Scutellaria lateriflora

baical_skullcap

Miro, K. (2013). Baical skullcap. Retrieved from: http://www.wellbeing.com.au/article/features/food/Baical-skullcap_1200

Botanical Name: Scutellaria lateriflora
Common name: Baical skullcap, Skullcap, Chinese Skullcap, Huang qin (Chinese) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
Family: Lamiaceae (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)
Parts used: Aerial parts (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)

Constituents: Flavonoids (incl. baicalein, baicalin, scutellarein and wogonin); iridoids (incl. catalpol); volatile oil; and tannins (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)

 

Quality: In Traditional Chinese Medicine, Scutellaria lateriflora is used to clear heat and dry dampness (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218).

 

Actions

  • Nervine tonic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)
  • Antispasmodic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)
  • Hypotensive (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)
  • Anxiolytic (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)
  • Antibacterial (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
  • Antiviral (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
  • Diuretic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)

 

Indications

Traditionally used to control and treat petit mal seizures (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582). Hoffmann suggests that Skullcap may be used to treat any condition associated with “exhausted and depressive states”, by acting on the cerebro-spinal nervous system (2003, p.582).

 

Other indications include:

  • Premenstrual tension (Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)
  • Nervous exhaustion
  • Post-febrile nervous weakness
  • Chorea
  • Hysteria
  • Agitation
  • Epileptiform convulsions
  • Insomnia
  • Restless sleep

(Hoffmann, 2003, p. 582)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

Dried herb: 6-15g/day

Liquid extract: (1:2) 30-60mL/week or 4.5-8.5mL/day

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Cautions & Contradictions:

  • Contraindicated in interferon therapy.
  • In Chinese medicine, Baical Skullcap is contraindicated in “cold” conditions.

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Combinations: According to Hoffmann, Scutellaria lateriflora combines well with Valerian (1990, p. 233)

 

Baical Skullcap is an ingredient in popular Chinese/Japanese formulation “Minor Bupleurum Combination* (Xiao Chai Hu Tang in Chinese). This combination is most often used in the treatment of liver disease and bronchial asthma (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224).

 

* Bupleureum falcatum, Scutellaria baicalensis, Pinellia ternata, Panax ginseng, Zizyphus jujuba, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Zingiber officinalis

Bacopa monniera

bacopa-monnieri-isp

Herbal Extracts Plus. (2012). BACOPA MONNIERI. Retrieved from: http://www.herbalextractsplus.com/bacopa-monnieri.html

Botanical Name: Bacopa monniera
Common name: Bacopa, Brahmi (Sanskrit) (not to be confused with Gotu Kola), Indian pennywort (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 263)
Family: Scrophulariaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 263)
Parts used: Aerial parts (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 263)

Constituents: Dammarene-type saponins; Bacosaponins; Alkaloids (brahmine and herpestine); Flavonoids; Phytosterols; Luteolin; and Phenylethanoid glycosides (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 263)

 

Actions:

  • Antioxidant
  • Neuroprotective
  • Antidepressant
  • Anti-ulcer
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Hepatoprotectice
  • Adaptogen (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 263-264)

Associated with

  • Mast cell stabilization
  • Increases thyroid hormone levels
  • Antispasmodic (smooth muscle)
  • Anticlastogenic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 264)

 

History: Bacopa monniera has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for almost 3000 years. A notable nervine tonic, Bacopa monniera is classified as ‘Medhya rasayana’ as a medicinal plant that rejuvenates memory and interlect. The herb’s brain tonic potential has now gained a reputation in modern western herbal medicine (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 263).

 

Indications

Traditional indications include:

  • Asthma
  • Mental disorders
  • Epilepsy (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Clinical trails have shown potential for Bacopa in:

  • Cognition (B grade evidence)
  • Anxiety
  • Epilepsy
  • Irritable bowel Syndrome
  • Memory enhancement (Natural Standard, 2014)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

Dried herb: 5-10g/day

Fluid extract: (1:2) 5-13mL/day (in divided doses)

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 266)

 

Cautions

  • Caution advised in hyperthyroidism
  • May cause gastrointestinal symptoms in individuals with celiac disease, fat malabsorption, vitamin A, D, E and K deficiency or dyspepsia due to high saponin content.

