Asparagus racemosa

Asparagus racemosus-1

Prasad, S. R. (n.d.). ASPARAGUS (Shatavari) as Multi target Drug in Women. Retrieved from: http://technoayurveda.com/Shatavari.html

Botanical Name: Asparagus racemosa
Common name: Shatavari, Wild Asparagus, Satavar (Hindi), Satavari (Sanskrit) (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
Family: Liliaceae (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
Parts used: Root (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
Quality: Bitter, sweet, cooling (Pole, 2006, p. 217)

History: Shatavari is regarded in Ayurvedic medicine as part of the rasayana group, which translates to the path that primordial tissue takes (Bone, 2003, p. 410). Australian aboriginals used shatavari topically in a wash for scabies, ulceration and chicken pox (Bone, 2003, p. 410).

Constituents: Steroidal saponins (incl. shatavarin I); alkaloids (incl. pyrrolizidine alkaloid ‘asparagamine A’); and mucilage (Bone, 2003, p. 410).

Actions

  • Tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Galactagogue (Bone, 2003, p. 409; (\Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Sexual tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Female reproductive tonic (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Adaptogen (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Sapsmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Antidiarrheal (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Diuretic (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Aphrodisiac (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Immunosuppressant (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Immunomodulator (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Nervine (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Demulcent (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Anti-bacterial (Pole, 2006, p. 217)

Indications

  • Promote conception (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Sexual debility (Both male and female) (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Infertility (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Impotence (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Promote lactation (Bone, 2003, p. 409; Pole, 2006, p. 217)
  • Menopause (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Promote appetite in children (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Infections (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Diarrhea (Bone, 2003, p. 409)
  • Colic (Pole, 2006, p. 217)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Liquid extract (1:2): 4.5-8.5mL/day or 30-60mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 409)

Contraindications

  • Acute lung congestion (Pole, 2006, p. 218)
  • High kapha and/or āma (Pole, 2006, p. 218)

Combinations: Combine with Ashwagandha for a uterine tonic or to promote fertility in both male and females (Pole, 2006, p. 218)

Interactions: None known (Bone, 2003, p. 409)

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Filipendula ulmaria

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Systematica (2013). Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. [as Spiraea ulmaria L.]. Retrieved from: http://www.systematica.org/post/41370444569/filipendula-ulmaria-l-maxim-as-spiraea

1600px-Filipendula_ulmaria_(flowers)

Hillewaert, H. (2008). Meadowsweet at Kampenhout, Belgium. Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Filipendula_ulmaria_%28flowers%29.jpg

Botanical Name: Filipendula ulmaria
Common name: Medowsweet (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
Family: Rosaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 743).
Parts used: Aerial parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)

History/Folklore:

  • One of the three herbs most sacred to the Druids (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742).
  • One of 50 ingredients in drink ‘Save’ mentioned in Chaucer’s Knight’s Tale (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742).
  • Salic acid (from which acetylsalicyclic is derived) was extracted from its flowerbud playing an important role in the development of aspirin (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742).

Constituents: Flavonoids (incl. rutin, glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol glycosides); hydrolysable tannins (notably rugosin-D); phenolic glycosides (incl. spiraein); and essential oil (containing salicylaldehyde, phenylethyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol and methylsalicylate) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 743).

Actions

  • Anti-ulcer (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 742, 743)
  • Antacid (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Diuretic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Mild urinary antiseptic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Astringent (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Anti-thrombotic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Anti-coagulant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)
  • Antibacterial (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Antimicrobial (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Immunomodulatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 743)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)
  • Gastroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)

Indications

  • Cervical dysplasia (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 742, 744)
  • Acne (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 691)
  • Wound healing (topical) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)

Traditional indicatons

  • Disorders of the upper GI tract (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Flatulence (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Dyspepsia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Indigestion (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Gastric reflux (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
  • Hyperacidity (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
  • Gastric ulcers (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Diarrhoea (notably in children) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Cystitis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Kidney stones (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742)
  • Gout and rheumatic disease (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
  • Fever (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 742; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Infusion: 12-18g dried herb/day
  • Liquid extract (1:1): 4.5-18mL/day
  • Tincture (1:5): 6-12ml/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 742-743)

Cautions

  • Constipation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Iron deficient anemia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Malnutrition (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Long term use of high doses not advised (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Due to presence of salicylates, caution is to be taken in individuals with salicylate sensitivity or glucose-6-phosphate deficiency (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 550)
  • Bleeding disorders, due to anticoagulant activity (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • Caution to be taken in children under 15 years old (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 745)

Contraindications: Pregnancy and lactation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)

Interactions:

  • Presence of tannins may interfere with absorption of metal ions, thiamine and alkaloids. It is recommended the herb to be taken at least 2hrs away from other minteral supplementation (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)
  • May theoretically potentiate effects of anticoagulant drugs (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 744)

