • Nervine (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
  • Hypnotic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547; Bone, 2003, p. 124)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
  • Anodyne (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
  • Anxiolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 124)
  • Mild sedative (Bone, 2003, p. 124)
  • Analgesic (Bone, 2003, p. 124)

Extracts have been shown to inhibit enzymatic degradation of catecholamines, the synthesis of adrenalin, dopamine, beta-hydroxylase and monoamine oxidase (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 230).

  • Antitumor

Alkaloid constituent chelerythrine is a well known protein kinase C inhibitor, which has antitumor activity (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 230).

  • Antiinflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2010, p. 230)

 

Indications

  • Overexcitment and sleeplessness in children (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
  • Gallbladder colic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)
  • Bone suggests Californian poppy to be useful in painful conditions where morphine or codeine may be used (2003, p. 124)
  • Anxiety (Bone, 2003, p. 124)
  • Disturbed sleep (Bone, 2003, p. 124)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

Tincture (1:5 in 25%)

  • To promote sleep 1-4mL at night
  • For antispasmodic indications 0.5-3mL/tds

Infusion

  • To promote restful sleep 1-2 tsp dried herb/1 cup water. Infuse 10 mins. Drink at night

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)

 

Cautions & Contradictions: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 124)

 

Combinations:

  • Combined with Corydalis cava for disturbed sleep (Bone, 2003, p. 124)

 

Interactions

  • Has additive effects when combines with other sedatives (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 547)

Schisandra chinensis

cytryniec-chinski-schisandra-chinensis-30-nasion_0_b-1

Botanical Name: Schisandra chinensis
Common name: Schisandra, Wu-Wie-Zi, Schizandra (Kuhn & Winston, 2001, p. 295) Gomishi (Heinrich, Barnes, Gibbons & Williamson, 2004, p. 281)
Family: Schisandraceae (Kuhn & Winston, 2001, p. 295)
Parts used: Fruit (Alexander & Wang, 2012, p. 892)

 

Constituents

  • Dibenzocyclooctene ligans such as schisandrin (Provino, 2010, p. 44)
  • Lignan phytoestrogens or “Gomisins” (Alexander & Wang, 2012, p. 892)

 

Actions

  • Adaptogen (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 168)
  • Nervous system trophorestorative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 276)
  • Hepatoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 168; Zhu, Lin, Yeung & Lin, 1999, Abstract)
  • Antioxidant (Alexander & Wang, 2012, p. 892)
  • Sedative/hypnotic (Alexander & Wang, 2012, p. 892)

 

Qualities

Schisandra is originally a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) herb, its Chinese name “wu-wei-zi”, translates to “five flavor berry”, based on the “Five Element” model of TCM. These five flavours represent the 5 visceral organs of the body (Ko & Chiu, 2006, p. 171).

 

History & Traditional Use

Native to Northern China, Korea, Japan and Eastern Russia (Henrich et al., 2004, p. 281). Traditionally considered a tonic, increasing energy, prolonging life and promoting male fertility (Henrich et al., 2004, p. 281).

 

Indications (contemporary)

  • Hypertension: Active constituent ‘Gomisin A’ significantly reduces blood pressure and promotes vasodilation (Alexander & Wang, 2012, p. 892).
  • Cirrhosis and Liver Disease: Possesses both hepatoprotective and trophorestorative properties (Bone & Mills, 2013, p216). Key herb for boosting both phase 1 and phase 2 of liver detoxification (Bone & Mills, 2013, p216).
  • Ageing (Ko & Chiu, 2006, p. 175; Heinrich et al., 2004, p. 281).
  • Kidney Disease (Heinrich et al., 2004, p. 281)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Dried berry: 1.5-6g/day
  • Capsule: 500mg capsules, up to 5/day
  • Decoction: 1tsp/1 cup of water tid
  • Tincture (1:5 in 35% alcohol): 2-4mL/tid

(Kuhn & Winston, 2001, p. 297)

 

Cautions

  • No adverse effect reported in doses up to 91.1mg/day (Conquer et al., 2013, p. 5).
  • Reputed to increase gastric acidity (Heinrich et al., 2004, p. 281)

 

Contradictions

  • Pregnancy (potential for uterine stimulation)
  • Epilepsy

(Heinrich et al., 2004, p. 281)

REFERENCE

Alexander, J., & Wang, Y. (2012). Therapuetic potential of Schissandra chinensis extracts for treatment of hypertension. Introduction to: ‘Antihypertensive effect of gosmin A from Schisandra chinensis on anqiotensin II-induced hypertension via preservation of nitric oxide bioavailability’ by Park et al. Hypertension Research, 35, 892-893. doi: 10.1038/hr.2012.101

Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy: Modern Herbal Medicine (2nd ed.). U.S.A: Churchill Livingston/Elsevier