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 266)

 

Interactions

  • Drugs or herbs metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzyme
  • Thyroid medication
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Sedatives

(Natural Standard, 2014)

Crataeva nurvala

amara02222

Forst, G. (1786). Crataeva religiosa -Tempelbaum – Temple Plant. Übersetzt von Alois Payer. Retrieved from: http://www.payer.de/amarakosa/amara205a.htm

Botanical Name: Crataeva nurvala

Common name: Crateva, Varuna (Sanskrit), Varun (Hindi), Buch-Hum.

Family: Capparidaceae (Bhattacharjee, Shashindara & Ashwathanaryana, 2012, p. 1162)

Parts used: Steam and root bark (Premila, 2006, p. 157)

 

Qualities: The bark is hot and bitter with a sharp, sweet taste (Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162)

 

Constituents:

  • Alkaloids: incl. cadabicine, cadabicine diacetate and cadabicine dimethyl ether
  • Sterols: incl. diosgenin, b-sitosterol
  • Flavonoids: incl. rutin and quercitin
  • Isothiocyanate glucoside: glucoapparin
  • Saponins,
  • Triterpenes, notably lupeol
  • Tannins
  • Glucosinolates
  • Phytosterols

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162; Premila, 2006, pp. 157-158).

 

Actions:

Active principle “lupeol” has potential diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-rheumatic, contraceptive, rubefacient and vesicant actions (Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162).

 

Additional traditional actions include

  • Bitter tonic
  • Laxative
  • Anti-emetic

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, p. 1162).

 

Indications

Traditional Indications include:

  • Urolithiasis
  • Urinary infections
  • Kidney and bladder stones
  • Promote appetite

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, pp. 1162-1163; Premila, 2006, p. 157)

  • Breathing problems
  • Fever
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Weak immune system
  • Wound healing
  • Memory loss
  • Heart and lung weakness
  • Decrease secretion of bile and phlegm
  • Hepatitis
  • Edema
  • Ascites arthritis
  • Jaundice
  • Ecezma
  • Rabies
  • Birth control
  • Irregular menstruation
  • Convulsions
  • Tympanites

(Bhattacharjee et al., 2012, pp. 1162-1163).

  • Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
  • Rheumatism (internally and externally)

(Premila, 2006, p. 157)

 

Preparation & Dosage:

Decoction: In one trail a stem bark decoction of 1 part stem bark/16 parts water/tid for a period of 6 months in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy found to relieve related symptoms (Premila, 2006, p. 157)

Herbalists recommend around 3,000 – 6,000 mg crude herb per day (Herbosophy, 2014).

Scutellaria baicalensis

Øëåìíèê áàéêàëüñêèé – Scutellariae baicalensis

Image I

post-19386-1182271924

Image II

Botanical Name: Scutellaria baicalensis
Common name: Baical Skullcap, Chinese skullcap, huang quin (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
Family: Lamiaceae (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)
Parts used: Root (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)

Constituents

Flavenoids and their glycosides

  • Baicalin and its aglycone: Baicalein
  • Wogonin
  • Resin
  • Tannins
  • Melatonin

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218)

 

Baicalin is porely absorbed through the gut, however becomes hydrolysed to its alglycone baicalein by intestinal bacteria (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218).

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 219)
  • Antifibrotic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 219)
  • Hepatoprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Antioxidant (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Anti-allergic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Neuroprotective (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 220)
  • Hypotensive (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Anti-platelet (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Antixiolytic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 221)
  • Antimicrobial, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal (Braun & Cohen, 2010, pp. 221-222)
  • Anti-ulcerogenic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Antidiabetic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Anti-emetic (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 222)
  • Anticancer (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 223)

 

History & Traditional Use

Traditionally used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to clear heat and dry dampness. (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 218).

 

Indications

  • Respiratory infections (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Bone marrow stimulation during chemotherapy (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Epilepsy (in combination) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Chronic active hepatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224)
  • Liver fibrosis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Chronic inflammation
    • Asthma
    • Arthritis
    • Allergies (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Hepatitis (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Common cold (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Nausea and vomiting (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)
  • Mild hyper-tension (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Preparation & Dosage

  • Dried herb: 6-15g/day
  • Liquid extract: (1:2) 4.5-8.5mL/day in divided doses

 

Cautions: Safety in pregnancy has not being defined by clinical trials. The herb is used in TCM for “restless foetus” (threatened abortion) (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Contradictions

  • Contradicted during interferon therapy
  • Contradicted in “cold” conditions in TCM

(Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 225)

 

Combinations

Scutellaria baicalensis is an ingredient in popular Chinese/Japanese formulation Minor Burpleureum Combination (Xiao Chai Hu Tang in Chinese and Sho-saiko-to in Japanese). This combination contains:

  • Bulpleurum falcatum
  • Scutellaria baicalensis
  • Pinellia ternata
  • Panax ginseng
  • Zizyphus jujuba
  • Glycyrrhiza uralensis
  • Zingiber officinale

This treatment has been used for 3000 years in the treatment of pyretic disease (Braun & Cohen, 2010, p. 224).

