Salix alba

Salix alba

Plantelemedicinale. (2014). Salcie – tratamente naturiste salcie. Retrieved from: http://plantelemedicinale.info/p-s/salcie-tratamente-naturiste-salcie/

Botanical Name: Salix alba
Common name: White willow (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935)
Family: Salicaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)
Parts used: Bark (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)

History/Folklore: Generally considered to be the natural form and original source of aspirin (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579).

Constituents: Phenolic glycosides (incl. salicin and salicylic acid); tannins; catechin; p-coumaric acid and flavanoids (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)

Actions

  • Analgesic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579; Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 935, 937)
  • Tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)
  • Antipyretic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Antirheumatic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935)

 

Indications

  • Lower back pain (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Temporary relief of acute or chronic musculoskeletal pain (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935)
  • Rheumatism (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)
  • Gout (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)
  • Fevers (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935)
  • Headache (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 935; Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Tincture (1:5 in 25%): 3-6mL/tds
  • Decoction: 1-2tsp dried bark/1 cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)           

 

Cautions

  • Willow bark cannot be substituted for asprin in the prevention of stoke or myocardial infarction (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)
  • Use cautiously in inflammation or ulceration of the gastro-intestinal tract (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)
  • Iron deficiency anemia due to tannin content (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)
  • Severe constipation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)

 

Contraindications

  • Sensitivity or allergy to salicylates (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)
  • In individuals with glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)
  • Children with chickenpox or other viral infections due to association between salicylates and Rene’s Syndrome (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Pregnancy and lactation (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Congestive heart failure (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Individuals with elevated serum calcium due to presence of cadmium (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Interactions:

  • May potentiate effects of anti-platelet medication (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)
  • Warfarin and other anti-coagulant medication (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 940)

Zizyphus spinosa

201212050952596831

Maya. (2010). Zizyphus spinosa cv Suanzao. Retrieved from: http://e.zgqjz.com/2012/12/05/1180.htm

Botanical Name: Zizyphus spinosa
Common name: Suan zao ren (Chinese), sour jujube, spiny ziziphus, wild ziziphus (Natural Standard, 2014)
Family: Rhamnaceae (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
Parts used: Seed and stem bark (Natural Standard, 2014)

Quality: sour, sweet taste and neutral temperature (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)

Constituents: Saponins, alkaloids, flavones and vitamin C (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)

Actions

  • Analgesic (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Antipyretic (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Anxiolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 279)
  • Hypnotic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 274)
  • Sedative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 274)

 

Indications

  • Hypertension (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Insomnia (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446; Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Irritability (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Anxiety (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 278)
  • Nocturnal emissions (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • 10-30g/day (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)

 

Cautions

  • Pregnancy (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 447)

 

Contraindications:

  • TCM specific: severe diarrhoea and repletion heat (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 447)
  • Individuals with a latex allergy (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Individuals with allergy to Rhamnaceae (buckthorn) family (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Due to sedative nature, individuals should not operate heavy machinery under the influence of this herb (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Combinations: In TCM Ziziphus is an ingredient in Suan Zao Ren Tang decoction, which is administered for insomnia, nocturnal emissions, somnolence, neurasthenia, menopausal symptoms and excessive worrying (Natural Standard, 2014).

 

Interactions:

  • May potentialte effects of barbiturates and other sedative medications (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)
  • Decreases the effect of caffeine (Hempen & Fischer, 2007, p. 446)

Rehmannia glutinosa

Scrophularianingpoensis
MDidea. (2013). Rehmannia glutinosa and Its Relatives. Retrieved from: http://www.mdidea.com/products/new/new08611.

Botanical Name: Rehmannia glutinosa
Common name: Rehmannia,
Family: Gesneriaceae (Bone, 2003, p. 386), Scrophulariaceae (Zhang, Li & Jia, 2008, Abstract)
Parts used: Root (Bone, 2003, p. 386)

Quality: Neutral/warm (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 780)

Constituents: Iridoid glycosides (Bone, 2003, p. 387).