Hemidesmus indicus

Shveta_Saarivaa1_Hemidesmus_indicus

Botanical Name: Hemidesmus indicus
Common name: Indian Sarsaparilla (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 169)
Family: Apocynaceae
Parts used: Root (Das & Bisht, 2013, Abstract)

 

Constituents
Volatile oil

  • 2-hydroxy-4-methylbenzaldehyde
  • Iedol
  • Nerolidol
  • Borneol
  • Linalyl acetate
  • Saliaylaldehyde
  • Isocaryophyllene
  • alpha-terpinyl acetate
  • 1,8 cineol

(Nagarajan, Jagan Mohan Rao, Gurudutt, 200, Abstract)

 

Actions

  • Immunosepressant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 169)
  • Antioxidant (Das & Bisht, 2013, Abstract)
  • Antimicrobial (Das & Bisht, 2013, Abstract)
  • Antileukemic (Ferruzzi, Turrini, Burattini, Falcieri, Poli, Mandrone, Sacchetti, Tacchini, Guerrini, Gotti, Hrelia, Cantelli-Forti & Fimognari, 2013, Abstract).

 

Indications

Auyrvedic herb, traditional indications include

  • Rheumatism
  • Leprosy
  • Impotence
  • Urinary Tract Infections
  • Skin Infections

(Das & Bisht, 2013, Abstract)

 

Indian traditional medicine practitioners use Hemidesmus indicus in conditions such as:

  • Blood disease
  • Dyspepsia
  • Cough
  • Poison
  • Menorrhagia
  • Fever
  • Diarrhoea

(Ferruzzi et al., 2013, Abstract).

 

Preparation & Dosage

Decoction (Ferruzzi et al., 2013, Abstract).

 

REFERENCE
Das, S., & Bisht, S. (2013). The bioactive and therapeutic potential of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. (Indian Sarsaparilla) root. Phytothereapy Research, 27(6), 791-801. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4788.

Ferruzzi, L., Turrini, E., Burattini, S., Falcieri, E., Poli, F., Mandrone, M., Sacchetti, G., Tacchini, M., Guerrini, A., Gotti, R., Hrelia, P., Cantelli-Forti, G., & Fimognari, C. (2013). Hemidesmus indicus induces apoptosis as well as differentiation in a human promyelocytic leukemic cell line. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 147(1), 84-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.02.009.

Nagarajan, S., Jagan Mohan Rao, L., & Gurudutt, K. N. (2001). Flavor and Fragrence Journal, 16(3), 212-214. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ffj.985/abstract

Image: Paranjpe, P. (n.d.). Sheveta-Saariv. Retrieved from: http://www.ayusoft.cdac.in/pshome/apps/en/src/Multimedia_Gallery/Herbs/Shveta_Saarivaa1_Hemidesmus_indicus-Preview.html

Artemisia annua

Artemisia annua

Image I

image 2

Image II

Botanical Name: Artemisia annua
Common name: Annual Wormwood (Mueller, Runyambo, Wagner, Borrmann, Dietz & Heide, 1984, Abstract). Sweet Annie, Sweet Wormwood, Chinese Wormwood, Ging Hoa (Chinese) (Giese, Costa, Goodfriend, Hegarty, Tanguay-Colucci, Ulbricht & Weissner, 2013).
Family: Asteraceae (Giese et al., 2013)
Parts used: Aerial parts

 

Constituents

  • Artemisinin
  • Deoxyartemisinin
  • Artemisinic acid
  • Arteannuin-B
  • Stigmasterol
  • Friedelin
  • Friedelan-3 beta-ol
  • Artemetin
  • Guercetagetin 6,7,3′,4′-tetramethyl ether

(Giese et al., 2013)

 

Actions

  • Antipyretic
  • Antineoplastic
  • Antiviral
  • Antimalarial
  • Immunosepressive

(Giese et al., 2013)

  • Anticancer (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 459; Giese et al., 2013)

 

Indications

  • Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat fevers (Giese et al., 2013)
  • Active constituent artemisinin has shown to be beneficial in the treatment of Malaria (Mueller et al., 1984, Abstract; Giese et al., 2013; Hoffmann et al., 2003, p. 459)
  • Preliminary evidence has shown antineoplastic and antiviral activity (Giese et al., 2013).
  • Active constituent has been studies to be effective against a wide varieties of cancers, notably leukemia and colon cancer. Intermediate activity was shown against melanoma, breast, ovarian, prostate, CNS and renal cancer (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 459).