 

REFERENCE
Braun, L., & Cohen, M. (2010). Herbs & Natural Supplements: An Evidence based Guide (3rd ed.). Chatswood NSW: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Image: Beauty & Health Philosophy. (2008-2014). Beauty & Health Philosophy. Retrieved from: http://nsp-zdorovje.narod.ru/fito/wlemnik-scutellaria.html

Image II: Molbiol.ur. (2001-2014). Шлемник байкальский (Scutellaria baicalensis, Labiatae/Lamiaceae). Retrieved from: http://molbiol.ru/forums/lofiversion/index.php/t173641.html

Andrographis paniculata

fleurandrographis2

Botanical Name: Andrographis paniculata

Common name: Chiretta, King of Bitters, Kalmegh (Bengali, Hindi), Kirata (Sanskrit), chuan xin lian (Chinese) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360).

Family: Acanthaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 361)

Parts used: Whole herb (including root) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360)

 

Constituents

  • Diterpenoid lactones (“andrographolides”): Algycones and Glucosides
  • Diterpene dimmers
  • Flavonoids
  • Xanathones (root)

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360)

 

Actions

  • Bitter tonic
  • Choleretic
  • Immunostimulant
  • Hepatoprotective
  • Antipyretic
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antiplatelet
  • Antioxidant

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360).

 

History

Used medicinally in Ayurvedic medicine, Chinese medicine and throughout South-East Asia (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360).

 

In Chinese medicine the herb is considered bitter and cold (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360).

 

Traditional thereaputic use includes

  • Loss of appetite
  • Atonic dyspepsia
  • Flatulence
  • Diarrhoea
  • Dysentery
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Bowel complaints in children
  • Sluggish liver
  • Diabetes
  • General debility
  • Convalescence after fevers
  • Respiratory and skin infections

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360)

 

Indications (contemporary)

  • Bacterial and viral infections
    • Common cold
    • Acute sinusitis
    • Pharyngotonsillitis
    • Enteric evidence
  • Prevention of urinary tract infections
  • Prophylaxis of common cold
  • Familial Mediterranean fever
  • Ulcerative colitis

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360).

 

Preparation

  • Decoction (dried or fresh herb)
  • Infusion
  • Fluid extract
  • Tablet or capsule
  • Succus (leaf juice)

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360)

 

Dosage

Preventative dose (adult): 2-3g or equivalent per day

During infection: 6g/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 360)

 

Cautions

High doses may cause gastric discomfort, loss of appetite and vomiting (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 370)

 

Contradictions:

  • Pregnancy, notably early pregnancy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 369)
  • States of hyperacidity (i.e. duodenal ulcers or gastrointestinal reflux) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 369).

 

Combinations

As Andrographis is considered “cold”, is it traditionally combined with warming herbs such as ginger, Astragalus and tulsi (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 361).

 

REFERENCE
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Image: Imbert, P. (2011). Andrographis, Between tradition and modernity. Retrieved from: http://www.entretiens-internationaux.mc/andrographis-between-tradition-and-modernity-61.html

Silybum marianum

silybum-marianum-flower

Botanical Name: Silybum marianum

Common name: St Mary’s Thistle, Milk thistle (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 861)

Family: Asteraceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 861)

Parts used: Leaf and seed (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 861)

 

Constituents

  • Flavonoligans (collectively known as “silymarin”)
  • Fixed oil

(Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 861-862).

 

Actions

  • Hepatoprotective (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 861).
  • Hepatic trophorestorative (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 861).
  • Antioxidant (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 861).
  • Choleretic (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 861).
  • Galactagogue (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 861).
  • Potential anti-cancer and antitumor properties (Bone & Mills, 2013, pp. 866-867).