Actions

  • Antipyretic (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Adrenal tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Anti-haemorrhagic (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone, 2003, p. 386)

 

TCM specific: Tonifies blood, tonifies yin and tonifies jing (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 780)

 

Indications

  • Rheumatoid arthritis (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Asthma (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Urticaria (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Chronic nephritis (in combination) (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Fevers (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Haemorrhage (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Skin rashes (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Insomnia (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Constipation (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Suporting adrenal function (notably in the presence of hypertension) (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • Preventing suppressive effects of corticosteroid drugs (Bone, 2003, p. 386)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 4.5-8.5mL/day or 20-60mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 386)
  • 10g/day (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 780)

 

Cautions: Excess dosage may lead to abdominal distension and loose stool (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 780)

 

Contraindications: In TCM the herb in contraindicated in individuals with spleen and stomach deficiency, lack of appetite and diarrhoea (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 781)

 

Combinations:

  • For dizziness, palpitations, insomnia and menstrual disturbances or heavy uterine bleeding: combine with Angelica sinensis or Paeoniae lactiflora (radix) (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 781)
  • For insomnia and palpitations: combine with Angelica sinensis or Paeoniae lactiflora (radix) or Ziziphus spinosa (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 781)

Andrographis paniculata

fleurandrographis2

Botanical Name: Andrographis paniculata

Common name: Chiretta, King of Bitters, Kalmegh (Bengali, Hindi), Kirata (Sanskrit), chuan xin lian (Chinese) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360).

Family: Acanthaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 361)

Parts used: Whole herb (including root) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360)

 

Constituents

  • Diterpenoid lactones (“andrographolides”): Algycones and Glucosides
  • Diterpene dimmers
  • Flavonoids
  • Xanathones (root)

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360)

 

Actions

  • Bitter tonic
  • Choleretic
  • Immunostimulant
  • Hepatoprotective
  • Antipyretic
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antiplatelet
  • Antioxidant

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360).

 

History

Used medicinally in Ayurvedic medicine, Chinese medicine and throughout South-East Asia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360).

 

In Chinese medicine the herb is considered bitter and cold (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360).

 

Traditional thereaputic use includes

  • Loss of appetite
  • Atonic dyspepsia
  • Flatulence
  • Diarrhoea
  • Dysentery
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Bowel complaints in children
  • Sluggish liver
  • Diabetes
  • General debility
  • Convalescence after fevers
  • Respiratory and skin infections

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360)

 

Indications (contemporary)

  • Bacterial and viral infections
    • Common cold
    • Acute sinusitis
    • Pharyngotonsillitis
    • Enteric evidence
  • Prevention of urinary tract infections
  • Prophylaxis of common cold
  • Familial Mediterranean fever
  • Ulcerative colitis

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360).

 

Preparation

  • Decoction (dried or fresh herb)
  • Infusion
  • Fluid extract
  • Tablet or capsule
  • Succus (leaf juice)

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360)

 

Dosage

Preventative dose (adult): 2-3g or equivalent per day

During infection: 6g/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360)

 

Cautions

High doses may cause gastric discomfort, loss of appetite and vomiting (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 370)

 

Contradictions:

  • Pregnancy, notably early pregnancy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 369)
  • States of hyperacidity (i.e. duodenal ulcers or gastrointestinal reflux) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 369).

 

Combinations

As Andrographis is considered “cold”, is it traditionally combined with warming herbs such as ginger, Astragalus and tulsi (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 361).

 

REFERENCE
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Image: Imbert, P. (2011). Andrographis, Between tradition and modernity. Retrieved from: http://www.entretiens-internationaux.mc/andrographis-between-tradition-and-modernity-61.html

Artemisia annua

Artemisia annua

Image I

image 2

Image II

Botanical Name: Artemisia annua
Common name: Annual Wormwood (Mueller, Runyambo, Wagner, Borrmann, Dietz & Heide, 1984, Abstract). Sweet Annie, Sweet Wormwood, Chinese Wormwood, Ging Hoa (Chinese) (Giese, Costa, Goodfriend, Hegarty, Tanguay-Colucci, Ulbricht & Weissner, 2013).
Family: Asteraceae (Giese et al., 2013)
Parts used: Aerial parts

 

Constituents

  • Artemisinin
  • Deoxyartemisinin
  • Artemisinic acid
  • Arteannuin-B
  • Stigmasterol
  • Friedelin
  • Friedelan-3 beta-ol
  • Artemetin
  • Guercetagetin 6,7,3′,4′-tetramethyl ether

(Giese et al., 2013)

 

Actions

  • Antipyretic
  • Antineoplastic
  • Antiviral
  • Antimalarial
  • Immunosepressive

(Giese et al., 2013)

  • Anticancer (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 459; Giese et al., 2013)

 

Indications

  • Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat fevers (Giese et al., 2013)
  • Active constituent artemisinin has shown to be beneficial in the treatment of Malaria (Mueller et al., 1984, Abstract; Giese et al., 2013; Hoffmann et al., 2003, p. 459)
  • Preliminary evidence has shown antineoplastic and antiviral activity (Giese et al., 2013).
  • Active constituent has been studies to be effective against a wide varieties of cancers, notably leukemia and colon cancer. Intermediate activity was shown against melanoma, breast, ovarian, prostate, CNS and renal cancer (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 459).