 

Preparation & Dosage

No standardisation (Giese et al., 2013)

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

  • Pregnancy
  • Individuals recovering from surgery
  • May have immunosepressive activity
  • Use catiously in individuals with compromised cardiac or neural function as related species have exhibited cardiotoxic and neuro toxic activity

(Giese et al., 2013)

 

REFERENCE
Mueller, M., Runyambo, N., Wagner, I., Borrmann, S., Dietz, K., & Heide, L. (1984)Randomized controlled trial of a traditional preparation of Artemisia annua L. (Annual Wormwood) in the treatment of malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg., 98(5), 318-21. Retrieved from:http://www.naturalstandard.com/news/news200405052.asp

Giese, N., Costa, D., Goodfriend, J., Hegarty, J., Tanguay-Colucci, S., Ulbricht, C., & Weissner, W. (2013). Sweet annie (Artemisia annua). Natural Standard Professional Monograph. http://www.naturalstandard.com.ezproxy.think.edu.au/databases/herbssupplements/sweetannie.asp?#

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Image I: Retrieved from: http://hollirichey.com/tag/artemisia-annua/

Image II: Yashiya, A. (n.d.). Ahaya Yasiya-Dietary Law Recipes!. Retrieved from: http://ahayahyashiyadietrylawsrecipes.wordpress.com/2014/03/14/sweet-wormwood-or-artemisia-annua-herb-kills-98-of-the-cancer-cells/

Euphorbia hirta

euphorbiahirta copy

Botanical Name: Euphorbia hirta
Common name: Dudeli (Hindi), Asthma herb (English) (Kumar et al., 2010)
Family: Euphorbiaceae (Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1).
Parts used: Leaf, stem (Kumar et al., 2010)

Constituents

  • Alkanes
  • Triterpenes
  • Phytosterols
  • Tannins
  • Polyphenols
  • Falonoids

(Kumar et al., 2010)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Ahmad, Khan, Bani, Kaul, Sultan, Ali, Satti, Bakheet, Attia, Zoheir & Abd-Allah, 2013, Abstract; Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1; Kumar et al., 2010)
  • Antibacterial, antifungal (Kumar et al., 2010; Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1)
  • Anticancer (Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1; Kumar et al., 2010)
  • Antithelmintic (Kumar et al., 2010; Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1)
  • Antioxidant (Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1)
  • Antipyretic (Ahmad et al., 2013, Abstract; Kumar et al., 2010)
  • Antispasmodic (Kumar et al., 2010)
  • Anxiolytic (Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1; Kumar et al., 2010)
  • Diuretic (Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1)
  • Hypotensive (Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1; Kumar et al., 2010)
  • Immunosepressor (Ahmad et al., 2013, Abstract)

 

History and Traditional Use

There are over 1600 species in the Euphorbia genus, which is characterised by the excretion of a white milky latex which is often toxic (Kumar et al., 2010). Euphorbia hirta is a common weed used in Auyrvedic medicine, traditional medicine in Africa, Australia and Malaysia (Ahmad, et al., 2013, Abstract; Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1; Kumar et al., 2010).

In Ayurvedic medicin Euphorbia hirta is used to treat female disorders, respiratory ailments, worm infestations in children, jaundice, gonorrhoea, digestive problems and tumours Kumar et al., 2010

In traditional Malay medicine Euphorbia hirta is used for gastrointestinal disorders and in the respiratory system (Perumal & Mahmud, 2013, p. 1).

 

Indications

Respiratory

  • Asthma
  • Bronchitis
  • Hay fever

Gastrointestinal

  • Diarrhoea
  • Dysentery and
  • Parasites

Urinary

  • Has a sedative effect of urinary tract

 

Preparation

Dried Herb Decoction: often used for skin disease

Fresh Herb Decoction: Used as a gargle for thrush

A leaf poultice is used to treat swelling and boils

(Kumar et al., 2010).

 

Cautions & Contradictions

Has shown to lower sperm count in studies and therefore may reduce fertility (Kumar et al., 2010).

 

REFERENCE
Ahmad, S. F., Khan, B., Bani, S., Kaul, A., Sultan, P., Ali, S. A., Satti, N. K., Bakheet, S. A., Attia, S. M., Zoheir, K. M., & Abd-Allah, A. R. (2013). Immunosuppressive effects of Euphorbia hirta in experimental animals.Inflammopharmacology, 21(2), 161-8. DOI: 10.1007/s10787-012-0144-6

Ahmad, S. F., Attia, S. M., Bakheet, S. A., Ashour, A. E., Zoheir, K. M., & Abd-Allah, A. R. (2014). Anti-inflammatory effect of Euphorbia hirta in an adjuvant-induced arthritic murine model. Inflammopharmacology, 43(3), 197-211. DOI: 10.3109/08820139.2013.857350

Kumar, S., Malhotra, R., & Kumar, D. (2010). Euphorbia hirta: Its chemistry, traditional and medicinal uses, and pharmacological activities. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 4(7), 58-61. doi:  10.4103/0973-7847.65327

Perumal, S., & Mahmud, R. (2013). Chemical analysis, inhibition of biofilm formation and biofilm eradication potential of Euphorbia hirta L. against clinical isolates and standard strains. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 13: 346 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-346

Image: Pati, K. (2010). ASTHMA WEED, Euphorbia hirta. Retrieved from: http://kumarpati.wordpress.com/2010/08/04/asthma-weed-euphorbia-hirta/