Cehaelis apecacuana/Cephaelis ipecacuanha*

botanical237455

Hayne, F. G. (1820). “Cephaelis Ipecacuanha”. Retrieved from: http://www.philographikon.com/botanicalsmixed.html

Botanical Name: Cehaelis apecacuana/Cephaelis ipecacuanha
Common name: Ipecacuanha (Grieves, 1971, p. 432)
Family: Rubiaceae (Grieves, 1971, p. 432)
Parts used: root (Grieves, 1971, p. 432)

History/Folklore: Native to Brazil, the Portugese name Ipecacuanha translates to ‘road-side-sick-making-plant’ (Grieves, 1971, p. 432).

Constituents: Alkaloids (emetine, cephaelin and psychotrin); crystalline saponin-like glucoside; bitter glucoside ‘Ipecacuanhic acid’; choline; resin; pectin; starch; calcium oxalate; volatile oil (Grieves, 1971, pp. 433-434)

 

Actions

  • Emetic (Grieves, 1971, p. 432)
  • Expectorant (Grieves, 1971, p. 434)
  • Diaphoretic (Grieves, 1971, p. 434)
  • Stimulates digestion (Grieves, 1971, p. 434)
  • Anthelmintic (Grieves, 1971, p. 434)

 

Traditional Indications*:

  • Dysentery (Grieves, 1971, p. 433)
  • Bronchitis & laryngitis (in combination) (Grieves, 1971, p. 434)

 

Cautions & Contraindications

  • Emetine may have a toxic effect on the heart (Grieves, 1971, p. 433)
  • May irritate skin to the extent of ulceration (Grieves, 1971, p. 434)

 

Combinations: Traditional recipe for Pulvis Ipecacuanhaea compositus also known as Drover’s Power: 1 part Ipecacuanha and 1 part Opium (Grieves, 1971, p. 434)

 

*The herb is scheduled in Australia in doses exceeding 0.02% emetine (Australian Government, 2013, p. 68)

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Cannabis sativa*

sativa-leaf-300x225

Autoflowering-cannabis.com. (2014). Cannabis Sativa Seeds. Retrieved from: http://www.autoflowering-cannabis.com/cannabis-sativa-seeds.html

Botanical Name: Cannabis sativa
Common name: Cannabis, Marijuana, Hemp
Family: Cannabaceae (Natural Stanndard, 2014)
Parts used: seed, seed oil, leaves

 

History/Folklore: Cannabis has been used for over 5000 years, with medicinal use recorded in China, Egypt, Indian, Europe, Russia, The Middle East, South East Asia and South Africa (Natural Standard, 2014)

Hemp refers to a variation of Cannabis, lower in delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) grown specifically for industrial, non-drug use (Natural Standard, 2014).

THC is the psycho-active component of the drug (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Constituents:

  • Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (notably 11-Hydroxy- delta-9-THC)
  • Cannabinoids
  • Cannabidiol (CBD and cannabinol, two such cannabinoids
  • Hempseed oil (a source of essential omega fatty acids) (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Gamma-linolenic acid (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 213)

 

Actions

  • Appetite stimulant (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Diuretic (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Anti-emetic (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Anti-pyretic (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Sedative (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Traditional Indications*

  • Neuropathic pain in Multiple Sclerosis (Iskedjian, Bereza, Gordon, Piwko & Einarson, 2007, Abstract)
  • Chronic pain (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Cautions

  • The herb has been associated with myocardial infarction (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • The herb has been shown to inhibit learning, memory and brain function (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • THC is associated with anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms, however these effects appear to be reduced by CBD (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • The herb is associated with a range of acute and chronic effects including impaired memory, attention and psychomotor performance (Piontek, Kraus & Klempova, 2008).

 

Contraindications

*The herb is schedualed in Australia (Australian Government, 2013, p. 213)

Borago officinalis*

BoragoOfficinalis

Masclef, A. (1891). Atlas des plantes de France. Retreievd from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:224_Borrago_officinalis_L.jpg

1024px-B._officinalis-flor-1

Philmarin. (2011). B. officinalis-flor-1. Retrieved from: http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borago_officinalis#mediaviewer/Archivo:B._officinalis-flor-1.JPG

Botanical Name: Borago officinalis
Common name: Borago (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 185)
Family: Boraginaceae (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 185)
Parts used: Dried leaves (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 185)

Constituents:

Leaf: Saponins, mucilage, tannins and essential oil (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 185)

Seed: Gamma-linolentic acid (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 306)

 

Actions

  • Diaphoretic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 185)
  • Expectorant (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 185)
  • Tonic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 185)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 185)
  • Galactagogue (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 185)
  • Adrenal tonic (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 185)

 