Conquer, J., Costa, D., Galera, M., Pham, H., Isaac, R., Nummy, K., Seamon, E., Ulbritch, C., Varghese, M., Vera, M., Weissner, W. and Woods, J. (2013). Schisandra (Schisandra chinensis, Schisandra spenanthera). Natural Standard Professional Monograph. Retrieved from: http://www.naturalstandard.com.ezproxy.think.edu.au/databases/herbssupplements/schizandrae.asp?#

Heinrich, M., Barnes, J., Gibbons, S., & Williamson, E. (2004). Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Ko, K., & Chiu, P. (2006). Biochemical Basis of the “Qi-Invigorating” action of Schissandra Berry (Wu-Wei-Zi) in Chinese Medicine. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 34(2), 171-176. Retrieved from: http://web.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.think.edu.au/ehost/detail?sid=8f0e136d-d0ed-4d1f-a21a-c1558e80588d%40sessionmgr4005&vid=1&hid=4112&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=awh&AN=20191711

Kuhn, M. & Winston, D. (2001). Herbal Therapy & Supplementations: A Scientific & Traditional Approach. Philadelphia: Lippincott.

Image: Alejka. (n.d.). Cytryniec chiński (Schisandra chinensis) 30 nasion. Retrieved from: http://alejka.pl/cytryniec-chinski-schisandra-chinensis-30-nasion.html

Artemisia absinthium

wormwo37-l

Botanical name: Artemisia absinthium

Common name: Wormwood (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 530)

Family: Asteraceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 530)

Part used: Leaf & flowering top (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 530)

 

Active constituents

  • Volatile oil: including a- and b-thujone
  • Sesquiterpene lactones: absinthin, artemetin, matricin, isoabsinthin and artemolin
  • Acetylenes
  • Flavonoids
  • Phenolic acids
  • Ligans: diayangmbin and epiyangambin

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 530)

 

Actions

  • Analgesic
  • Anthelminthic
  • Anti inflammatory
  • Antiseptic
  • Antispasmodic
  • Antitumor
  • Carminative
  • Cholagogue
  • Diuretic
  • Emmenagogue
  • Hypnotic
  • Stimulant
  • Tonic

(Armstrong et al., 2014)

 

Indications (traditional)

Artemisia absinthium has a long history of use in Chinese Medicine, using the leaves and flowers of the plant (known as qinghaosu) in the preparation of teas (Armstrong et al., 2014).

 

Historical and theoretical indications include:

  • Anorexia nervosa
  • Antiatherogenic
  • Back pain
  • Bloating
  • Convulsions
  • Depression
  • Dropsy
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Hemorrhoids
  • Herpes
  • Insect and spider bites
  • Jaundice
  • Labor pains
  • Parasitic worm infections
  • Stomach ailments

(Armstrong et al., 2014, p. 2).

 

Indications (contemporary)

C grade evidence suggests the herb’s use in the case of Crohn’s disease and Malaria (Armstrong et al., 2014, p. 2).

Insufficient available evidence suggests that Artemisia absinthium should be avoided during pregnancy and in children under the age of 18 (Armstrong et al., 2014, pp. 4, 6).

The World Health Organisation strongly discourage the use of the herb as sole treatment for Malaria, due to the potential for malarial parasite to develop resistance to it (Armstrong et al., 2014, p. 2).

 

Preparation & Dosage

The herb is traditionally prepared in fluid extract, pills, tinctures and capsules.

Infusion: 1-2 tsp (dried herb) infused for 10-15min in 1 cup of boiling water/tds.

Tinctures: 1-4mL tds

 

Cautions

  • Not listed in the U.S FDA Generally Recognised As Safe list and is not recommended for oral administration (Armstrong et al., 2014, p. 2).
  • There have been adverse reactions recorded with Artemisia absinthium in individuals with cardiovascular conditions, gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, neurological conditions and renal dysfunction (Armstrong et al., 2014, p. 2).

 

Contradictions

Known allergy (Armstong et al., 2013)

 

Interactions

Artemisia absinthium has reported to have a negative interaction with alcohol, antiangiogenic drugs and antiarrhythmic agents (Armstrong et al., 2014, p. 6).

 

REFERENCE

Armstrong, E., Conquer, J., Costa, D., Isaac, R., Lynch, M., McCarthy, M., Nguyen, S., Rusie, E., Grimes Serrano, J., Shaffer, M., Smith, M., Woods, J., & Zhou, S. (2014). Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium). Natural Standard Monograph. Retrieved from: http://www.naturalstandard.com.ezproxy.think.edu.au/databases/herbssupplements/wormwood.asp?#

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Image: Grieve, M. (1995). Wormwoods. Botanical.com. Retrieved from: https://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/w/wormwo37.html