 

Indications (traditional)

  • Seeds: traditionally used in Germany for: Jaundice; Hepatic and bilary conditions; Hepatitis and Haemorrhoids
  • Fresh root and seeds used to break and expel gallstones
  • Dropsy (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 861).
  • Chemopreventative and anti-photocarcinogenic (Katiyar, 2005, Abstract)

 

Indications (contemporary)

  • Both alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease
  • Insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes
  • Haemochromatosis
  • Beta-thalasseamia and thalassemia major
  • Promote lactation in nursing mothers
  • Hepatoprotective in chemotherapy

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 861).

  • Research suggests potential for Silybum to inhibit tumor growth (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 867).
  • Skin cancer prevention (Katiyar, 2005, Abstract)
  • Prostate Cancer (Thelen, Jarry, Ringer & Wutke, 2004, Abstract).

 

Preparation

  • Dried seed decoction
  • Liquid extract
  • Tablet or capsule

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 862)

 

Dosage

  • 4-9g/day seed
  • 4-9mL/day liquid extract (1:1)
  • 3-4 tablets of 200mg of extract/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 862)

 

Cautions & Contradictions

Considered to be a safe herb (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 862)

 

Combinations

Absorption of active constituent silymarin is enhanced by lecithin (therefore lectin supplement is often recommended to be taken simultaneously) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 862).

 

REFERENCE

Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). U.S.A: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Katiyar, S. (2005). Silymarin and skin cancer prevention: Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects (Review). International Journal of Oncology. 26(1), 169-176. DOI: 10.3892/ijo.26.1.169

Thelen, P., Jarry, H., Ringer, R. H., & Wutke, W. (2004). Silibinin Down-Regulates Prostate Epithelium-Derived Ets Transcription Factor in LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cells. Planta Medica, 70(5), 397-400. DOI: 10.1055/s-2004-818965

Image: Landscape Architect’s Pages. (2009). Silybum marianum. Retrieved from: http://davisla.wordpress.com/2012/05/24/plant-of-the-week-silybum-marianum/

Burpleurum falcatum

Bupleurum_falcatum

Botanical Name: Burpleurum falcatum
Common name: Hare’s ear root (English), chai hu (Chinese), saiko (Japanese) (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 460)
Family: Umbelliferae/Apiaceae (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 460)
Parts used: Root (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 460)

 

Constituents

  • Triterpenoid saponins
  • Phytosterols

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 461)

 

Actions

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Hepatoprotective
  • Antitussive
  • Diaphoretic

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 460)

 

Indications (traditional)

Tradition herb of Chinese Medicine as a herb that resolves “Lesser Yang Heat” patterns and is used to treat:

  • Alternating chills and fever
  • Liver enlargement
  • Prolapse of the uterus and rectum
  • Irregular menstruation
  • Used as a diaphoretic in liver function
  • Indigestion

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 460).

 

Indications (contemporary)

  • Influenza
  • Common cold
  • Fever conditions

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 460)

 

Preparation

  • Decocotion
  • Liquid extract
  • Tablets
  • Capsules
  • Powdered root

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 460)

 

Dosage

Decoction: 3-12g/day

Liquid extract (1:2): 4-8mL/day

(Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 460)

 

Cautions

  • Recommended to be avoided in patients with pre-existing cholestasis (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 464).
  • May have a sedative effect in some individuals (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 464).
  • May cause irritation to gastric mucus membranes due to saponins (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 464)

 

Contradictions

Known allergy (Basch, Foppa, Serrano, Hashmi, Isaac, Joseph, Kligler, Mele, Seamon, Sollars, Ulbricht, Vora, Weissner & Windsor, 2013)

 

Combinations

Often combined with Astragaluss for debility and prolapse in traditional medicine (Bone & Mills, 2013, p. 460)

 

REFERENCE

Basch, E., Foppa, I., Serrano, G., Hashmi, S., Isaac, R., Joseph, A., Kligler, B., Mele, M., Seamon, E., Sollars, D., Ulbricht, C., Vora, M., Weissner, W., & Windsor, R. (2010). Bupleurum (Bupleurum chinense, Bupleurum falcatum). Natural Standard Professional Monograph. Retrieved from: http://www.naturalstandard.com/databases/herbssupplements/bupleurum.asp?

Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principals and Practice of Phytotherapy (2nd ed.). U.S.A: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Image: Haselböck, A. (2006). Bupleurum falcatum / Sichelblättriges Hasenohr. Retrieved from: http://www.naturspaziergang.de/Pflanzen/Bupleurum_falcatum.htm