Traditional Indications*

  • Restorative agent for adrenal glands (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 185)
  • Fevers (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 185)
  • Convalescence (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 185)
  • Pleurisy (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 185)
  • Acute Respiratory distress syndrome (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Peritonitis/Gingivitis (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Alcohol-induced hangover (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Dosage & Preparation*

  • Infusion: 2 tsp/1 cup water/tds *(Hoffmann, 1990, p. 185)
  • Tincture: 1-4mL/tds* (Hoffmann, 1990, p. 185)

 

Contraindications

*The herb, apart from the fixed oil derived from the seeds is scheduled in Australia (Australian Government, 2013, p. 243)

Atropa belladonna

atropa_belladonna_np

Mosquin, D. (2005). Solanaceae | Atropa belladonna L. | 34604-0433-1999. Retrieved from: http://www.botanicalgarden.ubc.ca/potd/2005/10/atropa_belladonna.php

Botanical Name: Atropa belladonna
Common name: Deadly Nightshade, Belladonna
Family: Solonaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 122)
Parts used: Whole Plant (Grieve, 1971, p. 582)

Poisionous properties are associated with the green part of the plant, however the berries have shown to be toxic to children (Grieve, 1971, p. 583)

 

History/Folklore: The herb is traditionally used as a poison (Natural Standard, 2014).

The juice of the berry causes pupils to dilate, and was used traditionally to afford a striking appearance in women (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 123)

“As an antidote to Opium, Atropine may be injected subcutaneously, and it has also been used in poisoning… It has no action on the voluntary muscles, but the nerve endings in involuntary muscles are paralysed by large doses, the paralysis finally affecting the central nervous system, causing excitement and delirium.” (Grieve, n.d.)

 

Constituents: Tropane Alkaloids: incl. hyoscine (also known as scopolamine) and hyoscyamine (Natural Standard, 2014).

Atropine has a reported half-life of several hours and is rarely detectable in the plasma after 24 hours (Natural Standard, 2014).

 

Actions

  • Narcotic (Grieve, 1971, p. 583)
  • Powerful Respiratory Spasmolytic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 241)
  • Anticholinergic (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Indications

  • Airway obstruction (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Autonomic nervous system disturbance (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Headache (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Menopause (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Eye disease (Grieve, n.d.)
  • Antidote to opium (Grieve, n.d.)

Has been investigated for the treatment of asthma and Parkinson’s (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Dosage & Preparation:

  • Used homeopathically (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Doses up to 1.5mg/day are traditionally considered safe (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Bruised, fresh leaves are used to ease pain and inflammation when applied topically (Grieve, 1971, p. 583)

 

Cautions & Contraindications

  • Symptoms of belladonna overdose include confusion, agitation, hallucination, tachycardia, dry mouth, dilated pupils and other anticholinergic effects. Consumption of the herb can result in death (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Elderly patients (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Children (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Individuals with cardiac disease, due to cardiac effects (hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmias) (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Gastrointestinal tract disease such as ulcers, esophageal reflux, hiatal hernia, obstructive gastrointestinal disease, constipation, ileus or atony, colitis, ileostomy or colostomy, as anticholinergic effects may delay gastric emptying and decrease esophageal pressure (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Neuromuscular disorders, as belladonna may cause neuromuscular blockade resulting in weakness or paralysis (Natural Standard, 2014)
  • Fever (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Interactions

  • Anticholinergic agents (antihistamines, phenothiazines, and tricyclic antidepressants) as belladonna may increase the anticholinergic effects (Natural Standard, 2014)

Caulophyllum thalictroides

Blue Cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides)

FloraFinder. (n.d.). Caulophyllum thalictroides. Retrieved from: http://www.florafinder.com/Species/Caulophyllum_thalictroides.php

Botanical Name: Caulophyllum thalictroides
Common name: Blue Cohosh (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
Family: Berberidaceae (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
Parts used: Root (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
 

Constituents: Quinolizidine alkaloids (incl. sparteine, methylcytisine and anagyrine); and Saponins (incl. caulosaponin) (Bone, 2003, p. 107)

Actions

  • Spasmolytic (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Uterine and ovarian tonic (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Emmenagogue (Bone, 2003, p. 106; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 509)
  • Oxytocic (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 516)
  • Antirheumatic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 516)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 488; Xia, Li, Liang, Yang, Lu, & Kuang, 2014)
  • Analgesic (Xia et al., 2014)


Traditional use
Native to North America, Caulophyllum thalictroides was used traditionally to induce childbirth and to ease labor pain, alleviate menstrual abnormalities (Xia et al., 2014).