 

Preparation & Dosage

No standardisation (Giese et al., 2013)

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

  • Pregnancy
  • Individuals recovering from surgery
  • May have immunosepressive activity
  • Use catiously in individuals with compromised cardiac or neural function as related species have exhibited cardiotoxic and neuro toxic activity

(Giese et al., 2013)

 

REFERENCE
Mueller, M., Runyambo, N., Wagner, I., Borrmann, S., Dietz, K., & Heide, L. (1984)Randomized controlled trial of a traditional preparation of Artemisia annua L. (Annual Wormwood) in the treatment of malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg., 98(5), 318-21. Retrieved from:http://www.naturalstandard.com/news/news200405052.asp

Giese, N., Costa, D., Goodfriend, J., Hegarty, J., Tanguay-Colucci, S., Ulbricht, C., & Weissner, W. (2013). Sweet annie (Artemisia annua). Natural Standard Professional Monograph. http://www.naturalstandard.com.ezproxy.think.edu.au/databases/herbssupplements/sweetannie.asp?#

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Image I: Retrieved from: http://hollirichey.com/tag/artemisia-annua/

Image II: Yashiya, A. (n.d.). Ahaya Yasiya-Dietary Law Recipes!. Retrieved from: http://ahayahyashiyadietrylawsrecipes.wordpress.com/2014/03/14/sweet-wormwood-or-artemisia-annua-herb-kills-98-of-the-cancer-cells/

Euphorbia hirta

euphorbiahirta copy

Botanical Name: Euphorbia hirta
Common name: Dudeli (Hindi), Asthma herb (English) (Kumar et al., 2010)
Family: Euphorbiaceae (Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1).
Parts used: Leaf, stem (Kumar et al., 2010)

Constituents

  • Alkanes
  • Triterpenes
  • Phytosterols
  • Tannins
  • Polyphenols
  • Falonoids

(Kumar et al., 2010)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Ahmad, Khan, Bani, Kaul, Sultan, Ali, Satti, Bakheet, Attia, Zoheir & Abd-Allah, 2013, Abstract; Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1; Kumar et al., 2010)
  • Antibacterial, antifungal (Kumar et al., 2010; Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1)
  • Anticancer (Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1; Kumar et al., 2010)
  • Antithelmintic (Kumar et al., 2010; Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1)
  • Antioxidant (Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1)
  • Antipyretic (Ahmad et al., 2013, Abstract; Kumar et al., 2010)
  • Antispasmodic (Kumar et al., 2010)
  • Anxiolytic (Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1; Kumar et al., 2010)
  • Diuretic (Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1)
  • Hypotensive (Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1; Kumar et al., 2010)
  • Immunosepressor (Ahmad et al., 2013, Abstract)

 

History and Traditional Use

There are over 1600 species in the Euphorbia genus, which is characterised by the excretion of a white milky latex which is often toxic (Kumar et al., 2010). Euphorbia hirta is a common weed used in Auyrvedic medicine, traditional medicine in Africa, Australia and Malaysia (Ahmad, et al., 2013, Abstract; Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1; Kumar et al., 2010).

In Ayurvedic medicin Euphorbia hirta is used to treat female disorders, respiratory ailments, worm infestations in children, jaundice, gonorrhoea, digestive problems and tumours Kumar et al., 2010

In traditional Malay medicine Euphorbia hirta is used for gastrointestinal disorders and in the respiratory system (Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1).

 

Indications

Respiratory

  • Asthma
  • Bronchitis
  • Hay fever

Gastrointestinal

  • Diarrhoea
  • Dysentery and
  • Parasites

Urinary

  • Has a sedative effect of urinary tract

 

Preparation

Dried Herb Decoction: often used for skin disease

Fresh Herb Decoction: Used as a gargle for thrush

A leaf poultice is used to treat swelling and boils

(Kumar et al., 2010).

 

Cautions & Contradictions

Has shown to lower sperm count in studies and therefore may reduce fertility (Kumar et al., 2010).

