Zingiber officinalis

1
Harvest Newsletter. (2011). Grow Local Ginger. Retrieved from: http://archive.constantcontact.com/fs033/1106770492400/archive/1107516061313.html

Botanical Name: Zingiber officinalis
Common name: Ginger
Family: Zinziberaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
Parts used: rhizome (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)

History/Folklore: Medicinal use of ginger is recorded in early Sanskrit and Chinese texts as well as in Ancient Greek, Roman and Arabic medical literature (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578).

Constituents: Essential oil (incl. zingiberene, sesquiphellandrene and β-bisabolene); gingerols and shogoals (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)

Actions

  • Carminative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Antiemetic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Peripheral circulatory stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Anti-platelet (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 578, 582)
  • Diaphoretic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578: Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Digestive stimulant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Anti-ulcer (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 581)
  • Anti-microbial (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 583)
  • Antiparasitic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 583)
  • Anti-tumor (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Rubefacient (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Cholagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)

 

Indications

  • Motion sickness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Morning sickness (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Post-operative and drug induced nausea (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 578-579)
  • Osteoarthritis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 570)
  • Gastroparesis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • Chilbains (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Stimulate appetite (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Chemotherapy-induce nausea (Ryan, Heckler, Roscoe, Dakhil, Kirshner, Flynn, Hickok & Morrow, 2011)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Fresh rhizome: 500-1000mg/tds
  • Dried rhizome: 500mg/2-4 times a day
  • Liquid extract (1:2): 0.7-3mL/day
  • Tincture (1:5): 1.7-7.5ml/day (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)

 

Cautions

  • May enhance bioavailability of other medications (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • May cause heart burn (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 579)
  • May have a blood thinning effect (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 578)
  • Some sources say it is unsuitable for morning sickness and results are conflicting (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)
  • Treatment during pregnancy should not exceed a daily dose of 2g of dried ginger (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)
  • Inhibits thromboxane synthase and acts as a prostaglandin agonist (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 597)

 

Contraindications:

  • Gallstones (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)

Interactions:

  • Increases bioavilability of other drugs by increasing absorption from GI tract and/or protecting the drug from metabolized by the liver’s first phase (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591).
  • In Individuals already taking blood thinning medication, daily dose of ginger should not exceed 4g (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)
  • May increase bleeding when combined with other anti-coagulants (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 591)
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Crataeva nurvala

amara02222

Forst, G. (1786). Crataeva religiosa -Tempelbaum – Temple Plant. Übersetzt von Alois Payer. Retrieved from: http://www.payer.de/amarakosa/amara205a.htm

Botanical Name: Crataeva nurvala

Common name: Crateva, Varuna (Sanskrit), Varun (Hindi), Buch-Hum.

Family: Capparidaceae (Bhattacharjee, Shashindara & Ashwathanaryana, 2012, p. 1162)

Parts used: Steam and root bark (Premila, 2006, p. 157)

 

Qualities: The bark is hot and bitter with a sharp, sweet taste (Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162)

 

Constituents:

  • Alkaloids: incl. cadabicine, cadabicine diacetate and cadabicine dimethyl ether
  • Sterols: incl. diosgenin, b-sitosterol
  • Flavonoids: incl. rutin and quercitin
  • Isothiocyanate glucoside: glucoapparin
  • Saponins,
  • Triterpenes, notably lupeol
  • Tannins
  • Glucosinolates
  • Phytosterols

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162; Premila, 2006, pp. 157-158).

 

Actions:

Active principle “lupeol” has potential diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-rheumatic, contraceptive, rubefacient and vesicant actions (Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162).

 

Additional traditional actions include

  • Bitter tonic
  • Laxative
  • Anti-emetic

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162).

 

Indications

Traditional Indications include:

  • Urolithiasis
  • Urinary infections
  • Kidney and bladder stones
  • Promote appetite

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, pp. 1162-1163; Premila, 2006, p. 157)

  • Breathing problems
  • Fever
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Weak immune system
  • Wound healing
  • Memory loss
  • Heart and lung weakness
  • Decrease secretion of bile and phlegm
  • Hepatitis
  • Edema
  • Ascites arthritis
  • Jaundice
  • Ecezma
  • Rabies
  • Birth control
  • Irregular menstruation
  • Convulsions
  • Tympanites

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, pp. 1162-1163).

  • Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
  • Rheumatism (internally and externally)

(Premila, 2006, p. 157)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

Decoction: In one trail a stem bark decoction of 1 part stem bark/16 parts water/tid for a period of 6 months in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy found to relieve related symptoms (Premila, 2006, p. 157)

Herbalists recommend around 3,000 – 6,000 mg crude herb per day (Herbosophy, 2014).

Scutellaria baicalensis

Øëåìíèê áàéêàëüñêèé – Scutellariae baicalensis

Image I

post-19386-1182271924

Image II

Botanical Name: Scutellaria baicalensis
Common name: Baical Skullcap, Chinese skullcap, huang quin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
Family: Lamiaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
Parts used: Root (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)

Constituents

Flavenoids and their glycosides

  • Baicalin and its aglycone: Baicalein
  • Wogonin
  • Resin
  • Tannins
  • Melatonin

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)

 

Baicalin is porely absorbed through the gut, however becomes hydrolysed to its alglycone baicalein by intestinal bacteria (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218).

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 219)
  • Antifibrotic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 219)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Anti-allergic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Hypotensive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Anti-platelet (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Antixiolytic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Antimicrobial, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 221-222)
  • Anti-ulcerogenic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Antidiabetic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Anti-emetic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 223)

 

History & Traditional Use

Traditionally used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to clear heat and dry dampness. (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218).

 

Indications

  • Respiratory infections (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Bone marrow stimulation during chemotherapy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Epilepsy (in combination) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Chronic active hepatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Liver fibrosis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Chronic inflammation
    • Asthma
    • Arthritis
    • Allergies (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Hepatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Common cold (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Nausea and vomiting (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Mild hyper-tension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Dried herb: 6-15g/day
  • Liquid extract: (1:2) 4.5-8.5mL/day in divided doses

 

Cautions: Safety in pregnancy has not being defined by clinical trials. The herb is used in TCM for “restless foetus” (threatened abortion) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Contradictions

  • Contradicted during interferon therapy
  • Contradicted in “cold” conditions in TCM

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Combinations

Scutellaria baicalensis is an ingredient in popular Chinese/Japanese formulation Minor Burpleureum Combination (Xiao Chai Hu Tang in Chinese and Sho-saiko-to in Japanese). This combination contains:

  • Bulpleurum falcatum
  • Scutellaria baicalensis
  • Pinellia ternata
  • Panax ginseng
  • Zizyphus jujuba
  • Glycyrrhiza uralensis
  • Zingiber officinale

This treatment has been used for 3000 years in the treatment of pyretic disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224).

 

REFERENCE
Braun, L., & Cohen, M. (2010). Herbs & Natural Supplements: An Evidence based Guide (3rd ed.). Chatswood NSW: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Image: Beauty & Health Philosophy. (2008-2014). Beauty & Health Philosophy. Retrieved from: http://nsp-zdorovje.narod.ru/fito/wlemnik-scutellaria.html

Image II: Molbiol.ur. (2001-2014). Шлемник байкальский (Scutellaria baicalensis, Labiatae/Lamiaceae). Retrieved from: http://molbiol.ru/forums/lofiversion/index.php/t173641.html

Berberis aquifolium

Mahonia_aquifolium_flowers2

Image I

Mahonia_aquifolium_plant

Image II

Botanical Name: Berberis aquifolium, Mahonia aquifolium (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
Common name: Oregon grape, Mountain grape, (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
Family: Berberidaceae (Natural Standard, 2013)
Parts used: rhizome, root and bark (Natural Standard, 2013)

 

Constituents

Isoquinoline alkaloids: berberine, hydratine and oxycanthine

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)

 

Actions

  • Cholagogue (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 210; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Alterative/Depurative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 318; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Laxative (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Antiemetic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Anticatarrhal (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)

 

Indications (traditional

Native to West Coast of North America, traditionally used by Native Americans for treatment of digestive problems and inflammatory skin conditions (Natural Standard, 2013, p. 564)

 

Indications

  • Chronic skin conditions (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Atopic dermatitis (Natural Standard, 2013; Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 318)
  • Psoriasis (Natural Standard, 2013; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Eczema (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Tonic for liver and gallbladder (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Stomach and gallbladder conditions associated with nausea and vomiting (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)
  • Wound healing (Natural Standard, 2013).