Indications

  • Amenorrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Menorrhagia (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Ovarian or uterine pain or inflammation (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Uterine prolapse (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Abdominal cramping (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Rheumatic conditions (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Muscular weakness (Bone, 2003, p. 106)
  • Nervous debility (Bone, 2003, p. 106)

Dosage & Preparation: Liquid extract (1:2): 1.5-3.0mL/day OR 10-20mL/week (Bone, 2003, p. 107)

Cautions

  • Potential for tertogenic effects (Bone, 2003, p. 106; Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 160)
  • Adverse side effects have been reported including hyperthermia, hypertension, tachycardia, hyperventilation, diaphoresis and weakness (Bone, 2003, pp. 106-107)

Contraindications: Caulophyllum thalictroides’ traditional use to aid childbirth is controversial and has been studied for effects it may have on newborns (Xia et al., 2014). It has been associated with heart attack and strokes in newborn’s as therefore the herb is Pregnancy and lactation (Bone, 2003, p. 106; Hoffmann, 2003, p. 395)

Artemisia vulgaris

artemisia_vulgaris_mugwort_flowers_04-08-05-1

Aphotoflora. (2004). Aphotoflora. Retrieved from: http://www.aphotoflora.com/d_artemisia_vulgaris_mugwort.html

Botanical Name: Artemisia vulgaris
Common name: Mugwort, Motherwort, Cronewort (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
Family: Asteraceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)
Parts used: Leaf and root (Hoffmann, 2013, p. 531)

Folklore: The name “Motherwort” is derived from western folklore as a herb for the womb (Holms, 1989, p. 317)

Constituents: Volatile oil (linalool, 1,8-cineole, β-thujone, borneol, α- and β- pinene); sesquiterpene lactones (incl. vulgarin); flavonoids; coumarin derivatives and triterpenes (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531).

Actions

  • Bitter tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)
  • Stimulant (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)
  • Nervine tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)
  • Emmenagogue (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 531)

 

TCM actions:

  • Warms channels
  • Stops bleeding
  • Dispels cold
  • Relieves pain’
  • Drains dampness
  • Warms the uterus
  • Alleviates itching

(Hempen, 2009, p. 586)

 

Indications Traditional

  • Mugwort root is a traditional European treatment for epilepsy (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Traditionally used in Moxibustion in the treatment of damp-cold and pain due to cold (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

TCM indications

  • Amenorrhea (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • Dysmenorrhea (Hempen, 2009, p. 587; Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • PMS with dry skin, swollen breasts, confusion and loss of self esteem (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • Estrogen or progesterone deficiency (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • Failure to progress during labor (Holms, 1989, p. 316)
  • Restless foetus (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)
  • Infertility (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Anorexia (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Gastric and biliary dyspepsia (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Liver congestion (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Jaundice (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Edema (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Aches, pains, fever and chills (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Boils, ulcers, sores (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Urinary and intestinal infections (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Intestinal parasites (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Eczema or itching (internal or external) (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)
  • Cough, wheezing phlegm (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

 

Dosage & Preparation: 3-9g/day (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

 

Cautions

  • Avoid during pregnancy and lactation due to effect on uterus and “drying” quality (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Long term use/excessive dose may cause toxicity due to thujone content (Holms, 1989, p. 317)
  • Yin deficentcy heat (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

 

Interactions: For heavy menstrual bleeding, restless foetus or premature labor: combine with Angelicae sinensis (Hempen, 2009, p. 587)

Corydalis ambigua

pain2-1

Dharmananda, S. (n.d.). SIMPLE TRADITIONAL FORMULAS FOR PAIN. Retrieved from: http://www.itmonline.org/arts/pain.htm

Botanical Name: Corydalis ambigua, Corydalis spp., Corydalis yanhusuo, C. amurensis
Common name: Yan hu su (Chinese) (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
Family: Fumariaceae (Natural Standard, 2014).
Parts used: rhizome (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Qualities: Warm, pungent and bitter

Constituents: Alkaloids (incl. corydalin, corybulbin, apomorphic and berberine alkaloids) (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Actions

  • Analgesic (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Hypnotic (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Sedative (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532; Natural Standard 2014)
  • Anti-ulcerative (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Anti-parasitic (Natural Standard, 2014)

TCM specific: moves blood, relieves pain, breaks up blood stasis and moves and regulates qi (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Indications

  • Moves blood and relieves pain in dysmenorrheal (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Chest pain (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Epigastric and abdominal pain (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Pain following blunt trauma (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Hernia-like pain (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • Angina pectoris (Natural Standard, 2014)

Dosage & Preparation: 3-15g/day (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

Caution: Has shown to have inhibitory effect in K(ATP) channels (Natural Standard, 2014)

Contraindications:

  • Pregnancy (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)
  • As a hypnotic and sedative, the herb is contraindicated in depression (Bone, 2013, p. 275).

 

Combinations: For dysmenorrhea and pain in limbs combine with Cortex cinnamomi (Hempen & Fischer, 2009, p. 532)

 

Interactions: May interact with sedatives, hypnotics, anti-arrythmias and analgesics (Natural Standard, 2014)