 

REFERENCE
Ahmad, S. F., Khan, B., Bani, S., Kaul, A., Sultan, P., Ali, S. A., Satti, N. K., Bakheet, S. A., Attia, S. M., Zoheir, K. M., & Abd-Allah, A. R. (2013). Immunosuppressive effects of Euphorbia hirta in experimental animals.Inflammopharmacology, 21(2), 161-8. DOI: 10.1007/s10787-012-0144-6

Ahmad, S. F., Attia, S. M., Bakheet, S. A., Ashour, A. E., Zoheir, K. M., & Abd-Allah, A. R. (2014). Anti-inflammatory effect of Euphorbia hirta in an adjuvant-induced arthritic murine model. Inflammopharmacology, 43(3), 197-211. DOI: 10.3109/08820139.2013.857350

Kumar, S., Malhotra, R., & Kumar, D. (2010). Euphorbia hirta: Its chemistry, traditional and medicinal uses, and pharmacological activities. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 4(7), 58-61. doi:  10.4103/0973-7847.65327

Perumal, S., & Mahmud, R. (2013). Chemical analysis, inhibition of biofilm formation and biofilm eradication potential of Euphorbia hirta L. against clinical isolates and standard strains. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 13: 346 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-346

Image: Pati, K. (2010). ASTHMA WEED, Euphorbia hirta. Retrieved from: http://kumarpati.wordpress.com/2010/08/04/asthma-weed-euphorbia-hirta/

Rumex crispus

Rumex_crispus_Sturm52

Image I

plants_366_mid

Image II

Botanical Name: Rumex crispus
Common name: Yellow dock, Curled dock (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
Family: Polygonaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
Parts used: Root (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578), Arial parts (Coruh, Gormez,Ercisli & Sengul, 2008, p. 634).

 

Constituents:

  • Anthraquinone glycosides (nepodin, physcion and emodin)
  • Tannins
  • Oxalates

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)

 

Actions

  • Alterative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Diuretic (Coruh et al., 2008, p. 634).
  • Laxative (Coruh et al., 2008, p. 634; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578).
  • Hepatic(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Cholagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 578)
  • Antipyretic (Coruh et al., 2008, p. 634).
  • Antibacterial & Antioxidant (aerial parts) (Coruh et al., 2008, p. 637).

 

Indications (traditional)

The genus has being used in traditional Turkish medicine to treat disorders such as eczema, constipation and diarrhoea (Coruh et al., 2008, p. 634). The seeds are cultivated in Turkish folk medicine and the leaves used as a vegetable (Coruh et al., 2008, p. 634). Traditionally yellow dock is seen as blood strengtheners, however few studies have being conducted to support this action (Giese, Hegarty, Tanguay-Colucci, Ulbricht & Weissner, 2013).

 

Indications (contemporary)

  • Skin complaints (eczema, psoriasis, urticaria and prurigo)
  • Action on bowel by anthraquinone milder (tannin content)
  • Constipation
  • Promotes flow of bile
  • “blood cleansing”
  • Jaundice (gall bladder)

(Hoffmann, 2003, pp. 578-579)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Decoction: 1-2 tsp/1cup water/tds
  • Tincture (1:5): 1-2mL/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)

 

Cautions

Fresh root may cause vomiting (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 579)

 

Contradictions

A fatal poisoning from yellow dock has being reported, and it is suggested that quantities exceeding 100g of the leaves may have serious effects (Giese et al., 2013, p. 2-4).

 

REFERENCE

Coruh, I., Gormez, A. A.,Ercisli, S., & Sengul, M. (2008). Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Activity of Rumex crispus Grown Wild in Turkey. Pharmaceutical Biology,
46(9), 634–638. DOI: 10.1080/13880200802182240

Giese, N., Hegarty, J., Tanguay-Colucci, S., Ulbricht, C., & Weissner, W. (2013). Yellow Dock (Rumex crispus). Natural Standard Professional Monograph. Retrieved from: http://www.naturalstandard.com/index-abstract.asp?create-abstract=yellowdock.asp&title=Yellow%20dock

Image I: Sturm, J. (2009). Rumex crispus. Retrieved from: http://www.hear.org/pier/imagepages/singles/Rumex_crispus_Sturm52.htm

Image II: Earl, D. (2006). National Education Network. Retrieved from: http://gallery.nen.gov.uk/asset62752-.html