 

Preparation & Dosage

Tincture (1:5): 1-4mL/tds

Decoction: 1-2tsp of root in 1-cup water, simmer 10-15mins/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 564)

 

Cautions & Contradictions

  • Berbine constituent may worsen symptoms of jaundice (Natural Standard, 2013)
  • Excessive use is considered toxic, recommended to not exceed 2-3 weeks of oral use (Natural Standard, 2013)
  • To be used with caution in individuals with liver or gallbladder disease (Natural Standard, 2013)
  • Known allergy (Natural Standard, 2013)

 

REFERENCE
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Hoffmann, D. (1990). Holistic Herbal. London: Thorsons

Natural Standard (2013). Natural Standard Professional Monograph: Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifolium, Berberis aquifolium). Retrieved from: http://www.naturalstandard.com/databases/herbssupplements/mahonia.asp?#

Images: Missouri Plants. (2000). Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh) Nutt. Retrieved from: http://www.missouriplants.com/Yellowalt/Mahonia_aquifolium_page.html

Berberis vulgaris

epine-vinette

Botanical Name: Berberis vulgaris
Common name: Barberry (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 533)
Family: Berberidaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 533)
Parts used: Bark of root or stem (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 533)

Constituents

  • Isoquinoline alkaloids: berberine, berbamine
  • Chelidonic acid
  • Resin
  • Tannins

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 533)

 

Actions

  • Antiemetic
  • Bitter
  • Cholagogue
  • Hepatic
  • Laxative

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 533)

 

Indications (traditional)

  • Correcting liver function
  • Gallbladder disease
  • Jaundice
  • Spleen inflammation
  • Malaria

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 533)

  • Metabolic disorders
  • Diabetes
  • Joint pain
  • Symptoms of menopause
  • Cystitis

(Bryan, Catapang, Conquer, Culwell, Isaac, Izuchi, Kim, McCarthy, McGarry, Rusie, Shukia, Sparks, Tangvay-Colucci, Ulbricht, Vora, Weissner, Windsor & Ziss, 2014, p. 1)

 

Indications (contemporary)

  • Arthritis
  • Dental plaque
  • Metabolic disorders

(Bryan et al., 2014, p. 2)

  • Dysentery
  • Liver disease

(Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 216)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Fluid extract: 1-3.5mL/tds
  • Tincture: (1:5 in 60%) 1-2mL/tds
  • Decoction: 1tsp herb/1 cup water/tds

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 534)

 

Cautions

May have a negative impact on individuals with gastrointestinal disorders, liver or kidney disease (Heinrich, Barnes, Gibbons, & Williamson, 2012, p. 216).

 

Contradictions

  • Known allergy (Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 216).
  • Avoid during pregnancy (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 534

 

Interactions

  • May interact with anticolinergic agents, hypoglycemic agents, anti-platets/anti-coagulents, central nervous system depressents.
  • May interfere with anticancer drugs and cyclosporine

(Heinrich et al., 2012, p. 216).

 

REFERENCE

Bryan, J., Catapang, M., Conquer, J., Culwell, S., Isaac, R., Izuchi, N., Kim, H., McCarthy, M., McGarry, M., Rusie, E., Shukia, Y., Sparks, S., Tangvay-Colucci, S., Ulbricht, C., Vora, M., Weissner, W., Windsor, R., and Ziss, C. (2014). Barberyy (Berberis vulgaris). Natural Standard Monograph. Retrieved from: http://www.naturalstandard.com.ezproxy.think.edu.au/databases/herbssupplements/barberry.asp?

Heinrich, M., Barnes, J., Gibbons, S., and Williamson, E. (2012). Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinburugh: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Vermont: Healing Arts Press.

Image: Jardinage. (n.d.). Arbres fruitiers. Retrieved from: http://www.jardinage.eu/c-arbres-fruitiers-54